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Rate of force production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349206/dark-shadow-of-the-long-white-cloud-neighborhood-safety-is-associated-with-self-rated-health-and-cortisol-during-pregnancy-in-auckland-aotearoa-new-zealand
#1
Zaneta M Thayer
Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand is a culturally and ethnically diverse city. Despite popular global conceptions regarding its utopian nature, the lived experience for many individuals in Auckland attests to the substantial social, economic, and health inequalities that exist there. In particular, rapidly rising home prices constrain housing decisions and force individuals to live in less desirable neighborhoods, with potential impacts on individual health. One of the pathways through which adverse neighborhood conditions could impact health is through alterations in the functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis, which regulates the physiological stress response...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347192/endoreversible-quantum-heat-engines-in-the-linear-response-regime
#2
Honghui Wang, Jizhou He, Jianhui Wang
We analyze general models of quantum heat engines operating a cycle of two adiabatic and two isothermal processes. We use the quantum master equation for a system to describe heat transfer current during a thermodynamic process in contact with a heat reservoir, with no use of phenomenological thermal conduction. We apply the endoreversibility description to such engine models working in the linear response regime and derive expressions of the efficiency and the power. By analyzing the entropy production rate along a single cycle, we identify the thermodynamic flux and force that a linear relation connects...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346890/mechanics-of-active-surfaces
#3
Guillaume Salbreux, Frank Jülicher
We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346506/small-and-surrounded-population-size-and-land-use-intensity-interact-to-determine-reliance-on-autonomous-selfing-in-a-monocarpic-plant
#4
Rachel B Spigler
Background and Aims: Habitat fragmentation has transformed landscapes globally, leaving remnants embedded within a complex matrix that is rapidly becoming more developed. For many plant populations, the associated factors of decreased size and intensification of land use surrounding them are expected to increase pollen limitation ('PL'), unless autonomous self-pollination provides reproductive assurance ('RA'). Decreased pollinator visitation is often assumed to drive these patterns, but other, less studied mechanisms might include increased heterospecific pollen transfer or decreased conspecific pollen availability via florivory...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342234/stability-indicating-hplc-and-hptlc-methods-for-determination-of-agomelatine-and-its-degradation-products
#5
Maha M Abdelrahman, Ibrahim A Naguib, Mohamed R El Ghobashy, Nesma A Ali
Two accurate, sensitive and highly selective stability-indicating methods are developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Agomelatine (AGM) and its forced degradation products (Deg I and II). The first method is High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for separation and quantitation of AGM, Deg I and II on a C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm p.s) in isocratic mode by using a binary mixture of Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.05 M, pH adjusted to 2.9 with orthophosphoric acid): acetonitrile (60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 2 mL/min...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339985/butterfly-sprint-swimming-technique-analysis-of-somatic-and-spatial-temporal-coordination-variables
#6
Marek Strzała, Arkadiusz Stanula, Piotr Krężałek, Andrzej Ostrowski, Marcin Kaca, Grzegorz Głąb
The aim of this study was to investigate somatic properties and force production of leg extensor muscles measured in the countermovement jump test (CMJ), as well as to analyse kinematic variables of sprint surface butterfly swimming. Thirty-four male competitive swimmers were recruited with an average age of 19.3 ± 1.83 years. Their average body height (BH) was 183.7 ± 5.93 cm, body fat content 10.8 ± 2.64% and body mass (BM) 78.3 ± 5.0 kg. Length measurements of particular body segments were taken and a counter movement jump (CMJ) as well as an all-out 50 m butterfly speed test were completed...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337668/solving-manufacturing-problems-for-l-carnitine-l-tartrate-to-improve-the-likelihood-of-successful-product-scale-up
#7
Aliaa A Badawi, Mahmoud M Hegazy, Dina Louis, Mohammed A Eldegwy
L-carnitine-L-tartrate, a non-essential amino acid, is hygroscopic. This causes a problem in tablet production due to pronounced adhesion of tablets to punches. A 33 full factorial design was adopted to suggest a tablet formulation. Three adsorbents were suggested (Aerosil 200, Aerosil R972, talc) to reduce stickiness at three concentrations (1, 3 and 5 %), and three fillers (mannitol, Avicel PH 101, Dibasic calcium phosphate) were chosen to prepare 27 formulations. Micromeritic properties of formulations were studied, and tablets were prepared by wet granulation...
December 20, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335519/metabolic-reprogramming-by-pck1-promotes-tca-cataplerosis-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-liver-cancer-cells-and-suppresses-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Meng-Xi Liu, Lei Jin, Si-Jia Sun, Peng Liu, Xu Feng, Zhou-Li Cheng, Wei-Ren Liu, Kun-Liang Guan, Ying-Hong Shi, Hai-Xin Yuan, Yue Xiong
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK or PCK) catalyzes the first rate-limiting step in hepatic gluconeogenesis pathway to maintain blood glucose levels. Mammalian cells express two PCK genes, encoding for a cytoplasmic (PCPEK-C or PCK1) and a mitochondrial (PEPCK-M or PCK2) isoforms, respectively. Increased expressions of both PCK genes are found in cancer of several organs, including colon, lung, and skin, and linked to increased anabolic metabolism and cell proliferation. Here, we report that the expressions of both PCK1 and PCK2 genes are downregulated in primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and low PCK expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC...
January 16, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334463/torquoselective-mechanochemical-activation-of-the-staudinger-reaction-to-form-%C3%AE-lactams
#9
Dominik Marx, M Isabel Menendez
The Staudinger reaction yielding β-lactam rings via [2+2] cycloaddition is a torquoselective reaction where the stereochemistry of the product can be steered by suitable substituents. Although the mechanochemical ring-opening of β-lactams has been investigated recently, the force-assisted synthesis of this important functional four-ring motif remains unexplored. As it will be computationally demonstrated, mechanochemical activation greatly reduces the barrier of the rate limiting ring-closure step while, at the same time, preserves its torquoselectivity...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328122/model-assisted-measuring-method-for-periodical-sub-wavelength-nanostructures
#10
Gabriela Alexe, Andreas Tausendfreund, Dirk Stöbener, Andreas Fischer
This paper describes a scatterometry approach designed by simulations for the in-line characterization of sub-wavelength sinusoidal gratings, which are formed on a transparent foil in a roll-to-roll procedure. Currently used methods are based on series of in situ measurements of the specular optical response at different incident angles or wavelengths for acquiring dimensional information on the gratings. The capability of single measurements of the first diffraction maxima at a fixed incident angle and wavelength to accurately measure the height of the sub-wavelength sinusoidal gratings is investigated in this work...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324307/integrin-alpha5beta1-suppresses-rbmscs-anoikis-and-promotes-nitric-oxide-production
#11
Hai-Ying Chen, Li Pan, Hong-Li Yang, Peng Xia, Wan-Cheng Yu, Wen-Qiang Tang, Ying-Xin Zhang, Shuang-Feng Chen, Yu-Zeng Xue, Le-Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: Cell based therapy has been heralded as a novel, promising therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the low survival rate after transplantation due to cell death via anoikis is a major obstacle in stem cell therapy. Cells adhesion via Integrin alpha5beta1 (ITGA5B1) has a tendency to exert higher maximum forces. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effect of ITGA5B1 on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) from anoikis...
January 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322075/data-about-knowledge-and-tendency-towards-organic-foods-use-in-tehran
#12
Fariba Razeghi, Ehsan Haghi, Masoud Yunesian
Improper use of chemical fertilizer and pesticide poses not only threats to the environmental safety but also major public health issues globally. The adverse effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides forced agricultural scientist to look for safer methods such as organic farming. This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge and tendency towards organic foods use among people of living in a megacity, Tehran. Data was collected from "fall exhibition" and "health food exhibition" participants using pretested questionnaire...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316265/effects-of-chronic-hypoxia-on-diaphragm-function-in-deer-mice-native-to-high-altitude
#13
Neal J Dawson, Sulayman A Lyons, Danielle A Henry, Graham R Scott
AIM: We examined the effects of chronic hypoxia on diaphragm function in high- and low-altitude populations of Peromyscus mice. METHODS: Deer mice (P. maniculatus) native to high altitude and congeneric mice native to low altitude (P. leucopus) were born and raised in captivity to adulthood, and were acclimated to normoxia or hypobaric hypoxia (12 or 9 kPa, simulating hypoxia at 4300 m and 7000 m) for 6-8 weeks. We then measured indices of mitochondrial respiration capacity, force production, and fatigue resistance in the diaphragm...
January 9, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299267/thresholds-of-sea-level-rise-rate-and-sea-level-rise-acceleration-rate-in-a-vulnerable-coastal-wetland
#14
Wei Wu, Patrick Biber, Matthew Bethel
Feedbacks among inundation, sediment trapping, and vegetation productivity help maintain coastal wetlands facing sea-level rise (SLR). However, when the SLR rate exceeds a threshold, coastal wetlands can collapse. Understanding the threshold helps address key challenges in ecology-nonlinear response of ecosystems to environmental change, promotes communication between ecologists and resource managers, and facilitates decision-making in climate change policies. We studied the threshold of SLR rate and developed a new threshold of SLR acceleration rate on sustainability of coastal wetlands as SLR is likely to accelerate due to enhanced anthropogenic forces...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299253/linking-songbird-nest-predation-to-seedling-density-sugar-maple-masting-as-a-resource-pulse-in-a-forest-food-web
#15
Marie-Line Fiola, Alizée Vernouillet, Marc-André Villard
The ecological literature presents considerable evidence for top-down forcing on the maintenance of species diversity. Yet, in temperate forests, bottom-up forces often exert a strong influence on ecosystem functioning. Here, we report on the indirect influence of a pulsed resource, sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seed production, on nest survival in a migratory songbird. We hypothesized that seed production in year t would determine daily nest survival rate in year t + 1 through its effects on seed-eating rodents...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297686/structural-and-kinetic-studies-of-intermediates-of-a-biomimetic-diiron-proton-reduction-catalyst
#16
Shihuai Wang, Alexander Aster, Mohammad Mirmohades, Reiner Lomoth, Leif Hammarström
One-electron reduction and subsequent protonation of a biomimetic proton-reduction catalyst [FeFe(μ-pdt)(CO)6] (pdt = propanedithiolate), 1, were investigated by UV-vis and IR spectroscopy on a nano- to microsecond time scale. The study aimed to provide further insight into the proton-reduction cycle of this [FeFe]-hydrogenase model complex, which with its prototypical alkyldithiolate-bridged diiron core is widely employed as a molecular, precious metal-free catalyst for sustainable H2 generation. The one-electron-reduced catalyst was obtained transiently by electron transfer from photogenerated [Ru(dmb)3]+ in the absence of proton sources or in the presence of acids (dichloro- or trichloroacetic acid or tosylic acid)...
January 3, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284062/effects-of-cross-bridge-compliance-on-the-force-velocity-relationship-and-muscle-power-output
#17
Axel J Fenwick, Alexander M Wood, Bertrand C W Tanner
Muscles produce force and power by utilizing chemical energy through ATP hydrolysis. During concentric contractions (shortening), muscles generate less force compared to isometric contractions, but consume greater amounts of energy as shortening velocity increases. Conversely, more force is generated and less energy is consumed during eccentric muscle contractions (lengthening). This relationship between force, energy use, and the velocity of contraction has important implications for understanding muscle efficiency, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this behavior remain poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277668/lubricant-based-determination-of-design-space-for-continuously-manufactured-high-dose-paracetamol-tablets
#18
Krista Taipale-Kovalainen, Anssi-Pekka Karttunen, Jarkko Ketolainen, Ossi Korhonen
The objective of this study was to devise robust and stable continuous manufacturing process settings, by exploring the design space after an investigation of the lubrication-based parameters influencing the continuous direct compression tableting of high dose paracetamol tablets. Experimental design was used to generate a structured study plan which involved 19 runs. The formulation variables studied were the type of lubricant (magnesium stearate or stearic acid) and its concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). Process variables were total production feed rate (5, 10...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251521/development-and-characterisation-of-levosulpiride-loaded-suppositories-with-improved-bioavailability-in-vivo
#19
Fakhar Ud Din, Gul Majid Khan
The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize levosulpiride loaded liquid suppository with improved bioavailability. The content of levosulpiride-loaded liquid suppositories were optimized in a series of experiments using various weight ratios of P188, P407, Tween 80 and drug. The suppositories were liquid at room temperature, however, when rectally administered, they became gel at body temperature. Their rheological properties and release characteristics were determined in vitro while pharmacokinetic study was performed after its rectal administration in rats and compared with drug suspension...
December 18, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244215/development-of-a-validated-liquid-chromatographic-method-for-quantification-of-sorafenib-tosylate-in-the-presence-of-stress-induced-degradation-products-and-in-biological-matrix-employing-analytical-quality-by-design-aqbd-approach
#20
Teenu Sharma, Rajneet Kaur Khurana, Atul Jain, O P Katare, Bhupinder Singh
The current research work envisages AQbD-enabled development of a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific, robust and cost-effective stability indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for determining stress-induced forced degradation products of sorafenib tosylate (SFN). An Ishikawa fish bone diagram was constructed to embark upon analytical target profile (ATP) and critical analytical attributes (CAAs) i.e., peak area, theoretical plates, retention time (Rt ) and peak tailing...
December 15, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
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