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Isabel Pacios-Palma, Simone Santoro, Alejandro Bertó-Moran, Sacramento Moreno, Carlos Rouco
Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) alter the physiology of infected rabbits, resulting in physical deterioration...
October 1, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Gregorio Rocha, Fernando Alda, Albert Pagés, Tomás Merchán
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly lethal and contagious viral disease that produces haemorrhagic lesions in liver and lungs of domestic and wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). This study investigates the transmission of RHDVa from infected rabbits to mice, based on the detection of viral RNA. Sixteen wild mice (Mus spretus, n=12 and Apodemus sylvaticus, n=4) were put in contact with nine rabbits inoculated with RHDV. No mice died following exposure to RHDV-infected rabbits or developed macroscopic haemorrhagic lesions...
November 18, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Sonsoles Pacho, Elias Dahdouh, Javier Merino, Monica Suárez
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDVb) is the new variant of the classical RHDV, a virulent pathogen responsible for an acute disease in young rabbits. The virus invades internal organs, especially the liver, spleen, kidneys, and gut; prevents coagulation; and causes liver necrosis. This eventually leads to quick death of the animal because of hemorrhage. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a new vaccine against RHDVb in rabbits at a young age, after experimental infection using four different viral isolates...
November 11, 2016: Viral Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2016: Veterinary Record
A Fitzner, W Niedbalski
Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Bo Hu, Fang Wang, Zhiyu Fan, Yanhua Song, Joana Abrantes, Yuanyuan Zuo, Pedro J Esteves
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease caused by the lagovirus rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), which was first reported in 1984 in China. Genetic characterization of RHDV has demonstrated that two different genogroups (G2 and G6) are present in China. To gain a better understanding of the molecular evolution of RHDV, we searched for recombination events by analyzing all full-length RHDV capsid VP60 sequences of Chinese isolates belonging to the genogroups 2 and 6. Our results revealed a recombinant origin for the NanBu/China/2011 isolate...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Virology
R Velarde, P Cavadini, A Neimanis, O Cabezón, M Chiari, A Gaffuri, S Lavín, G Grilli, D Gavier-Widén, A Lavazza, L Capucci
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that can cause fatal hepatitis (rabbit haemorrhagic disease, RHD) with mortality of 80-90% in farmed and wild rabbits. Since 1986, RHDV has caused outbreaks in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Europe, but never in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus, EBH). In 2010, a new RHDV-related virus, called RHDV2, emerged in Europe, causing extended epidemics because it largely overcame the immunity to RHDV present in most rabbit populations. RHDV2 also was identified in Cape hare (Lepus capensis subsp...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Jie Zhu, Qiuhong Miao, Yonggui Tan, Huimin Guo, Chuanfeng Li, Zongyan Chen, Guangqing Liu
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is an important member of the caliciviridae family. Currently, no suitable tissue culture system is available for proliferating RHDV, which limits the study of its pathogenesis. To bypass this obstacle, we established a cell line, RK13-VPg, stably expressing the VPg gene with a lentivirus packaging system in this study. In addition, the recently constructed RHDV replicon in our laboratory provided an appropriate model for studying the pathogenesis of RHDV without in vitro RHDV propagation and culture...
November 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Xuexing Zheng, Shukun Wang, Weijiao Zhang, Xingjian Liu, Yongzhu Yi, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia, Yinv Li, Zhifang Zhang
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is the etiological agent behind rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), which is lethal and contagious in rabbits. The virus does not replicate in cell culture and the only commercial inactivated vaccine available is derived from infected rabbit livers. RHDV capsid protein, VP60, is the main antigen comprising the virion. We used a baculovirus-silkworm pupae system to express VP60, which self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) with a similar size and morphology to RHDV...
September 3, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Noelia Moreno, Ignacio Mena, Iván Angulo, Yolanda Gómez, Elisa Crisci, María Montoya, José R Castón, Esther Blanco, Juan Bárcena
Virus-like particles (VLPs), comprised of viral structural proteins devoid of genetic material, are tunable nanoparticles that can be chemically or genetically engineered, to be used as platforms for multimeric display of foreign antigens. Here, we report the engineering of chimeric VLPs, derived from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) for presentation of foreign B-cell antigens to the immune system. The RHDV capsid comprises 180 copies of a single capsid subunit (VP60). To evaluate the ability of chimeric RHDV VLPs to elicit protective humoral responses against foreign antigens, we tested two B-cell epitopes: a novel neutralizing B-cell epitope, derived from feline calicivirus capsid protein, and a well characterized B-cell epitope from the extracellular domain of influenza A virus M2 protein (M2e)...
2016: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2016: Veterinary Record
Jackie E Mahar, Leila Nicholson, John-Sebastian Eden, Sebastián Duchêne, Peter J Kerr, Janine Duckworth, Vernon K Ward, Edward C Holmes, Tanja Strive
UNLABELLED: Two closely related caliciviruses cocirculate in Australia: rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and rabbit calicivirus Australia 1 (RCV-A1). RCV-A1 causes benign enteric infections in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Australia and New Zealand, while its close relative RHDV causes a highly pathogenic infection of the liver in the same host. The comparison of these viruses provides important information on the nature and trajectory of virulence evolution, particularly as highly virulent strains of RHDV may have evolved from nonpathogenic ancestors such as RCV-A1...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Xing Liu, Bo Hu, Fang Wang, Yanhua Song, Zhiyu Fan, Houjun Wei, Rulong Qiu, Weizhong Xu
Infection with rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) can cause acute liver failure (ALF), leading to severe mortality in rabbits. Inflammatory response, especially the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6, may play major roles in mediating and amplifying the ALF. Among these cytokines, IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine with a central role in various physiological inflammatory and immunological processes. In this study, we found that RHDV infection significantly upregulated IL-6 gene expression in vivo...
December 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 23, 2016: Veterinary Record
Aarón Martin-Alonso, Natalia Martin-Carrillo, Katherine Garcia-Livia, Basilio Valladares, Pilar Foronda
Until the beginning of this decade, the genetic characterization of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) from Iberian Peninsula had revealed the existence of two genogroups, G1 and sporadically G6. In 2010, the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease variant, RHDV2 or RHDVb, was described in France, from where it has rapidly spread throughout Europe, including Iberian Peninsula countries. Nevertheless, although cases of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) have been reported in the Canary Islands, a Spanish archipelago located 100km off the coast of Morocco, no genetic characterization of RHDV had been carried out...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Huimin Guo, Jie Zhu, Yonggui Tan, Chuanfeng Li, Zongyan Chen, Shiqi Sun, Guangqing Liu
In this study, virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) were evaluated for the development of a vaccine against RHDV infection. The VP60 gene was cloned and inserted into a pSMK expression vector containing a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) tag that can promote the soluble expression of heterologous proteins in Escherichia coli cells. After expression and purification of His-SUMO-VP60 and cleavage of the SUMO tag, we found that the RHDV VP60 protein had self-assembled into VLPs with a similar shape and smaller size compared with authentic RHDV capsid...
July 2016: Antiviral Research
Irene Crespo, Beatriz San-Miguel, Diana I Sánchez, Bárbara González-Fernández, Marcelino Álvarez, Javier González-Gallego, María J Tuñón
The sphingosine kinase (SphK)1/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway is involved in multiple biological processes, including liver diseases. This study investigate whether modulation of the SphK1/S1P system associates to the beneficial effects of melatonin in an animal model of acute liver failure (ALF) induced by the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). Rabbits were experimentally infected with 2 × 10(4) hemagglutination units of a RHDV isolate and received 20 mg/kg of melatonin at 0, 12, and 24 hr postinfection...
September 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Galina Burmakina, Nina Malogolovkina, Andrey Lunitsin, Ilya Titov, Sodnom Tsybanov, Alexander Malogolovkin
Since the first introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) in 1986, disease outbreaks have been continuously reported in different regions of Russia. Despite extensive vaccination, sporadic RHD cases are still reported. Here, we examine eleven RHDV strains originating from disease outbreaks occurring between 2003 and 2012 and one widely used vaccine strain. Notable phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity among RHDV strains was observed. The RHDV strains Tambov-2010, Perm-2010, Manihino-09 showed different hemagglutinating activity (HA) at 4 °C and room temperature...
July 2016: Archives of Virology
Nadya Urakova, Natalie Netzler, Andrew G Kelly, Michael Frese, Peter A White, Tanja Strive
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus that causes acute infections in both domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The virus causes significant economic losses in rabbit farming and reduces wild rabbit populations. The recent emergence of RHDV variants capable of overcoming immunity to other strains emphasises the need to develop universally effective antivirals to enable quick responses during outbreaks until new vaccines become available. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a primary target for the development of such antiviral drugs...
April 2016: Viruses
Alicja Trzeciak-Ryczek, Beata Tokarz-Deptuła, Wiesław Deptuła
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly morbid and mortal viral infection of European rabbits. This disease is one of the main causes of death in wild rabbits, and results in large economic losses in farms of rabbits worldwide. Although the first outbreak of this disease was noted in 1984, the pathogenesis of RHD and mechanisms of RHDV (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus) pathogenecity have still not been fully elucidated. Recent studies indicate a role of the immune response, especially peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), in the pathogenesis of this disease...
April 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
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