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polymeric nanoparticles

Bingrui Ma, Naling Yu, Yuetong Han, Mengchun Gao, Sen Wang, Shanshan Li, Liang Guo, Zonglian She, Yangguo Zhao, Chunji Jin, Feng Gao
The performance, microbial enzymatic activity and microbial community of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) have been explored under magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) stress. The NH4 + -N removal efficiency kept relatively stable during the whole operational process. The MgO NPs at 30-60 mg/L slightly restrained the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the presence of MgO NPs also affected the denitrification and phosphorus removal. The specific oxygen uptake rate, nitrifying and denitrifying rates, phosphorus removal rate, and microbial enzymatic activities distinctly varied with the increase of MgO NPs concentration...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yasmin Abo-Zeid, Richard A Urbanowicz, Brian J Thomson, William L Irving, Alexander W Tarr, Martin C Garnett
Virus infections cause diseases of different severity ranged from mild infection e.g. common cold into life threating diseases e.g. Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B. Virus infections represent 44% of newly emerging infections. Although there are many efficient antiviral agents, they still have drawbacks due to accumulation at off target organs and developing of virus resistance due to virus mutation. Therefore, developing a delivery system that can selectively target drug into affected organs and avoid off target accumulation would be a highly advantageous strategy to improve antiviral therapy...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Kuan-Jung Chen, Cheng-Kang Lee
Dispersin B (DspB) has shown a great potential for the hydrolysis of polymeric β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) to disperse the biofilms formed by various bacteria but with no killing activity. Here we have investigated whether a silver-binding peptide (AgBP) fused to DspB can induce the in situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and conjugated to the structure of DspB so that the bacteria cells released from the dispersed biofilm will be killed by the conjugated AgNP. However, the desired conjugate could be obtained because of the silver ions itself was found to precipitate DspB...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Na Yang, Yanping Ding, Yinlong Zhang, Bin Wang, Xiao Zhao, Keman Cheng, Yixin Huang, Mohammad Taleb, Jing Zhao, Wen-Fei Dong, Lirong Zhang, Guangjun Nie
Multiple cell plasma membranes have been utilized for surface functionalization of synthetic nanomaterials and construction of biomimetic drug delivery systems for cancer treatment. The natural characters and facile isolation of original cells facilitate the biomedical applications of plasma membranes in functionalizing nanocarriers. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been identified to show tropism towards malignant lesions and have great advantages in ease of acquisition, low immunogenicity, and high proliferative ability...
June 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Manuel Toledano-Osorio, Jegdish P Babu, Raquel Osorio, Antonio L Medina-Castillo, Franklin García-Godoy, Manuel Toledano
Polymeric nanoparticles were modified to exert antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria. Nanoparticles were loaded with calcium, zinc and doxycycline. Ions and doxycycline release were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and high performance liquid chromatography. Porphyromonas gingivalis , Lactobacillus lactis , Streptoccocus mutans , gordonii and sobrinus were grown and the number of bacteria was determined by optical density. Nanoparticles were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 10, 1 and 0...
June 14, 2018: Materials
Maryam A Shetab Boushehri, Mona M A Abdel-Mottaleb, Arnaud Béduneau, Yann Pellequer, Alf Lamprecht
This study sought to develop a simple nanoparticle-based approach to enhance the efficiency and tolerability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent ligand of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), for immunotherapy in cancer. Despite holding promise within this context, the strong pro-inflammatory properties of LPS also account for its low tolerability given localized and systemic side effects, which restrict the administrable dosage. Herein, we investigated the effect of LPS decoration as a surface-active molecule on a polymeric matrix upon its efficiency and tolerability...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Franz Pirolt, Otto Glatter, Gregor Trimmel
Monoglycerides form lipophilic liquid-crystalline phases when mixed with water. The corresponding liquid-crystalline nanostructures coexist with excess water, which is a necessary condition for the formation of internally nanostructured dispersed particles. These nanostructures can comprise bicontinuous cubic phases, inverted hexagonal phases, and inverted micellar cubic phases. The dispersed particles are therefore named cubosomes, hexosomes, or micellar cubosomes. Such dispersions are usually stabilized by hydrophilic high-molecular-weight tri-block copolymers...
June 14, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Xiaoshan Fan, Jing Yang, Xian Jun Loh, Zibiao Li
Polymeric Janus nanoparticles with two sides of incompatible chemistry have received increasing attention due to their tunable asymmetric structure and unique material characteristics. Recently, with the rapid progress in controlled polymerization combined with novel fabrication techniques, a large array of functional polymeric Janus particles are diversified with sophisticated architecture and applications. In this review, the most recently developed strategies for controlled synthesis of polymeric Janus nanoparticles with well-defined size and complex superstructures are summarized...
June 13, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Oyetunde Oyeyemi, Olajumoke Morenkeji, Funmilayo Afolayan, Kabiru Dauda, Zulaikha Busari, Jairam Meena, Amulya Panda
Mainstay chemotherapy for malaria is often faced with the problem of instability and poor bio-distribution thus resulting in impaired pharmacokinetics. Nanomedicine has been acclaimed for its success in drug delivery and improved efficacy. The aim of the study was to assess the antiplasmodial efficacy and safety of curcumin-artesunate co-entrapped nanoparticle in mice model. Curcumin (C) and artesunate (A) were loaded in poly (d,l-lactic- co -glycolic acid) (PLGA) using solvent evaporation from oil-in-water single emulsion method...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ana Belen Jorge, Ishanka Dedigama, Thomas S Miller, Paul Shearing, Daniel J L Brett, Paul F McMillan
Carbon nitride materials with graphitic to polymeric structures (gCNH) were investigated as catalyst supports for the proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyzers using IrO₂ nanoparticles as oxygen evolution electrocatalyst. Here, the performance of IrO₂ nanoparticles formed and deposited in situ onto carbon nitride support for PEM water electrolysis was explored based on previous preliminary studies conducted in related systems. The results revealed that this preparation route catalyzed the decomposition of the carbon nitride to form a material with much lower N content...
June 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
Mao Wu, Huiyun Deng, Yajun Fan, Yunchu Hu, Yaping Guo, Lianwu Xie
The overuse of cartap in tea tree leads to hazardous residues threatening human health. A colorimetric determination was established to detect cartap residues in tea beverages by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) sensor with magnetic molecularly imprinted polymeric microspheres (Fe₃O₄@mSiO₂@MIPs) as recognition elements. Using Fe₃O₄ as supporting core, mesoporous SiO₂ as intermediate shell, methylacrylic acid as functional monomer, and cartap as template, Fe₃O₄@mSiO₂@MIPs were prepared to selectively and magnetically separate cartap from tea solution before colorimetric determination by AgNP sensors...
June 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rajesh Katara, Sameer Sachdeva, Dipak K Majumdar
The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate positively charged nanoparticles of aceclofenac for ocular delivery. The nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation method using Eudragit RS 100. The optimized nanoparticles were found to have narrow particle size range (238.9± 8 nm) with nearly spherical shape, positive zeta potential (40.3 ± 3.8). Higher entrapment efficiency of aceclofenac (94.53±1.0%) with prolonged in vitro drug release profiles was also observed. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated decrease in crystallinity of drug within the nanoparticulate polymeric matrix...
June 13, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
David Ulkoski, Carmen Scholz
The interaction of PEGylated poly(amino acid)s with their biological targets depends on their chemical nature and spatial arrangement of their building blocks. The synthesis, self-assembly, and DNA complexation of ABC terblock copolymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol), (PEG), poly(l-lysine), and poly(l-leucine), are reported. Block copolymers are produced by a metal-free, living ring-opening polymerization of respective amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides using amino-terminated PEG as macroinitiator: (PEG-b-p(l-Lys)x -b-p(l-Leu)y , PEG-b-p(l-Leu)x -b-p(l-Lys)y , and PEG-b-p((l-Lys)x -co-p(l-Leu)y )...
June 12, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Chun-Yang Sun, Ziyang Cao, Xue-Jun Zhang, Rong Sun, Chun-Shui Yu, Xianzhu Yang
The simple integration of chemotherapeutic drugs and photosensitizers (PSs) into the same nanocarriers only achieves a combination of chemo-photodynamic therapy but may not confer synergistic effects. The boosted intracellular release of chemotherapeutic drugs during the photodynamic therapy (PDT) process is necessary to achieve a cascade of amplified synergistic therapeutic effects of chemo-photodynamic therapy. Methods: In this study, we explored an innovative hyperbranched polyphosphate (RHPPE) containing a singlet oxygen (SO)-labile crosslinker to boost drug release during the PDT process...
2018: Theranostics
In Heon Lee, Matthew S Palombo, Xiaoping Zhang, Zoltan Szekely, Patrick J Sinko
The feasibility of utilizing the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR4 for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry inhibition and as an intracellular portal for targeted drug delivery was evaluated. Novel DV3 ligands (1DV3, 2DV3, and 4DV3) were designed, synthesized and conjugated to various probes (fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or biotin) and cargos with sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm (polyethylene glycol (PEG), streptavidin, and a polymeric nanoparticle). 4DV3 conjugated probes inhibited HIV-1 entry into the CXCR4-expressing reporter cell line TZM-bl (IC50 at 553 nM) whereas 1DV3 and 2DV3 did not...
June 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Yongjiu Lv, Haisheng He, Jianping Qi, Yi Lu, Weili Zhao, Xiaochun Dong, Wei Wu
Entrapment efficiency (EE) is a crucial parameter for the evaluation of nanocarriers. The accurate measurement of EE demands clear separation of nanocarriers from free drugs, which so far has not been clearly validated due to a lack of functional tools to identify nanocarriers. Herein, an environment-responsive water-quenching fluorophore was employed to label and identify model nanocarriers, polycaprolactone nanoparticles (PN), methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(d,l-lactic acid) polymeric micelles (PM) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Marianna Galliani, Melissa Santi, Ambra Del Grosso, Antonella Cecchettini, Filippo M Santorelli, Sandra L Hofmann, Jui-Yun Lu, Lucia Angella, Marco Cecchini, Giovanni Signore
Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) represent one of the most promising tools in nanomedicine and have been extensively studied for the delivery of water-insoluble drugs. However, the efficient loading of therapeutic enzymes and proteins in polymer-based nanostructures remains an open challenge. Here, we report a synthesis method for a new enzyme delivery system based on cross linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) encapsulation into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NPs. We tested the encapsulation strategy on four enzymes currently investigated for enzyme replacement therapy: palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1; defective in NCL1 disease), galactosylceramidase (GALC; defective in globoid cell leukodystrophy), alpha glucosidase (aGLU; defective in Pompe disease) and beta glucosidase (bGLU; defective in Gaucher's disease)...
June 12, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Takeshi Higuchi, Takashi Gondo, Hiroya Miyazaki, Akemi Kumagai, Keizo Akutagawa, Hiroshi Jinnai
An in situ straining holder capable of tensile deformation and high-angle tilt for electron tomography was developed for polymeric materials. The holder has a dedicated sample cartridge, on which a variety of polymeric materials, such as microtomed thin sections of bulk specimens and solvent-cast thin films, can be mounted. Fine, stable control of the deformation process with nanoscale magnification was achieved. The holder allows large tensile deformation (≃800 μm) with a large field of view (800 × 200 μm before the deformation), and a high tilt angle (±75°) during in situ observations...
June 11, 2018: Microscopy
Zhenqiang Dong, Yang Kang, Qijuan Yuan, Manli Luo, Zhipeng Gu
Designing stimuli responsive, controllable and biocompatible multifunctional nanoparticles is an important progress in the current quest for drug delivery systems. Herein, we devoted to developing a β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based drug delivery nanoparticles (NPs) that release Bovine serum albumin (BSA) via glucose-responsive gate. The design involves synthesis of sodium alginate with β-CD modified (Alg-β-CD) and methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG-Fc) containing ferrocene (Fc) uncharged end-capping. When α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) was added with these two segments, the stable non-covalent supramolecular structure of Alg-β-CD/mPEG-Fc/α-CD can be self-assembled into NPs in aqueous solution...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jiajun Yan, Sipei Li, Francis Cartieri, Zongyu Wang, T Kevin Hitchens, Jody Leonardo, Saadyah E Averick, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski
Novel water-dispersible hybrid iron oxide nanoparticles grafted with a polymeric analogue of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were prepared. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles with immobilized atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiators were prepare via an in situ method using 12-(2-bromoisobutyramido)dodecanoic acid (BiBADA) as a surface ligand/initiator. The initiator-functionalized particles were employed in a surface-initiated initiator for continuous activator regeneration (ICAR) ATRP to graft poly(2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl acrylate) (PMSEA, a polyacrylate analogue of DMSO) from the surface...
June 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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