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D Silvério, A M Lopes, J Melo-Ferreira, M J Magalhães, P Monterroso, A Serronha, E Maio, P C Alves, P J Esteves, J Abrantes
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a viral disease that affects the European rabbit. RHD was detected in 1984 in China and rapidly disseminated worldwide causing a severe decline in wild rabbit populations. The aetiological agent, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), is an RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae, genus Lagovirus. Pathogenic (G1-G6 or variants GI.1a-GI.1d) and non-pathogenic strains (GI.4) have been characterized. In 2010, a new variant of RHDV, RHDV2/RHDVb/GI.2, was detected in France...
February 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Jackie E Mahar, Andrew J Read, Xingnian Gu, Nadya Urakova, Roslyn Mourant, Melissa Piper, Stéphanie Haboury, Edward C Holmes, Tanja Strive, Robyn N Hall
The highly virulent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been widely used in Australia and New Zealand since the mid-1990s to control wild rabbits, an invasive vertebrate pest in these countries. In January 2014, an exotic RHDV was detected in Australia, and 8 additional outbreaks were reported in both domestic and wild rabbits in the 15 months following its detection. Full-length genomic analysis revealed that this virus is a recombinant containing an RHDVa capsid gene and nonstructural genes most closely related to nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses...
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
B D Cooke, R P Duncan, I McDonald, J Liu, L Capucci, G J Mutze, T Strive
Mortality caused by rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in wild rabbits is reduced in parts of Australia where the related, non-pathogenic calicivirus RCV-A1 is endemic. Laboratory experiments previously showed that prior infection with RCV-A1 enabled rabbits to better withstand subsequent infection with highly virulent RHDV, and this was assumed to explain higher survival. Here, we analyse serological data from the field suggesting that reduced mortality rates among wild rabbits may also result from rabbits previously infected with RCV-A1 having a reduced likelihood of RHDV infection...
December 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
R N Hall, J E Mahar, A J Read, R Mourant, M Piper, N Huang, T Strive
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, or GI.1) is a calicivirus in the genus Lagovirus that has been widely utilized in Australia as a biological control agent for the management of overabundant wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations since 1996. Recently, two exotic incursions of pathogenic lagoviruses have been reported in Australia; GI.1a-Aus, previously called RHDVa-Aus, is a GI.1a virus detected in January 2014, and the novel lagovirus GI.2 (previously known as RHDV2). Furthermore, an additional GI...
April 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Ana M Lopes, Adrien Breiman, Mónica Lora, Béatrice Le Moullac-Vaidye, Oxana Galanina, Kristina Nyström, Stephane Marchandeau, Ghislaine Le Gall-Reculé, Tanja Strive, Aleksija Neimanis, Nicolai V Bovin, Nathalie Ruvoën-Clouet, Pedro J Esteves, Joana Abrantes, Jacques Le Pendu
The rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) are two lagoviruses from the family Caliciviridae that cause fatal diseases in two leporid genera, Oryctolagus and Lepus , respectively. In the last few years, several examples of host jumps of lagoviruses among leporids were recorded. In addition, a new pathogenic genotype of RHDV emerged and many non-pathogenic strains of lagoviruses have been described. The molecular mechanisms behind host shifts and the emergence of virulence are unknown...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
C Rouco, J Abrantes, A Serronha, A M Lopes, E Maio, M J Magalhães, E Blanco, J Bárcena, P J Esteves, N Santos, P C Alves, P Monterroso
As the detection of the first outbreak of a novel aetiological agent of rabbit haemorrhagic disease commonly called RHDV2 or RHDVb (Lagovirus europaeus/GI.2, henceforth GI.2) in France in 2010, the virus rapidly spread throughout continental Europe and nearby islands such as Great Britain, Sardinia, Sicily, the Azores and the Canary Islands among others. The outbreaks of this new lagovirus cause important economic losses in rabbitries, and ecological disruptions by affecting the conservation of rabbit-sensitive top predators...
November 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
F A Abade Dos Santos, C Carvalho, Oliveira Nuno, J J Correia, M Henriques, M C Peleteiro, M Fevereiro, M D Duarte
BACKGROUND: In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those deaths was never investigated. Our aim was to investigate the cause of death of 11 rabbits collected between April and May 2016. RESULTS: While screening samples from rabbit carcasses for the major viral rabbit pathogens, five tested positive to RHDV2 but all were negative for RHDV and myxoma virus (MYXV)...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Jackie E Mahar, Robyn N Hall, David Peacock, John Kovaliski, Melissa Piper, Roslyn Mourant, Nina Huang, Susan Campbell, Xingnian Gu, Andrew Read, Nadya Urakova, Tarnya Cox, Edward C Holmes, Tanja Strive
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2; Lagovirus GI.2) is a pathogenic calicivirus that affects European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and various hare (Lepus) species. GI.2 was first detected in France in 2010 and subsequently caused epidemics in wild and domestic lagomorph populations throughout Europe. In May 2015 GI.2 was detected in Australia. Within 18 months of its initial detection GI.2 had spread to all Australian states and territories and rapidly became the dominant circulating strain, replacing Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV/GI...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Ghislaine Le Gall-Reculé, Evelyne Lemaitre, Stéphane Bertagnoli, Céline Hubert, Sokunthea Top, Anouk Decors, Stéphane Marchandeau, Jean-Sébastien Guitton
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In 2010, a new genotype called RHDV2 emerged in France. It exhibits a larger host range than classical RHDV strains by sporadically infecting different hare species, including the European hare (Lepus europaeus). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that closely related RHDV2 strains circulate locally in both hares and rabbits, and therefore that RHDV2 strains infecting hares do not belong to a lineage that has evolved only in this species...
October 28, 2017: Veterinary Research
Ana M Lopes, Diogo Silvério, Maria J Magalhães, Helena Areal, Paulo C Alves, Pedro J Esteves, Joana Abrantes
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a veterinary disease that affects the European rabbit and has a significant economic and ecological negative impact. In Portugal, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was reported in 1989 and still causes enzootic outbreaks. Several recombination events have been detected in RHDV strains, including in the first reported outbreak. Here we describe the occurrence of recombination in RHDV strains recovered from rabbit and Iberian hare samples collected in the mid-1990s in Portugal...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ashraf M Morgan, Marwa A Ibrahim, Ahmed M Hussien
Introduction to the herbicide Atrazine (ATR) can bring about immunotoxicity, aside from other unfavorable results for the creature and human wellbeing. We went for clarifying the genotoxic mechanisms required in humoral immunotoxicity of Gesaprim(®) (ATR) and their constriction by Akropwer. Forty rabbits (1.5kg±20%) were utilized and appointed into 4 equal groups. group 1: control; group 2: Received Atrazine at 1/10 LD50 via food; group 3: Received Akropwer at 1ml/1l/day by means of drinking water; group 4: Received both Atrazine and Akropwer associatively by the same said dosage and course...
October 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
K P Dalton, J L Arnal, A A Benito, G Chacón, J M Martín Alonso, F Parra
Since its emergence, variant RHDV (RHDVb/RHDV2) has spread throughout the Iberian Peninsula aided by the apparent lack of cross protection provided by classic (genogroup 1; G1) strain derived vaccines. In addition to RHDVb, full-length genome sequencing of RHDV strains has recently revealed the circulation of recombinant viruses on the Iberian Peninsula. These recombinant viruses contain the RHDVb structural protein encoding sequences and the non-structural coding regions of either pathogenic RHDV-G1 strains or non-pathogenic (np) rabbit caliciviruses...
January 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
K P Dalton, A Podadera, V Granda, I Nicieza, D Del Llano, R González, J R de Los Toyos, M García Ocaña, F Vázquez, J M Martín Alonso, J M Prieto, F Parra, R Casais
The emergence and rapid spread of variant of the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV2) require new diagnostic tools to ensure that efficient control measures are adopted. In the present study, a specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of RHDV2 antigens in rabbit liver homogenates, based on the use of an RHDV2-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) 2D9 for antigen capture and an anti-RHDV2 goat polyclonal antibody (Pab), was developed. This ELISA was able to successfully detect RHDV2 and RHDV2 recombinant virions with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97...
January 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Shifa Yang, Guiming Li, Zengcheng Zhao, Minyan Feng, Jian Fu, Zhongli Huang, Minxun Song, Shuqian Lin
Robinia pseudoacacia flower, a common component in traditional Chinese medicine, has long been well-known for its high pharmaceutical value. This study aimed to assess the immunopotentiating effects of Taishan Robinia Pseudoacacia polysaccharides (TRPPS) in rabbits inoculated with a rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) inactivated vaccine. The rabbits were administered with the RHDV vaccine in conjunction with varying concentrations of TRPPS, and their blood samples were collected at different time points to analyze the ratio and number of blood lymphocytes...
September 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Braeden Donaldson, Farah Al-Barwani, Simon J Pelham, Katie Young, Vernon K Ward, Sarah L Young
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is responsible for almost 700,000 deaths annually worldwide. Therapeutic vaccination is a promising alternative to conventional treatment for colorectal cancer, using vaccines to induce targeted immune responses against tumour-associated antigens. In this study, we have developed chimaeric virus-like particles (VLP), a form of non-infectious non-replicative subunit vaccine consisting of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) VP60 capsid proteins containing recombinantly inserted epitopes from murine topoisomerase IIα and survivin...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Braeden Donaldson, Farah Al-Barwani, Simon J Pelham, Katie Young, Vernon K Ward, Sarah L Young
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is responsible for almost 700,000 deaths annually worldwide. Therapeutic vaccination is a promising alternative to conventional treatment for colorectal cancer, using vaccines to induce targeted immune responses against tumour-associated antigens. In this study, we have developed chimaeric virus-like particles (VLP), a form of non-infectious non-replicative subunit vaccine consisting of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) VP60 capsid proteins containing recombinantly inserted epitopes from murine topoisomerase IIα and survivin...
August 15, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Yanhua Song, Zhiyu Fan, Yuanyuan Zuo, Houjun Wei, Bo Hu, Mengmeng Chen, Rulong Qiu, Jiabin Xue, Fang Wang
During infection host histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) act as attachment factors that interact with rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and participate in the infectious process. In the present study, baculovirus expressing recombinant RHDV capsid protein (VP60r) as a vaccine immunogen was used to test its antigenicity and immunogenicity via immunization experiments. Each group of rabbits immunized with VP60r was found to be fully protected against RHDV challenge. The duration of immunity of the vaccine following the inoculation of a single dose was determined to be at least 240 days...
November 2017: Archives of Virology
Nadya Urakova, Andrew C Warden, Peter A White, Tanja Strive, Michael Frese
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus that infects and frequently kills rabbits. Previously, we showed that the RHDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is associated with distinct, but yet uncharacterised subcellular structures and is capable of inducing a redistribution of Golgi membranes. In this study, we identified a partially hidden hydrophobic motif that determines the subcellular localisation of recombinant RHDV RdRp in transfected cells. This novel motif, 189LLWGCDVGVAVCAAAVFHNICY210, is located within the F homomorph, between the conserved F3 and A motifs of the core RdRp domain...
August 1, 2017: Viruses
Yan Li, Xueping Yao, Ying Li, Feifei Xu, Zexiao Yang
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a highly infectious pathogen that causes high mortality in wild and domestic rabbits. RHDV could be divided into two subtypes, classic RHDV and RHDVa, which present clear genetic, antigenic, and epidemiological differences. To further understand the nature of the diversity, we performed a genome-wide evolutionary study on the classic RHDV and RHDVa isolates. The results show that RHDV had experienced adaptive diversification with the dividing process of these subtypes...
July 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jacques Le Pendu, Joana Abrantes, Stéphane Bertagnoli, Jean-Sébastien Guitton, Ghislaine Le Gall-Reculé, Ana Margarida Lopes, Stéphane Marchandeau, Fernando Alda, Tereza Almeida, Alves Paulo Célio, Juan Bárcena, Galina Burmakina, Esther Blanco, Carlos Calvete, Patrizia Cavadini, Brian Cooke, Kevin Dalton, Miguel Delibes Mateos, Wieslaw Deptula, John Sebastian Eden, Fang Wang, Catarina C Ferreira, Paula Ferreira, Pilar Foronda, David Gonçalves, Dolores Gavier-Widén, Robin Hall, Beata Hukowska-Szematowicz, Peter Kerr, John Kovaliski, Antonio Lavazza, Jackie Mahar, Alexander Malogolovkin, Raquel M Marques, Sara Marques, Aaron Martin-Alonso, Pedro Monterroso, Sacramento Moreno, Greg Mutze, Aleksija Neimanis, Paulina Niedzwiedzka-Rystwej, David Peacock, Francisco Parra, Mara Rocchi, Carlos Rouco, Nathalie Ruvoën-Clouet, Eliane Silva, Diogo Silvério, Tanja Strive, Gertrudes Thompson, Beata Tokarz-Deptula, Pedro Esteves
Lagoviruses belong to the Caliciviridae family. They were first recognized as highly pathogenic viruses of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) that emerged in the 1970-1980s, namely, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV), according to the host species from which they had been first detected. However, the diversity of lagoviruses has recently expanded to include new related viruses with varying pathogenicity, geographic distribution and host ranges...
July 2017: Journal of General Virology
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