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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334985/multicriteria-optimization-methodology-in-stability-indicating-method-development-of-cilazapril-and-hydrochlorothiazide
#1
Jasmina Šljivic, Ana Protic, Biljana Otaševic, Jelena Golubovic, Mira Zecevic, Jovana Krmar
Multicriteria optimization methodology was applied in development of UHPLC-UV-MS method for separation of cilazapril, hydrochlorothiazide and their degradation products. This method is also applicable for analysis of cilazapril, hydrochlorothiazide and their degradation products in combined tablet formulation. Prior to method optimization forced degradation studies were conducted. Cilazapril and hydrochlorothiazide were subjected to acidic (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 M HCl), basic (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 M NaOH), thermal (70°C), oxidative (3-30% H2O2) degradation and photodegradation (day light)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332279/micromonas-vs-virus-new-experimental-insights-challenge-viral-impact
#2
Eliana Ruiz, Anne-Claire Baudoux, Nathalie Simon, Ruth-Anne Sandaa, T Frede Thingstad, António Pagarete
Viruses have recurrently been hypothesized as instrumental in driving microbial population diversity. Nonetheless, viral mediated co-existence of r/k-strategists, predicted in the Killing-the-Winner (KtW) hypothesis, remains controversial and demands empirical evidence. Therefore, we measured the life strategy parameters that characterize the relevant system Micromonas-Micromonas Virus (MicV). A large number of host and viral strains (37 and 17, respectively) were used in a total of 629 cross-infectivity tests...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326310/cardiopulmonary-response-during-whole-body-vibration-training-in-patients-with-severe-copd
#3
Rainer Gloeckl, Petra Richter, Sandra Winterkamp, Michael Pfeifer, Christoph Nell, Jeffrey W Christle, Klaus Kenn
Several studies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have shown that whole-body vibration training (WBVT) has beneficial effects on exercise capacity. However, the acute cardiopulmonary demand during WBVT remains unknown and was therefore investigated in this study. Ten patients with severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s: 38±8% predicted) were examined on two consecutive days. On day one, symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed on a cycle ergometer. The next day, six bouts of repeated squat exercises were performed in random order for one, two or three minutes either with or without WBVT while metabolic demands were simultaneously measured...
January 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303027/compensation-effect-of-winter-wheat-grain-yield-reduction-under-straw-mulching-in-wide-precision-planting-in-the-north-china-plain
#4
Xinhui Liu, Yujie Ren, Chao Gao, Zhenxing Yan, Quanqi Li
Climate change and the growing demand for food security force growers to identify ways both to improve food production and to reduce agricultural carbon emissions. Although straw mulching is known to decrease CO2 emissions, winter wheat grain yield in the North China Plain was declined under straw mulching. In an effort to determine the most effective way to increase winter wheat yield under straw mulching, a field experiment was conducted using two planting patterns (wide-precision planting and conventional-cultivation planting) and two straw mulching rates (0 and 0...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298342/trade-offs-in-an-ant-plant-fungus-mutualism
#5
Jérôme Orivel, Pierre-Jean Malé, Jérémie Lauth, Olivier Roux, Frédéric Petitclerc, Alain Dejean, Céline Leroy
Species engaged in multiple, simultaneous mutualisms are subject to trade-offs in their mutualistic investment if the traits involved in each interaction are overlapping, which can lead to conflicts and affect the longevity of these associations. We investigate this issue via a tripartite mutualism involving an ant plant, two competing ant species and a fungus the ants cultivate to build galleries under the stems of their host plant to capture insect prey. The use of the galleries represents an innovative prey capture strategy compared with the more typical strategy of foraging on leaves...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290716/cycling-vs-uphill-walking-impact-on-locomotor-muscle-fatigue-and-running-exercise
#6
Benjamin Pageaux, Jean Theurel, Romuald Leper
PURPOSE: To describe the effects of uphill walking versus cycling exercises on knee extensors (KE) neuromuscular properties and subsequent running exercise. METHODS: Nine athletes performed four different sessions (one familiarization and three experimental sessions, visit 2 to 4). Visit 2 (cycling + 10 km condition) consisted of the completion of 1-h cycling followed by a 10 km running time trial. Visit 3 consisted of the completion of 1-h uphill walking followed by a 10 km running exercise (RE)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285203/flexible-heartbeat-sensor-for-wearable-device
#7
Yeon Hwa Kwak, Wonhyo Kim, Kwang Bum Park, Kunnyun Kim, Sungkyu Seo
We demonstrate a flexible strain-gauge sensor and its use in a wearable application for heart rate detection. This polymer-based strain-gauge sensor was fabricated using a double-sided fabrication method with polymer and metal, i.e., polyimide and nickel-chrome. The fabrication process for this strain-gauge sensor is compatible with the conventional flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) processes facilitating its commercialization. The fabricated sensor showed a linear relation for an applied normal force of more than 930 kPa, with a minimum detectable force of 6...
March 8, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283667/rates-of-and-reasons-for-condemnation-of-poultry-carcases-harmonised-methodology-at-the-slaughterhouse
#8
M Salines, V Allain, H Roul, C Magras, S Le Bouquin
European hygiene regulations require the condemnation of any unsafe food. However, there is little information identifying and quantifying condemnation of poultry carcases at slaughterhouses. We present an in-depth view of rates of and reasons for the condemnation of broiler, turkey, meat and force-feeding duck, guinea fowl carcases in France. The experiment was conducted in 10 slaughterhouses. For one year, all condemnations were recorded on a standard form following a national reference system. The rates of and reasons for condemnation, as well as factors influencing variation were investigated...
March 10, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277422/neuromuscular-adaptations-to-short-term-high-intensity-interval-training-in-female-ice-hockey-players
#9
Juho-Ville Kinnunen, Harri Piitulainen, Jarmo M Piirainen
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) related neuromuscular adaptations, changes in force production and on-ice performance were investigated in female ice-hockey players during pre-season. Fourteen Finnish championship level ice hockey players (average age 22 ± 3 years) participated in 2½-week HIIT. Both spinal (H-reflex) and supraspinal (V-wave) neuromuscular responses of the soleus muscle were recorded before and after the training period. Static jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) heights, plantar flexor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) were measured...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266524/vapour-pressure-deficit-control-in-relation-to-water-transport-and-water-productivity-in-greenhouse-tomato-production-during-summer
#10
Dalong Zhang, Qingjie Du, Zhi Zhang, Xiaocong Jiao, Xiaoming Song, Jianming Li
Although atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) has been widely recognized as the evaporative driving force for water transport, the potential to reduce plant water consumption and improve water productivity by regulating VPD is highly uncertain. To bridge this gap, water transport in combination with plant productivity was examined in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown under contrasting VPD gradients. The driving force for water transport was substantially reduced in low-VPD treatment, which consequently decreased water loss rate and moderated plant water stress: leaf desiccation, hydraulic limitation and excessive negative water potential were prevented by maintaining water balance...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266022/an-artificial-tca-cycle-selects-for-efficient-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-dependent-hydroxylase-catalysis-in-engineered-escherichia-coli
#11
Eleni Theodosiou, Marina Breisch, Mattijs K Julsing, Francesco Falcioni, Bruno Bühler, Andreas Schmid
Amino acid hydroxylases depend directly on the cellular TCA cycle via their cosubstrate a-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and are highly useful for the selective biocatalytic oxyfunctionalization of amino acids. This study evaluates TCA cycle engineering strategies to force and increase α-KG flux through proline-4-hydroxylase (P4H). The genes sucA (α-KG dehydrogenase E1 subunit) and sucC (succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit) were alternately deleted together with aceA (isocitrate lyase) in proline degradation-deficient Escherichia coli strains (ΔputA) expressing the p4h gene...
March 7, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265507/the-effects-of-elevated-pain-inhibition-on-endurance-exercise-performance
#12
Andrew Flood, Gordon Waddington, Richard J Keegan, Kevin G Thompson, Stuart Cathcart
BACKGROUND: The ergogenic effects of analgesic substances suggest that pain perception is an important regulator of work-rate during fatiguing exercise. Recent research has shown that endogenous inhibitory responses, which act to attenuate nociceptive input and reduce perceived pain, can be increased following transcranial direct current stimulation of the hand motor cortex. Using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS; 2 mA, 20 min), the current study aimed to examine the effects of elevated pain inhibitory capacity on endurance exercise performance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264197/simvastatin-and-atorvastatin-reduce-the-mechanical-properties-of-tendon-constructs-in-vitro-and-introduce-catabolic-changes-in-the-gene-expression-pattern
#13
Pernilla Eliasson, Rene B Svensson, Antonis Giannopoulos, Christian Eismark, Michael Kjær, Peter Schjerling, Katja M Heinemeier
Treatment with lipid-lowering drugs, statins, is common all over the world. Lately, the occurrence of spontaneous tendon ruptures or tendinosis have suggested a negative influence of statins upon tendon tissue. But how statins might influence tendons is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of statin treatment on mechanical strength, cell proliferation, collagen content and gene expression pattern in a tendon-like tissue made from human tenocytes in vitro. Human tendon fibroblasts were grown in a 3D tissue culture model (tendon constructs), and treated with either simvastatin or atorvastatin, low or high dose, respectively, for up to seven days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263554/suppressing-crack-formation-in-particulate-systems-by-utilizing-capillary-forces
#14
Monica Schneider, Johannes Maurath, Steffen B Fischer, Moritz Weiß, Norbert Willenbacher, Erin Koos
Cracks, formed during the drying of particulate films, can reduce the effectiveness or even render products useless. We present a novel, generic approach to suppress crack formation in thin films made from hard particle suspensions, which are otherwise highly susceptible to cracking, using the capillary force between particles present when a trace amount of an immiscible liquid is added to a suspension. This secondary liquid preserves the particle cohesion, modifying the structure and increasing the drying rate...
March 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260157/skilful-force-control-in-expert-pianists
#15
Takanori Oku, Shinichi Furuya
Dexterous object manipulation in skilful behaviours such as surgery, craft making, and musical performance involves fast, precise, and efficient control of force with the fingers. A challenge in playing musical instruments is the requirement of independent control of the magnitude and rate of force production, which typically vary in relation to loudness and tempo. However, it is unknown how expert musicians skilfully control finger force to elicit tones with a wide range of loudness and tempi. Here, we addressed this issue by comparing the variation of spatiotemporal characteristics of force during repetitive and simultaneous piano keystrokes in relation to the loudness and tempo between pianists and musically untrained individuals...
March 4, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256893/load-and-time-dependence-of-interfacial-chemical-bond-induced-friction-at-the-nanoscale
#16
Kaiwen Tian, Nitya N Gosvami, David L Goldsby, Yun Liu, Izabela Szlufarska, Robert W Carpick
Rate and state friction (RSF) laws are widely used empirical relationships that describe the macroscale frictional behavior of a broad range of materials, including rocks found in the seismogenic zone of Earth's crust. A fundamental aspect of the RSF laws is frictional "aging," where friction increases with the time of stationary contact due to asperity creep and/or interfacial strengthening. Recent atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments and simulations found that nanoscale silica contacts exhibit aging due to the progressive formation of interfacial chemical bonds...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248502/high-temperature-and-high-pressure-pyrolysis-of-hexadecane-molecular-dynamic-simulation-based-on-reactive-force-field-reaxff
#17
Zhuojun Chen, Weizhen Sun, Ling Zhao
As important products of heavy oil pyrolysis, heavier components such as gasoline and diesel supply the vast majority of energy demand through combustion, and lighter components such as ethylene and propylene are the main sources of industrial chemicals and plastic products. In this work, pyrolysis of hexadecane, as the model compound, was studied by reactive force field (ReaxFF) molecular simulation at high temperatures and high pressures. It was confirmed by unimolecular simulations that there exist eight different initial mechanisms all starting with C-C bond dissociation...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242814/microstimulation-of-single-human-motor-axons-in-the-toe-extensors-force-production-during-long-lasting-trains-of-irregular-and-regular-stimuli
#18
Michael Leitch, Vaughan G Macefield
Human motoneurones are known to discharge with a physiological variability of ~25% during voluntary contractions. Using microstimulation of single human motor axons, we have previously shown that delivering brief trains (10 pulses) of irregular stimuli, which incorporate discharge variability, generates greater contractile responses than trains of regular stimuli with identical mean frequency but zero variability. We tested the hypothesis that longer irregular (physiological) trains would produce greater contractile responses than regular (nonphysiological) trains of the same mean frequency (18 Hz) and duration (45 sec)...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237998/optimization-of-herbicidin-a-production-in-submerged-culture-of-streptomyces-scopuliridis-m40
#19
Sanghyun Ha, Keon Jin Lee, Sang Il Lee, Hyun Jung Gwak, Jong-Hee Lee, Tae-Woon Kim, Hak-Jong Choi, Ja-Young Jang, Jung-Sub Choi, Chang-Jin Kim, Jin-Cheol Kim, Hyeong Hwan Kim, Hae Woong Park
Herbicidin A is a potent herbicide against dicotyledonous plants as well as an antibiotic against phytopathogens. In this study, fermentation parameters for herbicidin A production in submerged culture of Streptomyces scopuliridis M40 were investigated. The herbicidin A concentration varied with the C/N ratio. High C/N ratios (>4) resulted in a herbicidin A production of more than 900 mg/L, whereas maximally 600 mg/L was obtained at ratios between 1-3.5. In 5-L batch fermentation, there was a positive correlation between the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and herbicidin A production...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235875/engineering-cyanobacterial-cell-morphology-for-enhanced-recovery-and-processing-of-biomass
#20
Adam Jordan, Jenna Chandler, Joshua S MacCready, Jingcheng Huang, Katherine W Osteryoung, Daniel C Ducat
Cyanobacteria are emerging as alternative crop species for the production of fuels, chemicals, and biomass. Yet, the success of these microbes depends upon the development of cost-effective technologies that permit scaled cultivation and cell harvesting. Here, we investigate the feasibility of engineering cell morphology in order to improve biomass recovery and decrease energetic costs associated with lysing cyanobacterial cells. Specifically, we modify the levels of Min system proteins in Synechococcus elongatus sp...
February 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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