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juglans regia L.

Huanxin Zhao, Hong Bai, Yuanchao Jing, Wei Li, Shujun Yin, Honglei Zhou
Diaphragma juglandis Fructus has been known for its effect on tonifying kidney in traditional Uighur medicine. During our ongoing studies on the discovery of biologically active compounds from folk medicine, a pair of flavanonol glycoside isomers named (2S,3S)-taxifolin-3-O-α-d-arabinofuranoside (1) and (2S,3S)-taxifolin-3-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside (2) were isolated, among them, 1 was a new compound. It is the first report of taxifolin-3-O-arabinofuranosides in both α-d and α-l configuration forms in genus Juglans...
November 17, 2016: Natural Product Research
D Wianowska, S Garbaczewska, A Cieniecka-Roslonkiewicz, A L Dawidowicz, A Jankowska
This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antifungal activity of extracts from walnut green husks of Lake, Koszycki, UO1, UO2 and non-grafted cultivars as well as juglone against the plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Phytophthora infestans as well as Ascosphaera apis causing chalkbrood disease in honey bees. The obtained data show that the antifungal activities of the extracts do not always depend on the antifungal activity of juglone, and that they can be modulated by their other components...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Zahra Gerivani, Elham Vashaee, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour, Mahnaz Aghdasi, Zahra-Sadat Shobbar, Majid Azimmohseni
Tree seed dormancy release by cold stratification accompanies with the embryo increased gluconeogenesis competence. Cyanide also breaks seed dormancy however, integrated information about its effects on carbon metabolism is lacking. Accordingly, the impacts of HCN on germination, lipid gluconeogenesis and sugar transport capacity of walnut (Juglans regia L.) kernels were investigated during 10-days period prior to radicle protrusion. HCN increased walnut kernel germination and within four days of kernel incubation, hastened the decline of starch, reducing and non-reducing sugars and led to greater activities of alkaline invertase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Raheleh Jahanbani, S Mahmood Ghaffari, Maryam Salami, Kourosh Vahdati, Houri Sepehri, Nazanin Namazi Sarvestani, Nader Sheibani, Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi
Walnut (Juglans regia L.) contains approximately 20-25 % protein with abundant essential amino acids. The enzymatic hydrolysate of Persian walnut (Chandler) seed proteins was prepared by incubation with three different proteases, including pancreatic chymotrypsin and trypsin, and a microbial enzyme proteinase K. The hydrolysates were found to possess excellent antioxidant capacities. The peptide fractions scavenged the 2, 2'-anizo-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radicals and inhibited the activity of reactive oxygen species...
September 27, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Antonia Nostro, Alessandra Guerrini, Andreana Marino, Massimo Tacchini, Mara Di Giulio, Alessandro Grandini, Methap Akin, Luigina Cellini, Giuseppe Bisignano, Hatice T Saraçoğlu
The identification of effective antimicrobial agents also active on biofilms is a topic of crucial importance in food and industrial environment. For that purpose methanol extracts of Turkish plants, Ficus carica L., Juglans regia L., Olea europaea L., Punica granatum L. and Rhus coriaria L., were investigated. Among the extracts, P. granatum L. and R. coriaria L. showed the best antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 78-625μg/ml for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and 312-1250μg/ml for Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Gerasimia Tsasi, Tanja Milošević-Ifantis, Helen Skaltsa
Phytochemical research of different polarity extracts from green Juglans regia L. pericarps from Greece afforded 32 compounds: four pentacyclic triterpenes (1-4), three sesquiterpenes (5-7), four tetralones (8-11), two naphthoquinones (12-13), seven phenolic acids (14-20), one diarylheptanoid (21), one neo-lignan (22), seven flavonoids (23-29), two phenylethanoids (30-31) and one hydrolysed tannin (32). Compounds 4 and 29 are isolated for the first time from the species, while compounds 3, 7, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30 are reported for the first time in Juglandaceae...
July 28, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Ming-Chuan Liu, Sheng-Jie Yang, Da Hong, Jin-Ping Yang, Min Liu, Yun Lin, Chia-Hui Huang, Chao-Jih Wang
BACKGROUND: Walnut (Juglans regia L.), that belongs to the Juglandaceae family, is one of the nuts commonly found in Chinese diets. Researchers had obtained peptides from walnut protein hydrolysates, and these peptides exhibited the high antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and convenient method for a facile and reproducible preparation of antioxidant peptides from walnut protein hydrolysates. RESULTS: Walnut proteins were extracted from walnut kernels using continuous countercurrent extraction process, and were separately hydrolyzed with six types of proteases (neutrase, papain, bromelain, alcalase, pepsin, and pancreatin)...
2016: Chemistry Central Journal
Jin Wang, Shuangjie Liang, Huiling Ma, Pingping Zhang, Weina Shi
Fresh walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are in demand due to their high nutrition value and unique flavor of the kernel. In this study the effects of ethephon on decay control and kernel quality of fresh walnuts and its possible relationship with phenolic metabolism were investigated. Fresh in-husk walnuts treated with 0, 10, 500, and 800 mg/L ethephon were stored at 0 ± 0.5 °C for 42 d. Decay incidence, total phenolic (TP) compounds, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), polyphenol-oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) activities of green husks, and acid values (AV) and peroxide values (PV) of kernels were assessed at 6-d intervals...
August 2016: Journal of Food Science
Guodong Rao, Jinkai Sui, Jianguo Zhang
The content of walnut metabolites is related to its nutritive value and physiological characteristics, however, comprehensive information concerning the metabolome of walnut kernels is limited. In this study we analyzed the metabolites of walnut kernels at five developmental stages from filling to ripening using GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics; of a total 252 peaks identified, 85 metabolites were positively identified. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 85 metabolites covered different types of metabolism pathways...
2016: Biology Open
Pedro J Martínez-García, Marc W Crepeau, Daniela Puiu, Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas, Jeanne Whalen, Kristian A Stevens, Robin Paul, Timothy S Butterfield, Monica T Britton, Russell L Reagan, Sandeep Chakraborty, Sriema L Walawage, Hans A Vasquez-Gross, Charis Cardeno, Randi A Famula, Kevin Pratt, Sowmya Kuruganti, Mallikarjuna K Aradhya, Charles A Leslie, Abhaya M Dandekar, Steven L Salzberg, Jill L Wegrzyn, Charles H Langley, David B Neale
The Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.), a diploid species native to the mountainous regions of Central Asia, is the major walnut species cultivated for nut production and is one of the most widespread tree nut species in the world. The high nutritional value of J. regia nuts is associated with a rich array of polyphenolic compounds, whose complete biosynthetic pathways are still unknown. A J. regia genome sequence was obtained from the cultivar 'Chandler' to discover target genes and additional unknown genes...
September 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
D Dzidziguri, M Rukhadze, I Modebadze, E Bakuradze, M Kurtanidze, V Giqoshvili
From the positive effects of the drugs prepared from various parts of walnut described for a wide variety of diseases, their antitumor effect is remarkable. This feature can be used for treatment of leukopenia caused by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Therefore, to study the immunocorrective properties of Greek walnut, the walnut septa were selected, aqueous extract of which has been studied on experimental model of leukopenia in white mice caused by a single injection of cyclophosphamide. The material of the study were the blood and bone marrow smears from intact and tested adult mice stained by Giemsa's dye...
March 2016: Georgian Medical News
Katline Charra-Vaskou, Eric Badel, Guillaume Charrier, Alexandre Ponomarenko, Marc Bonhomme, Loïc Foucat, Stefan Mayr, Thierry Améglio
Freeze-thaw cycles induce major hydraulic changes due to liquid-to-ice transition within tree stems. The very low water potential at the ice-liquid interface is crucial as it may cause lysis of living cells as well as water fluxes and embolism in sap conduits, which impacts whole tree-water relations. We investigated water fluxes induced by ice formation during freeze-thaw cycles in Juglans regia L. stems using four non-invasive and complementary approaches: a microdendrometer, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray microtomography, and ultrasonic acoustic emissions analysis...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Melanie L Downs, Angela Simpson, Adnan Custovic, Aida Semic-Jusufagic, Joan Bartra, Montserrat Fernandez-Rivas, Steve L Taylor, Joseph L Baumert, E N Clare Mills
Thermal processing techniques commonly used during food production have the potential to impact food allergens by inducing physical and/or chemical changes to the proteins. English walnuts (Juglans regia) are among the most commonly allergenic tree nuts, but little information is available regarding how walnut allergens respond to thermal processing. This study evaluated the effects of dry roasting (132 or 180°C for 5, 10, or 20min) on the solubility and immunoreactivity of walnut proteins. A dramatic decrease in walnut protein solubility was observed following dry roasting at 180°C for 20min...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Ulisses P Pereira, Hossein Gouran, Rafael Nascimento, James E Adaskaveg, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Abhaya M Dandekar
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis 417, a copper-resistant strain isolated from a blighted walnut fruit (Juglans regia L. cv. Chandler). The genome consists of a single chromosome (5,218 kb).
2015: Genome Announcements
Irena Matławska, Wiesława Bylka, Ewa Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Beata Stanisz
The constituents of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves are represented by tannins, phenolics, and naphthoquinones, the characteristic compound being juglone. The content of juglone in the methanolic extract of the leaves determined by the GC/MS method was 9.9 ± 0.2 mg/100 g; small amounts (1.3 ± 0.02 mg/100 g) were recorded in the infusion, whereas in the decoction it was not detected. As some studies indicate toxicity of juglone, only decoctions should be recommended for therapeutic use.
July 2015: Natural Product Communications
Paola Pollegioni, Keith E Woeste, Francesca Chiocchini, Stefano Del Lungo, Irene Olimpieri, Virginia Tortolano, Jo Clark, Gabriel E Hemery, Sergio Mapelli, Maria Emilia Malvolti
Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation...
2015: PloS One
Yufeng Zhu, Yanfei Yin, Keqiang Yang, Jihong Li, Yalin Sang, Long Huang, Shu Fan
BACKGROUND: Walnut (Juglans regia, 2n = 32, approximately 606 Mb per 1C genome) is an economically important tree crop. Resistance to anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a major objective of walnut genetic improvement in China. The recently developed specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is an efficient strategy that can obtain large numbers of markers with sufficient sequence information to construct high-density genetic maps and permits detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for molecular breeding...
2015: BMC Genomics
Maria Loreto Contador, Louise H Comas, Samuel G Metcalf, William L Stewart, Ignacio Porris Gomez, Claudia Negron, Bruce D Lampinen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Examination of plant growth below ground is relatively scant compared with that above ground, and is needed to understand whole-plant responses to the environment. This study examines whether the seasonal timing of fine root growth and the spatial distribution of this growth through the soil profile varies in response to canopy manipulation and soil temperature. METHODS: Plasticity in the seasonal timing and vertical distribution of root production in response to canopy and soil water manipulation was analysed in field-grown walnut (Juglans regia 'Chandler') using minirhizotron techniques...
July 2015: Annals of Botany
Dulce Carolina Almonte-Flores, Norma Paniagua-Castro, Gerardo Escalona-Cardoso, Martha Rosales-Castro
Evaluation of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. bark extracts was performed in vitro. Juglans regia showed greater extract concentration and higher antioxidant activity. Hypoglycemic activity in rats was assessed by generating a glucose tolerance curve and determining the area under the curve (AUC). Diabetes was later induced by an injection with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg of b.w.) and confirmed after 24 hours. The extract was administered (200 mg/kg b...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Claudia Ciniglia, Francesco Mastrobuoni, Marco Scortichini, Milena Petriccione
The allelochemical stress on Zea mays was analyzed by using walnut husk washing waters (WHWW), a by-product of Juglans regia post-harvest process, which possesses strong allelopathic potential and phytotoxic effects. Oxidative damage and cell-programmed death were induced by WHWW in roots of maize seedlings. Treatment induced ROS burst, with excess of H2O2 content. Enzymatic activities of catalase were strongly increased during the first hours of exposure. The excess in malonildialdehyde following exposure to WHWW confirmed that oxidative stress severely damaged maize roots...
May 2015: Ecotoxicology
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