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Rate of force production

Juliana Lopez Marulanda, Olivier Adam, Fabienne Delfour
Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
A K Wilfong, K V McKillip, J M Gonzalez, T A Houser, J A Unruh, E A E Boyle, T G O'Quinn
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties. Six treatments were used in the study: 90/10 Certified Angus Beef (CAB) ground sirloin, 90/10 ground beef, 80/20 CAB ground chuck, 80/20 ground chuck, 80/20 ground beef, and 73/27 CAB ground beef. Ground beef was processed into 151.2-g patties using a patty former with 2 consecutively formed patties assigned to blind consumer testing and the following 2 assigned to informed testing...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Prashant K Purohit, Douglas H Smith
In the first phase of axon growth, axons sprout from neuron bodies and are extended by the pull of the migrating growth cones towards their targets. Thereafter, once the target is reached, a lesser known second phase of axon growth ensues as the mechanical forces from the growth of the animal induce extension of the integrated axons in the process of forming tracts and nerves. Although there are several microscopic physics based models of the first phase of axon growth, to date, there are no models of the very different second phase...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Cuiping Zhao, Douglas M Swank
Stretch activation (SA) is a delayed increase in force that enables high power and efficiency from a cyclically contracting muscle. SA exists in various degrees in almost all muscle types. In Drosophila, the indirect flight muscle (IFM) displays exceptionally high SA force production (FSA), whereas the jump muscle produces only minimal FSA We previously found that expressing an embryonic (EMB) myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform in the jump muscle transforms it into a moderately SA muscle type and enables positive cyclical power generation...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Chiguru Vishnuvardhan, Baikadi Saibaba, Lingesh Allakonda, Debasish Swain, S Gananadhamu, R Srinivas, N Satheeshkumar
Silodosin (SLD) a novel α1-adrenoceptor antagonist was subjected to forced degradation involving hydrolysis (acidic, alkaline and neutral), oxidative, photolysis and thermal stress, as per ICH specified conditions. The drug underwent significant degradation under hydrolytic (acidic, alkaline and neutral) and oxidative stress conditions whereas, it was found to be stable under other stress conditions. A rapid, precise, accurate and robust chromatographic method for the separation of the drug and its degradation products (DPs) was developed on a Fortis C18 analytical column (150×4...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Susan O Griffin, Shillpa Naavaal, Christina Scherrer, Mona Patel, Sajal Chattopadhyay
CONTEXT: A recently updated Community Guide systematic review of the effectiveness of school sealant programs (SSPs) still found strong evidence that SSPs reduced dental caries among schoolchildren. This follow-up systematic review updates SSP cost and benefit information from the original 2002 review. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Using Community Guide economic review methods, the authors searched the literature from January 2000 to November 20, 2014. The final body of evidence included 14 studies-ten from the current search and four with cost information from the 2002 review...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jessica R K Forrest, Sarah P M Chisholm
Warm temperatures are required for insect flight. Consequently, warming could benefit many high-latitude and high-altitude insects by increasing opportunities for foraging or oviposition. However, warming can also alter species interactions, including interactions with natural enemies, making the net effect of rising temperatures on population growth rate difficult to predict. We investigated the temperature-dependence of nesting activity and lifetime reproductive output over three years in subalpine populations of a pollen-specialist bee, Osmia iridis...
November 14, 2016: Ecology
Shuang-Yan Lang, Yang Shi, Yu-Guo Guo, Dong Wang, Rui Wen, Li-Jun Wan
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are highly appealing for large-scale energy storage. However, performance deterioration issues remain, which are highly related to interfacial properties. Herein, we present a direct visualization of the interfacial structure and dynamics of the Li-S discharge/charge processes at the nanoscale. In situ atomic force microscopy and ex situ spectroscopic methods directly distinguish the morphology and growth processes of insoluble products Li2 S2 and Li2 S. The monitored interfacial dynamics show that Li2 S2 nanoparticle nuclei begin to grow at 2 V followed by a fast deposition of lamellar Li2 S at 1...
November 17, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
C Horswill, N Ratcliffe, J A Green, R A Phillips, P N Trathan, J Matthiopoulos
In the open ocean ecosystem, climate and anthropogenic changes have driven biological change at both ends of the food chain. Understanding how the population dynamics of pelagic predators are simultaneously influenced by nutrient-driven processes acting from the "bottom-up" and predator-driven processes acting from the "top-down" is therefore considered an urgent task. Using a state-space demographic model, we evaluated the population trajectory of an oceanic predator, the Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and numerically assessed the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down drivers acting through different demographic rates...
August 2016: Ecology
Jungbin Mok, Nickolay A Krotkov, Antti Arola, Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, Marcos Andrade, Gordon Labow, Thomas F Eck, Zhanqing Li, Russell R Dickerson, Georgiy L Stenchikov, Sergey Osipov, Xinrong Ren
The spectral dependence of light absorption by atmospheric particulate matter has major implications for air quality and climate forcing, but remains uncertain especially in tropical areas with extensive biomass burning. In the September-October 2007 biomass-burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we studied light absorbing (chromophoric) organic or "brown" carbon (BrC) with surface and space-based remote sensing. We found that BrC has negligible absorption at visible wavelengths, but significant absorption and strong spectral dependence at UV wavelengths...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Inês N Silva, Pedro M Santos, Mário R Santos, James E A Zlosnik, David P Speert, Sean W Buskirk, Eric L Bruger, Christopher M Waters, Vaughn S Cooper, Leonilde M Moreira
Burkholderia multivorans is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing severe disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients may be chronically infected for years, during which the bacterial population evolves in response to unknown forces. Here we analyze the genomic and functional evolution of a B. multivorans infection that was sequentially sampled from a CF patient over 20 years. The population diversified into at least four primary, coexisting clades with distinct evolutionary dynamics. The average substitution rate was only 2...
May 2016: MSystems
Kenichi Murakami, Hiroyuki Fujisawa, Makoto Suzuki, Yoichiro Sato, Kentaro Sakurai, Chie Abe
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships among muscle fiber conduction velocity, time-force characteristics of muscle force production, and voluntary movement in patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in the present study were 13 patients with hemiplegia. Muscle fiber conduction velocity, deep temperature of muscles and muscle thickness were measured for the tibialis anterior, and a time force curve was obtained from dorsiflexion of the ankle and lower thigh girth (maximum, minimum) for both sides...
October 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Ye Eun Kim, Paul G Higgs
It is believed that life passed through an RNA World stage in which replication was sustained by catalytic RNAs (ribozymes). The two most obvious types of ribozymes are a polymerase, which uses a neighbouring strand as a template to make a complementary sequence to the template, and a nucleotide synthetase, which synthesizes monomers for use by the polymerase. When a chemical source of monomers is available, the polymerase can survive on its own. When the chemical supply of monomers is too low, nucleotide production by the synthetase is essential and the two ribozymes can only survive when they are together...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Drew G Michael, Ezekiel J Maier, Holly Brown, Stacey R Gish, Christopher Fiore, Randall H Brown, Michael R Brent
The ability to rationally manipulate the transcriptional states of cells would be of great use in medicine and bioengineering. We have developed an algorithm, NetSurgeon, which uses genome-wide gene-regulatory networks to identify interventions that force a cell toward a desired expression state. We first validated NetSurgeon extensively on existing datasets. Next, we used NetSurgeon to select transcription factor deletions aimed at improving ethanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures that are catabolizing xylose...
November 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Axel J Fenwick, Shelby R Leighton, Bertrand C W Tanner
Actin-myosin cross-bridges use chemical energy from MgATP hydrolysis to generate force and shortening in striated muscle. Previous studies show that increases in sarcomere length can reduce thick-to-thin filament spacing in skinned muscle fibers, thereby increasing force production at longer sarcomere lengths. However, it is unclear how changes in sarcomere length and lattice spacing affect cross-bridge kinetics at fundamental steps of the cross-bridge cycle, such as the MgADP release rate. We hypothesize that decreased lattice spacing, achieved through increased sarcomere length or osmotic compression of the fiber via dextran T-500, could slow MgADP release rate and increase cross-bridge attachment duration...
November 1, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Vanderka Marián, Longová Katarína, Olasz Dávid, Krčmár Matúš, Walker Simon
The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax) and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100), countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg) were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36) and control (CON, n = 32) groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions)...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
S V Pavlov, S A Kislenko
This work is focused on the effect of the electrode/electrolyte interface restructuring under the variation of carbon surface topography, as one of the possible factors determining the electrochemical activity of different carbon materials in Li-air batteries. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to investigate an acetonitrile-based electrolyte in contact with the following carbon surfaces: graphene plane, single-layer graphene edge, and multi-layer graphene edge. It was shown that the surface topography strongly influences the electrolyte structure at the interface...
November 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ulrich Kühne, Jørgen Esmann, Dennis von Heimburg, Matthias Imhof, Petra Weissenberger, Gerhard Sattler
Cohesive polydensified matrix (CPM(®)) hyaluronic acid fillers are now available with or without lidocaine. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and performance of CPM(®) fillers with lidocaine in the clinical setting. In an open-label, prospective, postmarketing study, 108 patients from seven sites in Germany and Denmark were treated with one or more lidocaine-containing CPM(®) fillers. Performance was assessed using the Merz Aesthetics Scales(®) (MAS). Pain was rated on an 11-point visual analog scale...
2016: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Antoine Boulanger Piette, Sébastien S Dufresne, Jérôme Frenette
BACKGROUND: Cumulative evidence indicates that statins induce myotoxicity. However, the lack of understanding of how statins affect skeletal muscles at the structural, functional, and physiological levels hampers proper healthcare management. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the early after-effects of lovastatin on the slow-twitch soleus (Sol) and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated with placebo or lovastatin [50 mg/kg/d] for 28 days...
October 28, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
J Vincent Price, Long Chen, W Brian Whitaker, Eleftherios Papoutsakis, Wilfred Chen
Methanol is an important feedstock derived from natural gas and can be chemically converted into commodity and specialty chemicals at high pressure and temperature. Although biological conversion of methanol can proceed at ambient conditions, there is a dearth of engineered microorganisms that use methanol to produce metabolites. In nature, methanol dehydrogenase (Mdh), which converts methanol to formaldehyde, highly favors the reverse reaction. Thus, efficient coupling with the irreversible sequestration of formaldehyde by 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (Hps) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloseisomerase (Phi) serves as the key driving force to pull the pathway equilibrium toward central metabolism...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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