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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342846/mental-health-and-drivers-of-need-in-emergent-and-non-emergent-emergency-department-ed-use-do-living-location-and-non-emergent-care-sources-matter
#1
Moira C McManus, Robert J Cramer, Maureen Boshier, Muge Akpinar-Elci, Bonnie Van Lunen
Emergency department (ED) utilization has increased due to factors such as admissions for mental health conditions, including suicide and self-harm. We investigate direct and moderating influences on non-emergent ED utilization through the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use. Through logistic regression, we examined correlates of ED use via 2014 New York State Department of Health Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System outpatient data. Consistent with the primary hypothesis, mental health admissions were associated with emergent use across models, with only a slight decrease in effect size in rural living locations...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337440/-addictions
#2
Jacques Besson, Jeremy Grivel, Alexander Tomei, Mélina Andronicos, Daniele Zullino, Gabriel Thorens, Stergios Tsartsalis, Isabelle Gothuey, Monique Séguin
This year, the actuality for addictions in this edition addresses four points. The disease model of addiction is criticized by the cognitive neurosciences which need to consider the agentivity of the persons. Regarding the societal actuality, clinical pharmacology review of cannabidiol presents an update on legal cannabis. The suicidality of excessive gamblers may be prevented specifically. Addiction and first psychotic episodes need an integrated care.
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334645/co-morbid-depressive-disorder-is-associated-with-better-neurocognitive-performance-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-spectrum
#3
Sarah E Herniman, Sue M Cotton, Eóin Killackey, Robert Hester, Kelly A Allott
BACKGROUND: Both major depressive disorder (MDD) and first episode schizophrenia spectrum (FES) are associated with significant neurocognitive deficits. However, it remains unclear whether the neurocognitive deficits in individuals with FES are more severe if there is comorbid depressive disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the neurocognitive profiles between those with and without full-threshold depressive disorder in FES. METHOD: This study involved secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of vocational intervention for young people with first-episode psychosis (N = 82; age range: 15-25 years)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314591/relationship-between-metacognitive-beliefs-and-psychosocial-performance-in-at-risk-states-of-psychosis-and-patients-with-first-psychotic-episodes
#4
Martin Brüne, Kim-Alisha Drommelschmidt, Seza Krüger-Özgürdal, Georg Juckel
AIMS: Improving diagnostic batteries to identify individuals at-risk for developing psychotic disorders as early as possible is an ongoing challenge in schizophrenia research. Here, we sought to explore whether metacognition in at-risk of developing psychosis would differ from that of first episode psychosis and unaffected controls and whether dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs would be associated with psychosocial functioning in the clinical groups. METHODS: Twenty-three subjects at-risk of psychosis were compared with a group of 15 first psychotic episode patients and 21 healthy controls with regard to their metacognitive beliefs and psychosocial functioning...
January 4, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287238/detection-of-early-psychotic-symptoms-validation-of-the-spanish-version-of-the-symptom-onset-in-schizophrenia-sos-inventory
#5
Gisela Mezquida, Bibiana Cabrera, Anabel Martínez-Arán, Eduard Vieta, Miguel Bernardo
The period of subclinical signs that precedes the onset of psychosis is referred to as the prodrome or high-risk mental state. The "Symptom Onset in Schizophrenia (SOS) inventory" is an instrument to characterize and date the initial symptoms of a psychotic illness. The present study aims to provide reliability and validity data for clinical and research use of the Spanish version of the SOS. Thirty-six participants with a first-episode of psychosis meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia/schizoaffective/schizophreniform disorder were administered the translated SOS and other clinical assessments...
December 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282832/hiv-prevalence-among-first-presentation-psychotic-patients
#6
A Laher, N Ariefdien, Y Etlouba
OBJECTIVES: First-episode psychosis is a frequent emergency department (ED) presentation that may potentially be secondary to an underlying life-threatening HIV-related condition. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in patients presenting with a first episode of psychosis. METHODS: Medical records of 159 consecutive African, Asian, White and mixed ethnicity patients presenting to a tertiary academic hospital ED with a first episode of psychotic features were prospectively reviewed...
December 28, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275855/premorbid-iq-subgroups-in-first-episode-non-affective-psychosis-patients-long-term-sex-differences-in-function-and-neurocognition
#7
Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Esther Setién-Suero, Karl David Neergaard, Àuria Albacete Belzunces, Fernando Contreras, Neeltje E M van Haren, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
BACKGROUND: Low IQ has been associated with schizophrenia, even to the point of being posited as a possible causal factor for psychosis. However, individuals with normal and high IQ also develop psychotic illnesses. The aim of this study was to characterize premorbid IQ subgroups at first episode of psychosis (FEP). METHODS: The study sample comes from a large epidemiological, 3-year longitudinal, intervention program on psychosis containing individuals living in a catchment area in Spain...
December 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251752/-psychosis-in-a-patient-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#8
W Merckx, W Lecot, K Titeca
Prader-Willi syndrome (pws) is a genetic disorder characterised by specific physical and behavioural abnormalities. Recent studies indicate that patients suffering from this syndrome have an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. We describe the development and the psychiatric condition of a 31-year-old patient with pws who had a first psychotic episode at age 14 and subsequently experienced a highly variable course of recovery and relapse.
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249808/brain-structure-in-women-at-risk-of-postpartum-psychosis-an-mri-study
#9
Montserrat Fusté, Astrid Pauls, Amanda Worker, Antje A T S Reinders, Andrew Simmons, Steven C R Williams, Josep M Haro, Kate Hazelgrove, Susan Pawlby, Susan Conroy, Costanza Vecchio, Gertrude Seneviratne, Carmine M Pariante, Mitul A Mehta, Paola Dazzan
Postpartum psychosis (PP) is the most severe psychiatric disorder associated with childbirth. The risk of PP is very high in women with a history of bipolar affective disorder or schizoaffective disorder. However, the neurobiological basis of PP remains poorly understood and no study has evaluated brain structure in women at risk of, or with, PP. We performed a cross-sectional study of 256 women at risk of PP and 21 healthy controls (HC) in the same postpartum period. Among women at risk, 11 who developed a recent episode of PP (PPE) (n = 2 with lifetime bipolar disorder; n = 9 psychotic disorder not otherwise specified) and 15 at risk women who did not develop an episode of PP (NPPE) (n = 10 with lifetime bipolar disorder; n = 1 with schizoaffective disorder; n = 1 with a history of PP in first-degree family member; n = 3 with previous PP)...
December 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249448/seizure-activity-and-individual-vulnerability-on-first-episode-interictal-psychosis-in-epilepsy
#10
Naoto Adachi, Nozomi Akanuma, Peter Fenwick, Masumi Ito, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Shiro Ishida, Masanori Sekimoto, Masaaki Kato, Teiichi Onuma
OBJECTIVE: Despite a theoretical consensus that interictal psychosis (IIP) is related to various epilepsy-related factors, the impact of seizure activity on development of IIP remains inconclusive. This is the first controlled study using quantitative seizure-activity measures at the onset of IIP. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-one patients with epilepsy who exhibited first-episode IIP (IIP group) and 427 patients with epilepsy without psychotic episodes (control group) were enrolled...
December 14, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235240/gender-differences-in-first-self-perceived-signs-and-symptoms-in-patients-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-and-first-episode-psychosis
#11
Ulrike Heitz, Erich Studerus, Stephanie Menghini-Müller, Martina Papmeyer, Laura Egloff, Sarah Ittig, Astrid Navarra, Christina Andreou, Anita Riecher-Rössler
AIM: Gender differences in the current symptomatology of patients with psychotic disorders have previously been described in the literature. However, it has not yet been investigated whether gender differences exist in the very first self-perceived signs or symptoms of illness onset. The aim of this study was to investigate this aspect in at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. METHODS: ARMS and FEP were recruited via the early detection of psychosis (FePsy) clinic Basel, Switzerland...
December 13, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232966/sex-differences-in-the-relationship-between-prolactin-levels-and-impaired-processing-speed-in-early-psychosis
#12
Itziar Montalvo, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, Marta Creus, Ángel Cabezas, Montse Solé, Maria José Algora, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Elisabet Vilella, Javier Labad
INTRODUCTION: Hyperprolactinaemia is commonly observed in people with psychotic disorders due to D2 receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs, although it may also exist in drug-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis. Recent studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia may have a negative impact on cognitive function in people with early psychosis. We aimed to explore whether there are sex differences in the association between prolactin levels and cognitive performance in early psychosis patients...
December 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228982/electroconvulsive-therapy-for-manic-state-with-mixed-and-psychotic-features-in-a-teenager-with-bipolar-disorder-and-comorbid-episodic-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-case-report
#13
Olof Rask, Klara Suneson, Eva Holmström, Beata Bäckström, Björn Axel Johansson
BACKGROUND: Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder is common in adolescence. Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms may be episodic and secondary to alterations in mood, and display specific features. Management of pediatric bipolar disorder-obsessive-compulsive disorder is challenging, as pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder may induce or exacerbate manic episodes and there is limited evidence of treatment efficacy. Electroconvulsive therapy is sparsely used in children and adolescents, but is documented to be a safe and efficacious intervention in adults with bipolar disorder...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227016/patients-with-chronic-bipolar-disorder-exhibit-widespread-increases-in-extracellular-free-water
#14
Carissa Tuozzo, Amanda E Lyall, Ofer Pasternak, Anthony C D James, Timothy J Crow, Marek Kubicki
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BP) is a debilitating psychiatric disease that is not well understood. Previous diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies of BP patients found prominent microstructural white matter (WM) abnormalities of reduced fractional anisotropy (FA). Because FA is a nonspecific measure, relating these abnormalities to a specific pathology is difficult. Here, dMRI specificity was increased by free water (FW) imaging, which allows identification of changes in extracellular space (FW) from neuronal tissue (fractional anisotropy of tissue [FA-t])...
December 11, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219634/using-molecular-imaging-to-understand-early-schizophrenia-related-psychosis-neurochemistry-a-review-of-human-studies
#15
Christin Schifani, Sina Hafizi, Tania Da Silva, Jeremy Joseph Watts, M Saad Khan, Romina Mizrahi
Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder generally preceded by a so-called prodromal phase, which is characterized by attenuated psychotic symptoms. Advances in clinical research have enabled prospective identification of those individuals who are at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, with the power to predict psychosis onset within the near future. Changes in several brain neurochemical systems and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the psychosis spectrum, including the dopaminergic, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic, glutamatergic, endocannabinoid, and immunologic (i...
December 8, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214289/treated-incidence-of-psychotic-disorders-in-the-multinational-eu-gei-study
#16
Hannah E Jongsma, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Antonio Lasalvia, Diego Quattrone, Alice Mulè, Andrei Szöke, Jean-Paul Selten, Caitlin Turner, Celso Arango, Ilaria Tarricone, Domenico Berardi, Andrea Tortelli, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Lieuwe de Haan, Julio Bobes, Miguel Bernardo, Julio Sanjuán, José Luis Santos, Manuel Arrojo, Cristina Marta Del-Ben, Paulo Rossi Menezes, Robin M Murray, Bart P Rutten, Peter B Jones, Jim van Os, Craig Morgan, James B Kirkbride
Importance: Psychotic disorders contribute significantly to the global disease burden, yet the latest international incidence study of psychotic disorders was conducted in the 1980s. Objectives: To estimate the incidence of psychotic disorders using comparable methods across 17 catchment areas in 6 countries and to examine the variance between catchment areas by putative environmental risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: An international multisite incidence study (the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions) was conducted from May 1, 2010, to April 1, 2015, among 2774 individuals from England (2 catchment areas), France (3 catchment areas), Italy (3 catchment areas), the Netherlands (2 catchment areas), Spain (6 catchment areas), and Brazil (1 catchment area) with a first episode of nonorganic psychotic disorders (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision [ICD-10] codes F20-F33) confirmed by the Operational Criteria Checklist...
December 6, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200569/misidentification-of-wilson-disease-as-schizophrenia-1998-2013-case-report-and-review
#17
Forouzan Elyasi
Wilson's disease (WD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to copper metabolism. Schizophrenia-like psychosis and delusional disorder are rare forms of psychiatric manifestations of WD. The lack of recognition of these signs and symptoms as being attributable to WD often leads to delays in diagnosis and management. Knowledge about relationship of the psychiatric manifestations to WD can help with the administration of adequate management aimed at both the psychiatric issues and underlying WD. The objectives of this article are to review case reports whose subject is the incorrect diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like syndrome in patients with WD and to detail one case of this mismanagement of the disease...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198285/evolving-notions-of-schizophrenia-as-a-developmental-neurocognitive-disorder
#18
Larry J Seidman, Allan F Mirsky
We review the changing conceptions of schizophrenia over the past 50 years as it became understood as a disorder of brain function and structure in which neurocognitive dysfunction was identified at different illness phases. The centrality of neurocognition has been recognized, especially because neurocognitive deficits are strongly related to social and role functioning in the illness, and as a result neurocognitive measures are used routinely in clinical assessment of individuals with schizophrenia. From the original definitions of the syndrome of schizophrenia in the early 20th century, impaired cognition, especially attention, was considered to be important...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188295/association-of-environment-with-the-risk-of-developing-psychotic-disorders-in-rural-populations-findings-from-the-social-epidemiology-of-psychoses-in-east-anglia-study
#19
Lucy Richardson, Yasir Hameed, Jesus Perez, Peter B Jones, James B Kirkbride
Importance: Social determinants are important risk factors for the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP); their effects in rural areas are largely unknown. Objective: To investigate neighborhood-level factors associated with FEP in a large, predominantly rural population-based cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study extracted data on referrals for treatment of potential FEP at 6 Early-Intervention Psychosis services from the Social Epidemiology of Psychoses in East Anglia naturalistic cohort study data set, which covered a population of more than 2 million people in a rural area in the East of England for a period of 3...
November 29, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164332/individual-trajectories-of-cognitive-performance-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-2-year-follow-up-study
#20
A M Sánchez-Torres, L Moreno-Izco, R Lorente-Omeñaca, B Cabrera, A Lobo, A M González-Pinto, J Merchán-Naranjo, I Corripio, E Vieta, E de la Serna, A Butjosa, F Contreras, S Sarró, G Mezquida, M Ribeiro, M Bernardo, M J Cuesta
Individual changes over time in cognition in patients with psychotic disorders have been studied very little, especially in the case of first episode psychosis (FEP). We aimed to establish whether change in individual trajectories in cognition over 2 years of a sample of 159 FEP patients was reliable and clinically significant, using the reliable change index (RCI) and clinically significant change (CSC) methods. We also studied a sample of 151 matched healthy controls. Patients and controls were assessed with a set of neuropsychological tests, as well as premorbid, clinical and functionality measures...
November 21, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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