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Hyperphosphatemia in ESRD

Li Yang, Seng Chuen Tan, Can Chen, Xingzhi Wang, Xinya Li, Xiaoyan Yang
PURPOSE: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis study of sevelamer versus calcium-based binders (CBBs) in treating hyperphosphatemia among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in China. METHODS: A decision-analytic model of a lifetime horizon was used for base case analysis from the payers' perspective. The transition probabilities between different health states were derived from survival analysis. The overall survival of CBBs was derived from the Dialysis Clinical Outcomes Revisited study for up to 44 months and a Weibull regression model was used to extrapolate the overall survival to a lifetime horizon...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
N S Zahed, N Zamanifar, H Nikbakht
Hyperphosphatemia is a risk factor for ectopic calcification and coronary artery diseases in end stage renal diseases (ESRD). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low-dose nicotinic acid on hyperphosphatemia in patients with ESRD. This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was done on 70 ESRD patients with serum phosphoure ≥5.5 mg/dl. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 35) and the intervention group received niacin 25 mg/day as the initial dose. After 4 weeks, in patients who did not respond to treatment, niacin dose was increased up to 50 mg/dl...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Ross Robison, Danielle Cooney, Mary Beth Low, Niraj Desai
BACKGROUND: Hyperphosphatemia is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Calcium-containing phosphate binders are typically used as first-line therapy, primarily due to cost considerations. Non-calcium phosphate binders such as sevelamer and lanthanum may be considered in the appropriate setting. It is hypothesized that lanthanum is less costly and has a lower pill burden compared to sevelamer carbonate. OBJECTIVE: Determine the difference in cost (outcome 1) and tablet burden (outcome 2) between sevelamer carbonate and lanthanum within the Veteran population...
April 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
Wen Xiu Chang, Ning Xu, Takanori Kumagai, Takeshi Shiraishi, Takahiro Kikuyama, Hiroki Omizo, Kazuhiro Sakai, Shigeyuki Arai, Yoshifuru Tamura, Tatsuru Ota, Shigeru Shibata, Yoshihide Fujigaki, Zhong Yang Shen, Shunya Uchida
BACKGROUND: Although hyperphosphatemia is deemed a risk factor of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), it remains unclear whether the normal range of serum phosphorus likewise deteriorates CKD. A propensity score analysis was applied to examine the causal effect of the normal range of serum phosphorus on the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS: A retrospective CKD cohort of 803 participants in a single institution was analyzed. Propensity score was estimated using 22 baseline covariates by multivariate binary logistic regression for the different thresholds of time-averaged phosphorus (TA-P) in the normal range of serum phosphorus incremented by 0...
2016: PloS One
Radwa El Borolossy, Lamia Mohamed El Wakeel, Ihab El Hakim, Nagwa Sabri
BACKGROUND: Hyperphosphatemia is a common problem in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and contributes to the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism and cardiovascular complications. Nicotinamide (NAM) has been shown in some studies to inhibit intestinal and renal sodium/phosphorus co-transporters and reduce serum phosphorus levels. We have therefore evaluated the efficacy and safety of NAM as adjunctive therapy to calcium-based phosphate binders to control hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients...
February 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Jessica Kendrick, Michel Chonchol
Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are a universal complication in dialysis patients and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Hyperphosphatemia, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 levels and secondary hyperparathyroidism are all strongly associated with adverse outcomes in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and most treatment strategies target these parameters. Over the past few years, new therapies have emerged for the treatment of abnormalities of mineral metabolism in ESRD and many are promising...
November 2015: Seminars in Dialysis
Roger A Rodby, Kausik Umanath, Robert Niecestro, T Christopher Bond, Mohammed Sika, Julia Lewis, Jamie P Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) require phosphate binders for hyperphosphatemia and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and intravenous (i.v.) iron for anemia. Ferric citrate (FC) is a novel, iron-based phosphate binder that increases iron stores and decreases i.v. iron and ESA usage while maintaining hemoglobin levels, and may decrease the cost of ESRD care. The study objectives were to (1) quantify differences in ESA and i.v. iron usage among ESRD patients receiving FC compared with active control (AC) (sevelamer carbonate and/or calcium acetate) on the basis of data from a 52-week phase III clinical trial and (2) standardize trial data to the general United States (US) ESRD population and calculate the potential impact of FC on ESRD cost/patient/year in the USA...
September 2015: Drugs in R&D
Da Shang, Qionghong Xie, Xiaolin Ge, Huanqing Yan, Jing Tian, Dingwei Kuang, Chuan-Ming Hao, Tongying Zhu
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The present study aimed to identify modifiable risk factors for CAC progression in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. METHODS: Adult patients who received regular PD for more than 6 months and underwent a series of coronary artery calcification score (CaCS) measurements by multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) with an interval of ≥ 6 months were included in this observational cohort study...
2015: BMC Nephrology
Ioannis Konstantinidis, Girish Nadkarni, Celia M Divino, Vijay Lapsia
BACKGROUND: The utilization of parathyroidectomy (PTX) to manage secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) refractory to medical management (MTX) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the era of calcimimetics is not well known. METHODS: Adult ESRD patients receiving dialysis between August 2007 and December 2011 at our institution with an intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level ≥88 pmol/L for 6 months associated with hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia for at least 50% of that period were included...
June 2013: Clinical Kidney Journal
Haitham Ezzat, Amr Mohab
Sleep disorders are common among the patients undergoing dialysis in end stage renal disease (ESRD). Although variable, their prevalence has been reported to be higher when compared to the general population. The most frequently reported complaints are insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), sleep-disordered breathing and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders in end stage renal disease patients on regular hemodialysis (group I with 30 patients) and CKD patients (group II with 30 patients) in comparison to 30 normal population (control group)...
July 2015: Renal Failure
Matthew B Rivara, Vanessa Ravel, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Elani Streja, Wei Ling Lau, Allen R Nissenson, Bryan Kestenbaum, Ian H de Boer, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Rajnish Mehrotra
Uncorrected serum calcium concentration is the first mineral metabolism metric planned for use as a quality measure in the United States ESRD population. Few studies in patients undergoing either peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) have assessed the association of uncorrected serum calcium concentration with clinical outcomes. We obtained data from 129,076 patients on dialysis (PD, 10,066; HD, 119,010) treated in DaVita, Inc. facilities between July 1, 2001, and June 30, 2006. After adjustment for potential confounders, uncorrected serum calcium <8...
July 2015: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Karthik Ramakrishnan, Peter Braunhofer, Britt Newsome, Deborah Lubeck, Steven Wang, Jennifer Deuson, Ami J Claxton
INTRODUCTION: Hyperphosphatemia (serum phosphorus >5.5 mg/dL) in hemodialysis patients is a key factor in mineral and bone disorders and is associated with increased hospitalization and mortality risks. Treatment with oral phosphate binders offers limited benefit in achieving target serum phosphorus concentrations due to high daily pill burden (7-10 pills/day) and associated poor medication adherence. The economic value of improving phosphate binder adherence and increasing percent time in range (PTR) for target phosphorus concentrations has not been previously assessed in dialysis patients...
December 2014: Advances in Therapy
Keitaro Yokoyama
In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) , hyperphosphatemia contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism and can lead to skeletal complications including fracture, and vascular calcification. Currently employed phosphate binders include calcium carbonate, sevelamer hydrochloride, and lanthanum carbonate. While these agents are effective at binding orally ingested phosphates, they vary in safety, potency, and off-target effects, some of which may be salutary (e.g., low-density lipoprotein and uric acid lowering with sevelamer) and others adverse (low turnover bone disease and progressive vascular calcification with calcium) ...
December 2014: Clinical Calcium
A Galassi, A Cupisti, A Santoro, M Cozzolino
Phosphate metabolism is crucial in the pathophysiology of secondary hyperparathyroidism and vascular calcification. High phosphate levels have been consistently associated with unfavorable outcomes in dialysis patients, but several limitations are still hampering a resolutive definition of the optimal targets of phosphate serum levels to be achieved in this cohort. Nonetheless, hyperphosphatemia is a late marker of phosphate overload in humans. Clinical nephrologists routinely counteract the positive phosphate balance in dialysis patients through nutritional counseling, stronger phosphate removal by dialysis and prescription of phosphate binders...
August 2015: Journal of Nephrology
Marvin Sinsakul, Roger Rodby, Kausik Umanath, Robert Niecestro, Jamie P Dwyer
Ferric citrate (Zerenex™, Keryx Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.), a phosphate binder drug candidate, recently completed a Phase III program confirming efficacy and demonstrating safety when used to treat hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease. Results of these trials demonstrate that ferric citrate effectively controls serum phosphorus and is well tolerated. Additionally, these studies demonstrate that ferric citrate improves iron parameters and reduces IV iron and erythropoietin stimulating agent utilization while maintaining hemoglobin levels...
November 2014: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Michael S Keith, Scott Sibbel, J Brian Copley, Rosamund J Wilson, Steven M Brunelli
PURPOSE: Sevelamer hydrochloride/carbonate (SH/C) and lanthanum carbonate (LC) are noncalcium-based phosphate binders used for the management of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The objectives of this study were to examine the dose-relativity, tablet burden, and cost difference of bidirectional conversion between SH/C and LC monotherapy in a large cohort of real-world patients with ESRD. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included three 30-day preconversion periods (days -90 to -61, -60 to -31, and -30 to -1) followed by three 30-day postconversion periods (days 1 to 30, 31 to 60, and 61 to 90); day 0 was the index date of conversion...
October 1, 2014: Clinical Therapeutics
Michael S Keith, Rosamund J Wilson, Peter Preston, J Brian Copley
PURPOSE: Sevelamer hydrochloride (SH) and lanthanum carbonate (LC) are calcium-free phosphate binders used in the clinical management of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The objective of this analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of LC monotherapy compared with SH monotherapy in US patients with ESRD in a clinical practice setting. METHODS: This was a post hoc assessment of phosphate binder costs among US patients with ESRD who converted from SH to LC monotherapy in a previously published, 16-week, Phase IV, real-world study...
September 1, 2014: Clinical Therapeutics
Luca Di Lullo, Alberto Santoboni, Fulvio Floccari, Rodolfo Rivera, Antonio De Pascalis, Antonio Gorini, Vincenzo Barbera, Claudio Ronco
Cardiovascular disease represents the major cause of death in chronic kidney disease patients accounting for about 43% of all mortality causes among hemodialysis patients. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the most frequent and dangerous clinical syndrome occurring in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Hemodialysis patients present a great number of non traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, rapid electrolyte shifts, QT dispersion, sympathetic hyperactivity and hyperphosphatemia...
May 2014: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Elise E B LaDouceur, Barbara Davis, Flo Tseng
This retrospective study summarizes 11 cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from eight zoologic institutions across the United States and Canada. Ten bears were female, one was male, and the mean age at the time of death was 24 yr old. The most common clinical signs were lethargy, inappetence, and polyuria-polydipsia. Biochemical findings included azotemia, anemia, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. Histologic examination commonly showed glomerulonephropathies and interstitial fibrosis...
March 2014: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Takeyuki Hiramatsu, Takahiro Hayasaki, Akinori Hobo, Shinji Furuta, Koki Kabu, Yukio Tonozuka, Yoshiyasu Iida
Among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, cardiovascular disease is a common comorbidity and one of most important factors affecting clinical prognosis. Calcium deposition has been reported to correlate with plasma phosphate. Icodextrin (Ico)-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) has many advantages over glucose (Glu)-based PD. We aimed to identify factors that suppress arteriosclerosis and valvular disease in patients with ESRD and diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing Ico-based PD. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the effects of Ico-based PD (n = 20) on phosphate elimination and cardiovascular disease progression in patients with ESRD andDM, and we compared the results with those for Glu-based PD (n = 20)...
2013: Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis
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