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Philosophical suicide

Claudia Bozzaro
On March 2, 2017, the Federal Administrative Court in Leipzig ruled: In extreme emergencies, terminally ill people have the right to acquire suicide medications.The purpose of this article is to examine the criteria used to define an "extreme emergency". The first step is to analyze the verdict. This will show that the term "unbearable suffering" plays a crucial role in defining the "extreme emergency". In a next step, two philosophical conceptions of the suffering are presented and analyzed with regard to their respective effects for their application in practice...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Ines Testoni, Lucia Ronconi, Lorenza Palazzo, Michele Galgani, Antonio Stizzi, Kate Kirk
This study describes the psychological effects of an experience of death education (DE) used to explore a case of suicide in an Italian high school. DE activities included philosophical and religious perspectives of the relationships between death and the meaning of life, a visit to a local hospice, and psychodrama activities, which culminated in the production of short movies. The intervention involved 268 high school students (138 in the experimental group). Pre-test and post-test measures assessed ontological representations of death, death anxiety, alexithymia, and meaning in life...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Claudia Bozzaro
Physician-assisted dying (assisted suicide and euthanasia) is currently an intensely discussed topic in several countries. Despite differences in legislation and application, countries with end-of-life laws have similar eligibility criteria for assistance in dying: individuals must be in a hopeless situation and experience unbearable suffering. Hopelessness, as a basic aspect of the human condition, is a central topic in Albert Camus' philosophical work The Myth of Sisyphus, which addresses the question of suicide...
March 20, 2018: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Rajshekhar Chakraborty, Areej R El-Jawahri, Mark R Litzow, Karen L Syrjala, Aric D Parnes, Shahrukh K Hashmi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the religious/spiritual beliefs of followers of the five major world religions about frequently encountered medical situations at the end of life (EoL). METHOD: This was a systematic review of observational studies on the religious aspects of commonly encountered EoL situations. The databases used for retrieving studies were: Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus...
October 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
Thomas E Joiner, Ian H Stanley
When perceiving a dangerous predation threat, mammalian and other species activate antipredator defensive reactions. These include the seemingly paradoxical-but compatible-activation of overarousal (e.g., agitation, insomnia) and "shutdown" (e.g., mutism, withdrawal) states. Acute suicidal crises, too, are characterized by the co-occurrence of overarousal and shutdown behaviors. In the minutes, hours, and days prior to one's death by suicide, it is not uncommon for one to be simultaneously agitated and socially withdrawn, states that resemble antipredator defensive reactions...
2016: Psychiatry
Christian Heslon
Suicide is more frequent in people aged over 75 than in the rest of the population. Is it the fact of feeling too old or of being alone? Is the person fully lucid? The question of responsibility is raised, as is the meaning of the act: the ultimate living gesture or capitulation in the face of death?
May 2016: Soins. Gérontologie
B Carasevici
Although apparently easy to define, the suicidal act or attempt raises complex and difficult problems due to the multitude of conditions and situations that can lead to it. In all cases the suicide's definition has always centred on the intention of one person to deliberately cause his or her death in an active manner. Defining suicide has been consecutively the temptation of philosophers, sociologists, theologians, psychologists and psychiatrists. From an epistemological point of view the suicide is an open concept without precise borders, yet not incoherent...
January 2016: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Jozef Krajčovič
In the article there is the repeatedly submitted experience detailing how death is a fundamental element of our lives, including by ones own hand - suicide, cases of which forensic pathologists are confronted with every day. The subject of suicide has been treated by the public as taboo, while in reality we are confronted by it every day, particularly in forensic medicine, where we are not only obliged, but also find it our duty to inquire as to the reasons, motivation and other factors that have led someone to take their own life voluntarily...
2016: Soudní Lékarství
Salome Grandclerc, Diane De Labrouhe, Michel Spodenkiewicz, Jonathan Lachal, Marie-Rose Moro
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years) expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological) literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors...
2016: PloS One
Luigi Riccioni, Maria Teresa Busca, Lucia Busatta, Luciano Orsi, Giuseppe R Gristina
In the last decade an extensive debate on the topic of end of life decisions has developed in western countries, obtaining a worldwide media relevance. Philosophers, theologians, legal experts and doctors, focus their attention on the three thorny issues of the topic: forgoing treatments, euthanasia and assisted suicide. A thorough and respectful discussion on these issues should include all stakeholders - above all palliative care physicians - and should be encouraged in order to understand the views in favor or against the three practices, checking the different moral positions, and analyzing the cultural, social and legal aspects in the background on one hand, and, on the other, their impact on the health care systems...
March 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Xenia Gonda, Ioanna Koufaki, Thomas Hyphantis, C Robert Cloninger
Bipolar disorder constitutes a challenge for clinicians in everyday clinical practice. Our knowledge concerning this clinical entity is incomplete, and contemporary classification systems are unable to reflect the complexity of this disorder. The concept of temperament, which was first described in antiquity, provides a helpful framework for synthesizing our knowledge on how the human body works and what determines human behavior. Although the concept of temperament originally included philosophical and sociocultural approaches, the biomedical model is dominant today...
January 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Cheryl Cantrell
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de la Bréde et de Montesquieu (1689-1755), the French philosopher who had such an enormous impact on the American constitution through his theory of the separation of powers, had an unusually sympathetic view of suicide. Indeed, he is the only major thinker in Western history to have produced a sustained argument against St. Thomas Aquinas' enormously influential views on this subject. Yet few scholars have attempted to analyze this argument, and none to explain why it was so important to him to make it...
2015: Journal of Psychohistory
Salman Akhtar
After reviewing the pertinent philosophical and psychoanalytic writings on the concept of dignity, this paper proposes three categories of dignity. Conceptualized as phenomenological clusters, heuristic viewpoints, and levels of abstraction, these include (i) metaphysical dignity which extends the concept of dignity beyond the human species to all that exists in this world, (ii) existential dignity which applies to human beings alone and rests upon their inherent capacity for moral transcendence, and (iii) characterological dignity which applies more to some human beings than others since they possess a certain set of personality traits that are developmentally derived...
September 2015: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Ines Testoni, Dorella Ancona, Lucia Ronconi
Since the borders between natural life and death have been blurred by technique, in Western societies discussions and practices regarding death have became infinite. The studies in this area include all the most important topics of psychology, sociology, and philosophy. From a psychological point of view, the research has created many instruments for measuring death anxiety, fear, threat, depression, meaning of life, and among them, the profiles on death attitude are innumerable. This research presents the validation of a new attitude scale, which conjoins psychological dimensions and philosophical ones...
2015: Omega
Paul A Komesaroff, Stephen Charles
Intense debate has continued for many years about whether voluntary euthanasia or assisted suicide should be permitted by law. The community is bitterly divided and there has been vigorous opposition from medical practitioners and the Australian Medical Association. Despite differences of religious and philosophical convictions and ethical values, there is widespread community agreement that people with terminal illnesses are entitled to adequate treatment, and should also be allowed to make basic choices about when and how they die...
May 18, 2015: Medical Journal of Australia
Duncan McKellar, Felicity Ng, Anna Chur-Hansen
OBJECTIVES: Old age psychiatrists work with end-of-life (EOL) issues and encounter patient deaths, but death and dying have received limited focus in old age psychiatry training and research. This qualitative study explores old age psychiatrists' experience of and approach to working with patients at the EOL. METHOD: Australian old age psychiatrists were purposively sampled and interviewed in-depth. Data saturation was achieved after nine participant interviews...
2016: Aging & Mental Health
Peter Hudson, Rosalie Hudson, Jennifer Philip, Mark Boughey, Brian Kelly, Cees Hertogh
OBJECTIVE: Despite the availability of palliative care in many countries, legalization of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) continues to be debated-particularly around ethical and legal issues--and the surrounding controversy shows no signs of abating. Responding to EAS requests is considered one of the most difficult healthcare responsibilities. In the present paper, we highlight some of the less frequently discussed practical implications for palliative care provision if EAS were to be legalized...
October 2015: Palliative & Supportive Care
Julian C Hughes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to set out the recent writings relevant to acquired cognitive impairment in an attempt to reveal some of the underlying conceptual issues. RECENT FINDINGS: The huge strides being taken to diagnose Alzheimer's and other dementias early, including pre-symptomatically, raise important ethical issues. But there are broader conceptual issues too, around the notion of normal ageing. New techniques, such as deep brain stimulation, raise further ethical concerns, but may be relevant to deeper philosophical issues...
March 2015: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Stephen Barrie
This paper considers the problems that arise when death, which is a philosophically difficult concept, is incorporated into healthcare metrics, such as the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). These problems relate closely to the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide because negative QALY scores can be taken to mean that patients would be 'better off dead'. There is confusion in the literature about the meaning of 0 QALY, which is supposed to act as an 'anchor' for the surveyed preferences on which QALYs are based...
August 2015: Journal of Medical Ethics
Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen, Martin Marchman Andersen
This article examines two current debates in Denmark--assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources--and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second-order examinations, what might be called a political philosophical approach. The authors argue that although first-order examination plays an important role in teasing out different moral points of view, in contemporary democratic societies, few, if any, bioethical questions can be resolved satisfactorily by means of first-order analyses alone, and that bioethics needs to engage more closely with second-order enquiries and the question of legitimacy in general...
July 2014: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
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