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Philosophical suicide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724837/can-the-phenomenology-of-a-suicidal-crisis-be-usefully-understood-as-a-suite-of-antipredator-defensive-reactions
#1
Thomas E Joiner, Ian H Stanley
When perceiving a dangerous predation threat, mammalian and other species activate antipredator defensive reactions. These include the seemingly paradoxical-but compatible-activation of overarousal (e.g., agitation, insomnia) and "shutdown" (e.g., mutism, withdrawal) states. Acute suicidal crises, too, are characterized by the co-occurrence of overarousal and shutdown behaviors. In the minutes, hours, and days prior to one's death by suicide, it is not uncommon for one to be simultaneously agitated and socially withdrawn, states that resemble antipredator defensive reactions...
2016: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173624/-suicide-a-philosophical-act-or-an-act-of-depression
#2
Christian Heslon
Suicide is more frequent in people aged over 75 than in the rest of the population. Is it the fact of feeling too old or of being alone? Is the person fully lucid? The question of responsibility is raised, as is the meaning of the act: the ultimate living gesture or capitulation in the face of death?
May 2016: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125089/dilemmas-in-the-attitude-towards-suicide
#3
B Carasevici
Although apparently easy to define, the suicidal act or attempt raises complex and difficult problems due to the multitude of conditions and situations that can lead to it. In all cases the suicide's definition has always centred on the intention of one person to deliberately cause his or her death in an active manner. Defining suicide has been consecutively the temptation of philosophers, sociologists, theologians, psychologists and psychiatrists. From an epistemological point of view the suicide is an open concept without precise borders, yet not incoherent...
January 2016: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108657/-evolution-of-historical-and-social-attitudes-toward-suicide
#4
Jozef Krajčovič
In the article there is the repeatedly submitted experience detailing how death is a fundamental element of our lives, including by ones own hand - suicide, cases of which forensic pathologists are confronted with every day. The subject of suicide has been treated by the public as taboo, while in reality we are confronted by it every day, particularly in forensic medicine, where we are not only obliged, but also find it our duty to inquire as to the reasons, motivation and other factors that have led someone to take their own life voluntarily...
2016: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27089157/relations-between-nonsuicidal-self-injury-and-suicidal-behavior-in-adolescence-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Salome Grandclerc, Diane De Labrouhe, Michel Spodenkiewicz, Jonathan Lachal, Marie-Rose Moro
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years) expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological) literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030222/-forgoing-treatments-a-kind-of-euthanasia-a-scientific-approach-to-the-debate-about-end-of-life-decisions
#6
Luigi Riccioni, Maria Teresa Busca, Lucia Busatta, Luciano Orsi, Giuseppe R Gristina
In the last decade an extensive debate on the topic of end of life decisions has developed in western countries, obtaining a worldwide media relevance. Philosophers, theologians, legal experts and doctors, focus their attention on the three thorny issues of the topic: forgoing treatments, euthanasia and assisted suicide. A thorough and respectful discussion on these issues should include all stakeholders - above all palliative care physicians - and should be encouraged in order to understand the views in favor or against the three practices, checking the different moral positions, and analyzing the cultural, social and legal aspects in the background on one hand, and, on the other, their impact on the health care systems...
March 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735322/the-role-of-temperament-in-the-etiopathogenesis-of-bipolar-spectrum-illness
#7
REVIEW
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Xenia Gonda, Ioanna Koufaki, Thomas Hyphantis, C Robert Cloninger
Bipolar disorder constitutes a challenge for clinicians in everyday clinical practice. Our knowledge concerning this clinical entity is incomplete, and contemporary classification systems are unable to reflect the complexity of this disorder. The concept of temperament, which was first described in antiquity, provides a helpful framework for synthesizing our knowledge on how the human body works and what determines human behavior. Although the concept of temperament originally included philosophical and sociocultural approaches, the biomedical model is dominant today...
January 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26462405/liberty-versus-life-suicide-in-the-writings-of-montesquieu
#8
Cheryl Cantrell
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de la Bréde et de Montesquieu (1689-1755), the French philosopher who had such an enormous impact on the American constitution through his theory of the separation of powers, had an unusually sympathetic view of suicide. Indeed, he is the only major thinker in Western history to have produced a sustained argument against St. Thomas Aquinas' enormously influential views on this subject. Yet few scholars have attempted to analyze this argument, and none to explain why it was so important to him to make it...
2015: Journal of Psychohistory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26356773/some-psychoanalytic-reflections-on-the-concept-of-dignity
#9
Salman Akhtar
After reviewing the pertinent philosophical and psychoanalytic writings on the concept of dignity, this paper proposes three categories of dignity. Conceptualized as phenomenological clusters, heuristic viewpoints, and levels of abstraction, these include (i) metaphysical dignity which extends the concept of dignity beyond the human species to all that exists in this world, (ii) existential dignity which applies to human beings alone and rests upon their inherent capacity for moral transcendence, and (iii) characterological dignity which applies more to some human beings than others since they possess a certain set of personality traits that are developmentally derived...
September 2015: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26152027/the-ontological-representation-of-death-a-scale-to-measure-the-idea-of-annihilation-versus-passage
#10
Ines Testoni, Dorella Ancona, Lucia Ronconi
Since the borders between natural life and death have been blurred by technique, in Western societies discussions and practices regarding death have became infinite. The studies in this area include all the most important topics of psychology, sociology, and philosophy. From a psychological point of view, the research has created many instruments for measuring death anxiety, fear, threat, depression, meaning of life, and among them, the profiles on death attitude are innumerable. This research presents the validation of a new attitude scale, which conjoins psychological dimensions and philosophical ones...
2015: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25971571/a-minimalist-legislative-solution-to-the-problem-of-euthanasia
#11
Paul A Komesaroff, Stephen Charles
Intense debate has continued for many years about whether voluntary euthanasia or assisted suicide should be permitted by law. The community is bitterly divided and there has been vigorous opposition from medical practitioners and the Australian Medical Association. Despite differences of religious and philosophical convictions and ethical values, there is widespread community agreement that people with terminal illnesses are entitled to adequate treatment, and should also be allowed to make basic choices about when and how they die...
May 18, 2015: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25870891/is-death-our-business-philosophical-conflicts-over-the-end-of-life-in-old-age-psychiatry
#12
Duncan McKellar, Felicity Ng, Anna Chur-Hansen
OBJECTIVES: Old age psychiatrists work with end-of-life (EOL) issues and encounter patient deaths, but death and dying have received limited focus in old age psychiatry training and research. This qualitative study explores old age psychiatrists' experience of and approach to working with patients at the EOL. METHOD: Australian old age psychiatrists were purposively sampled and interviewed in-depth. Data saturation was achieved after nine participant interviews...
2016: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25670161/physician-assisted-suicide-and-or-euthanasia-pragmatic-implications-for-palliative-care-corrected
#13
Peter Hudson, Rosalie Hudson, Jennifer Philip, Mark Boughey, Brian Kelly, Cees Hertogh
OBJECTIVE: Despite the availability of palliative care in many countries, legalization of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) continues to be debated-particularly around ethical and legal issues--and the surrounding controversy shows no signs of abating. Responding to EAS requests is considered one of the most difficult healthcare responsibilities. In the present paper, we highlight some of the less frequently discussed practical implications for palliative care provision if EAS were to be legalized...
October 2015: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25594419/conceptual-issues-in-cognitive-impairment
#14
REVIEW
Julian C Hughes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to set out the recent writings relevant to acquired cognitive impairment in an attempt to reveal some of the underlying conceptual issues. RECENT FINDINGS: The huge strides being taken to diagnose Alzheimer's and other dementias early, including pre-symptomatically, raise important ethical issues. But there are broader conceptual issues too, around the notion of normal ageing. New techniques, such as deep brain stimulation, raise further ethical concerns, but may be relevant to deeper philosophical issues...
March 2015: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25082901/qalys-euthanasia-and-the-puzzle-of-death
#15
REVIEW
Stephen Barrie
This paper considers the problems that arise when death, which is a philosophically difficult concept, is incorporated into healthcare metrics, such as the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). These problems relate closely to the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide because negative QALY scores can be taken to mean that patients would be 'better off dead'. There is confusion in the literature about the meaning of 0 QALY, which is supposed to act as an 'anchor' for the surveyed preferences on which QALYs are based...
August 2015: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24867435/bioethics-in-denmark-moving-from-first-to-second-order-analysis
#16
Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen, Martin Marchman Andersen
This article examines two current debates in Denmark--assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources--and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second-order examinations, what might be called a political philosophical approach. The authors argue that although first-order examination plays an important role in teasing out different moral points of view, in contemporary democratic societies, few, if any, bioethical questions can be resolved satisfactorily by means of first-order analyses alone, and that bioethics needs to engage more closely with second-order enquiries and the question of legitimacy in general...
July 2014: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24824203/-the-impartiality-of-ignorance-a-controversy-between-paul-julius-m%C3%A3-bius-and-julius-wagner-jauregg-on-the-symptoms-of-reanimated-persons-after-a-suicide-attempt-through-self-hanging
#17
B Engmann, H Steinberg
INTRODUCTION: Between 1891 and 1893 the famous Austrian and German neuropsychiatrists Julius Wagner-Jauregg and Paul Julius Möbius disputed in leading German and Austrian medical journals about mental and physiological changes and symptoms in people who after strangulation could be revived in time to survive. Their dispute even touched personal issues. METHODS: For the study, the original sources were studied and contrasted with relevant secondary sources. RESULTS: The dispute was mainly about two opposing concepts: On the one hand, Wagner-Jauregg supported an organic, neurological concept; on the other hand a psychoreactive-symptoms concept represented by Möbius and elaborated by him first in his concept of hysteria...
May 2014: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24442743/teaching-psychiatry-let-hollywood-help-suicide-in-the-cinema
#18
S E Hyler, J Moore
Commercial films on videotape may be helpful in teaching medical students and residents about psychiatry. Recommendations are made on the use of specific films to illustrate various aspects of suicide, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, adolescent pressures and suicide, suicide gesture vs. suicide attempt, and the spiritual and philosophical aspects of suicide. In the Appendix, the authors list several dozen films depicting suicide that might be used for teaching purposes.
December 1996: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24190759/the-body-dysmorphic-disorder-patient-to-perform-rhinoplasty-or-not
#19
REVIEW
Panagiotis Ziglinas, Dirk Jan Menger, Christos Georgalas
By virtue of being a (primarily) aesthetic rather than a functional procedure, rhinoplasty is unique among rhinological operations. As such, it raises moral, philosophical and social issues that no other procedure does. The preoperative assessment of a rhinoplasty patient includes a number of considerations that are unique in this type of surgery; during the outpatient consultation, the patient's motivation for surgery, stability and overall psychological evaluation, with a special emphasis on body dysmorphic disorder, have to be taken into consideration...
September 2014: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24145063/premises-and-evidence-in-the-rhetoric-of-assisted-suicide-and-euthanasia
#20
Brian L Mishara, David N Weisstub
In debates about euthanasia and assisted suicide, it is rare to find an article that begins with an expression of neutral interest and then proceeds to examine the various arguments and data before drawing conclusions based upon the results of a scholarly investigation. Although authors frequently give the impression of being impartial in their introduction, they invariably reach their prior conclusions. Positions tend to be clearly dichotomized: either one believes that the practice of euthanasia or assisted suicide is totally acceptable or completely unacceptable in a just and moral society...
September 2013: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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