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Kinematic alignment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154178/the-effect-of-wedge-and-tibial-slope-angles-on-knee-contact-pressure-and-kinematics-following-medial-opening-wedge-high-tibial-osteotomy
#1
Marianne S Black, Agnes G d'Entremont, Robert G McCormack, Gregory Hansen, Derek Carr, David R Wilson
BACKGROUND: High tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure to treat medial compartment osteoarthritis in varus knees. The reported success rates of the procedure are inconsistent, which may be due to sagittal plane alignment of the osteotomy. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changing tibial slope, for a range of tibial wedge angles in high tibial osteotomy, on knee joint contact pressure location and kinematics during continuous loaded flexion/extension. METHODS: Seven cadaveric knee specimens were cycled through flexion and extension in an Oxford knee-loading rig...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128876/internal-femoral-component-malrotation-in-tka-significantly-alters-tibiofemoral-kinematics
#2
Thomas J Heyse, Bilal F El-Zayat, Ronny De Corte, Yan Chevalier, Susanne Fuchs-Winkelmann, Luc Labey
PURPOSE: Femoral component malrotation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is clinically proven to cause dissatisfaction and impaired function. This study is an attempt to characterize the tibiofemoral kinematics following femoral malrotation in posterior stabilized (PS) TKA. It was hypothesized that internal malrotation would introduce the most pronounced changes. METHODS: Six fresh-frozen cadaver specimens were mounted in a kinematic rig. Three motion patterns were applied with the native knee and following PS TKA (passive motion, open chain extension, and squatting) while infrared cameras recorded the trajectories of markers attached to femur and tibia...
November 11, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125560/human-actions-analysis-templates-generation-matching-and-visualization-applied-to-motion-capture-of-highly-skilled-karate-athletes
#3
Tomasz Hachaj, Marcin Piekarczyk, Marek R Ogiela
The aim of this paper is to propose and evaluate the novel method of template generation, matching, comparing and visualization applied to motion capture (kinematic) analysis. To evaluate our approach, we have used motion capture recordings (MoCap) of two highly-skilled black belt karate athletes consisting of 560 recordings of various karate techniques acquired with wearable sensors. We have evaluated the quality of generated templates; we have validated the matching algorithm that calculates similarities and differences between various MoCap data; and we have examined visualizations of important differences and similarities between MoCap data...
November 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114765/operator-bias-errors-are-reduced-using-standing-marker-alignment-device-for-repeated-visit-studies
#4
Laura Hutchinson, Joel B Schwartz, Amy M Morton, Irene S Davis, Kevin Deluzio, Michael J Rainbow
When optical motion capture is used for motion analysis, reflective markers or a digitizer are typically used to record the location of anatomical landmarks identified through palpation. The landmarks are then used to construct anatomical coordinate systems. Failure to consistently identify landmarks through palpation over repeat tests creates artifacts in the kinematic waveforms. The purpose of this work was to improve intra- and inter-rater reliability in determining anatomical landmarks and the associated anatomical coordinate systems using a Marker Alignment Device...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110218/cervical-sagittal-balance-a-biomechanical-perspective-can-help-clinical-practice
#5
REVIEW
Avinash G Patwardhan, Saeed Khayatzadeh, Robert M Havey, Leonard I Voronov, Zachary A Smith, Olivia Kalmanson, Alexander J Ghanayem, William Sears
PURPOSE: In this article, we summarize our work on understanding the influence of cervical sagittal malalignment on the mechanics of the cervical spine. METHODS: Biomechanical studies were performed using an ex vivo laboratory model to study the kinematic and kinetic response of human cervical spine specimens in the setting of cervical sagittal imbalance. The model allowed controlled variations of C2-C7 Sagittal Vertical Alignment (C2-C7 SVA) and T1-Slope so that clinically relevant sagittally malaligned profiles could be prescribed, while maintaining horizontal gaze, and their biomechanical consequences studied...
November 6, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103778/reduced-bearing-excursion-after-mobile-bearing-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasty-is-associated-with-poor-functional-outcomes
#6
Naman Wahal, Sahil Gaba, Rajesh Malhotra, Vijay Kumar, Elise C Pegg, Hemant Pandit
BACKGROUND: A small proportion of patients with mobile unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) report poor functional outcomes in spite of optimal component alignment on postoperative radiographs. The purpose of this study is to assess whether there is a correlation between functional outcome and knee kinematics. METHODS: From a cohort of consecutive cases of 150 Oxford medial UKA, patients with fair/poor functional outcome at 1-year postsurgery (Oxford Knee Score [OKS] < 34, n = 15) were identified and matched for age, gender, preoperative clinical scores, and follow-up period with a cohort of patients with good/excellent outcome (OKS ≥ 34, n = 15)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091512/knee-frontal-plane-projection-angle-a-comparison-study-between-drop-vertical-jump-and-step-down-tests-with-young-volleyball-athletes
#7
Gabriel Andrade Paz, Marianna de Freitas Maia, Haroldo Gualter Santana, Humberto Miranda, Vicente Lima, John D Willson
STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. CONTEXT: Altered frontal plane knee mechanics during dynamic tasks have been often associated with lower extremity injuries. Strategies to decrease these risk factors and improve knee joint stability are often applied in rehabilitation and training environments. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare knee joint frontal plane projection angles (FPPA) via two dimensional (2D) video analysis during drop vertical jump (DVJ) and step-down test (SDT) tasks in the preferred and non-preferred limbs of young male and female volleyball players...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074324/does-calipered-kinematically-aligned-tka-restore-native-left-to-right-symmetry-of-the-lower-limb-and-improve-function
#8
Alexander J Nedopil, Avreeta K Singh, Stephen M Howell, Maury L Hull
BACKGROUND: Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty (KA TKA) strives to restore the native left to right symmetry of the lower limb; however, the reproducibility of achieving this target is unknown. The present study determined the proportion of patients with left to right symmetry and the improvement in patient-reported function after calipered KA TKA. METHODS: A review of 562 postoperative scanograms identified 102 patients (53 women) with a KA TKA in one limb, no other skeletal abnormalities in either limb, and symmetrical rotation between limbs on the scanogram...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067474/restoring-tibiofemoral-alignment-during-acl-reconstruction-results-in-better-knee-biomechanics
#9
Frantzeska Zampeli, Ioannis Terzidis, João Espregueira-Mendes, Jim-Dimitris Georgoulis, Manfred Bernard, Evangelos Pappas, Anastasios D Georgoulis
PURPOSE: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) aims to restore normal knee joint function, stability and biomechanics and in the long term avoid joint degeneration. The purpose of this study is to present the anatomic single bundle (SB) ACLR that emphasizes intraoperative correction of tibiofemoral subluxation that occurs after ACL injury. It was hypothesized that this technique leads to optimal outcomes and better restoration of pathological tibiofemoral joint movement that results from ACL deficiency (ACLD)...
October 24, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054726/a-comparison-of-walking-gait-following-mechanical-and-kinematic-alignment-in-total-knee-joint-replacement
#10
Peter J McNair, Mark G Boocock, Nicholas D Dominick, Richard J Kelly, Bill J Farrington, Simon W Young
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have compared radiological, pain, and function scores in kinematically aligned (KA) and mechanically aligned (MA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA), no previous studies have undertaken a three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis in these groups. This study compared kinematic and kinetic variables recorded during level walking in patients at least 2 years post-surgery who underwent an MA or KA procedure. METHODS: Utilizing a 9-camera motion analysis system, gait analysis was undertaken on 29 patients (MA = 15, KA = 14)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054262/evaluation-of-robotic-surgery-skills-using-dynamic-time-warping
#11
Jingyu Jiang, Yuan Xing, Shuxin Wang, Ke Liang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: accompanied with the wide acceptance of robot assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS), the demand for efficient and objective surgical skills evaluation method is increased. Recently, with the development of medical engineering technology, several evaluation methods have been proposed. Among them, kinematic analysis, an unsupervised and data-based method, has been accepted by many researchers. However, this method is still limited by the number of metrics and unconvinced scoring system...
December 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028621/combining-valgus-knee-brace-and-lateral-foot-wedges-reduces-external-forces-and-moments-in-osteoarthritis-patients
#12
Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero, Anderson S Oliveira, Seyed Hamed Mousavi, Morteza Madadi-Shad
Osteoarthritis progression can be related to the external knee adduction and flexion moments during walking. Lateral foot wedges and knee braces have been used as treatment for osteoarthritis, but little is known about their influence on knee joint moments generated in the sagittal and frontal planes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was determine the effects of the isolated and combined use of valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic on peak forces and moments during gait in knee osteoarthritis patients...
October 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978769/case-studies-in-neuroscience-a-dissociation-of-balance-and-posture-demonstrated-by-camptocormia
#13
Rebecca J St George, Victor S Gurfinkel, Jeff Kraakevik, John G Nutt, Fay B Horak
Upright stance in humans requires an intricate exchange between the neural mechanisms that control balance and those that control posture; however, the distinction between these control systems is hard to discern in healthy subjects. By studying balance and postural control of a participant with camptocormia - an involuntary flexion of the trunk during standing that resolves when supine - a divergence between balance and postural control was revealed. A kinematic and kinetic investigation of standing and walking showed a stereotyped flexion of the upper body by almost 80 degrees over a few minutes, and yet the participant's ability to control their center of mass within their base of support and to compensate for external perturbations remained intact...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963153/do-varus-or-valgus-outliers-have-higher-forces-in-the-medial-or-lateral-compartments-than-those-which-are-in-range-after-a-kinematically-aligned-total-knee-arthroplasty-limb-and-joint-line-alignment-after-kinematically-aligned-total-knee-arthroplasty
#14
T J Shelton, A J Nedopil, S M Howell, M L Hull
AIMS: The aims of this study were to determine the proportion of patients with outlier varus or valgus alignment in kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty (TKA), whether those with outlier varus or valgus alignment have higher forces in the medial or lateral compartments of the knee than those with in-range alignment and whether measurements of the alignment of the limb, knee and components predict compartment forces. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The intra-operative forces in the medial and lateral compartments were measured with an instrumented tibial insert in 67 patients who underwent a kinematically aligned TKA during passive movement...
October 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957404/megachiropteran-bats-profoundly-unique-from-microchiropterans-in-climbing-and-walking-locomotion-evolutionary-implications
#15
Rick A Adams, Richard T Carter
Understandably, most locomotor analyses of bats have focused on flight mechanics and behaviors. However, we investigated nonflight locomotion in an effort to glean deeper insights into the evolutionary history of bats. We used high-speed video (300 Hz) to film and compare walking and climbing mechanics and kinematics between several species of the suborders Megachiroptera (Pteropodidae) versus Microchiroptera (Vespertilionidae and Phyllostomatidae). We found fundamentally distinctive behaviors, functional abilities, and performance outcomes between groups, but nearly homogeneous outcomes within groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953661/comparison-of-kinematic-and-mechanical-alignment-techniques-in-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-meta-analysis
#16
Jung-Ro Yoon, Seung-Beom Han, Min-Kyo Jee, Young-Soo Shin
BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis compared clinical and radiographic outcomes and complications of kinematic alignment (KA) and mechanical alignment (MA) techniques in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: All studies comparing the operation time, change in hemoglobin, length of hospital stay, postoperative complications, and clinical and radiographic outcomes as assessed with various measurement tools, from direct interview to imaging methods, in patients who underwent primary TKA through the KA or MA technique were included...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942008/transport-of-ellipsoid-fibers-in-oscillatory-shear-flows-implications-for-aerosol-deposition-in-deep-airways
#17
Lihi Shachar-Berman, Yan Ostrovski, Alessandro De Rosis, Stavros Kassinos, Josué Sznitman
It is widely acknowledged that inhaled fibers, e.g. air pollutants and anthropogenic particulate matter, hold the ability to deposit deep into the lungs reaching the distal pulmonary acinar airways as a result of their aerodynamic properties; these particles tend to align with the flow and thus stay longer airborne relative to their spherical counterpart, due to higher drag forces that resist sedimentation. Together with a high surface-to-volume ratio, such characteristics may render non-spherical particles, and fibers in particular, potentially attractive airborne carriers for drug delivery...
September 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934918/standardized-measurement-of-sensorimotor-recovery-in-stroke-trials-consensus-based-core-recommendations-from-the-stroke-recovery-and-rehabilitation-roundtable
#18
Gert Kwakkel, Natasha A Lannin, Karen Borschmann, Coralie English, Myzoon Ali, Leonid Churilov, Gustavo Saposnik, Carolee Winstein, Erwin E H van Wegen, Steven L Wolf, John W Krakauer, Julie Bernhardt
Finding, testing and demonstrating efficacy of new treatments for stroke recovery is a multifaceted challenge. We believe that to advance the field, neurorehabilitation trials need a conceptually rigorous starting framework. An essential first step is to agree on definitions of sensorimotor recovery and on measures consistent with these definitions. Such standardization would allow pooling of participant data across studies and institutions aiding meta-analyses of completed trials, more detailed exploration of recovery profiles of our patients and the generation of new hypotheses...
September 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927560/patient-variation-limits-use-of-fixed-references-for-femoral-rotation-component-alignment-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#19
Joshua G Twiggs, David M Dickison, Elizabeth C Kolos, Caitlin E Wilcox, Justin P Roe, Brett A Fritsch, Stephen J McMahon, Brad P Miles, Andrew J Ruys
BACKGROUND: Optimal rotational alignment of the femoral component is a common goal during total knee arthroplasty. The posterior condylar axis (PCA) is thought to be the most reproducible reference in surgery, while the transepicondylar axis (TEA) seems to better approximate the native kinematic flexion axis. This study sought to determine if rules based on patient gender or coronal alignment could allow reliable reproduction of the TEA from the PCA. METHODS: Three-dimensional models based on preoperative computed tomography were made representing a patient's arthritic knee joint...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892670/the-influence-of-sex-and-obesity-on-gait-biomechanics-in-people-with-severe-knee-osteoarthritis-scheduled-for-arthroplasty
#20
K L Paterson, L Sosdian, R S Hinman, T V Wrigley, J Kasza, M Dowsey, P Choong, K L Bennell
BACKGROUND: Sex and body mass may influence knee biomechanics associated with poor total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes for knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to determine if gait differed between men and women, and overweight and class I obese patients with severe knee OA awaiting TKA. METHODS: 34 patients with severe knee OA (average age 70.0 (SD 7.2) years, body mass index 30.3 (4.1kg/m(2))) were recruited from a TKA waiting list. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed at self-selected walking speed...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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