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Different states of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911815/nicotinic-receptors-in-mouse-prefrontal-cortex-modulate-ultraslow-fluctuations-related-to-conscious-processing
#1
Fani Koukouli, Marie Rooy, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Uwe Maskos
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in cognitive processes, including access to consciousness. The PFC receives significant cholinergic innervation and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) contribute greatly to the effects of acetylcholine signaling. Using in vivo two-photon imaging of both awake and anesthetized mice, we recorded spontaneous, ongoing neuronal activity in layer II/III in the PFC of WT mice and mice deleted for different nAChR subunits. As in humans, this activity is characterized by synchronous ultraslow fluctuations and neuronal synchronicity is disrupted by light general anesthesia...
December 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910995/a-diffusion-tensor-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-paediatric-patients-with-severe-non-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Erika Molteni, Maria A Rocca, Sandra Strazzer, Elisabetta Pagani, Katia Colombo, Filippo Arrigoni, Giacomo Boffa, Massimiliano Copetti, Valentina Pastore, Massimo Filippi
AIM: In this observational study using 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor, we investigated the differential effects of pathology, stage of disease, state of consciousness, and aetiology on the modifications of supra- and infra-tentorial white matter tracts and their correlations with clinical scales in paediatric patients with severe non-traumatic brain injury. METHOD: Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) was obtained from seven children with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS; five males, two females; age at event 5y; standard deviation [SD] 2y 1mo), six children in a minimally conscious state (MCS; three males, three females; age at event 5y 10mo; SD 5y), and 10 healthy children as controls(two males, eight females; age at study 10y 10mo; SD 2y 10mo)...
December 2, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903341/-the-application-of-conscious-sedation-with-a-small-dose-of-dexmedetomidine-and-sufentanil-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-multiple-intestinal-polyps-resection
#3
C M Shi, Y D Zhou, M Xu, X D Wang, L M Meng, X J Liu, X Y Guo
Objective: To explore the effectiveness and feasibility of conscious sedation with a low dose of dexmedetomidine and sufentanil during multiple intestinal polyps resection in elderly patients. Methods: Sixty elderly patients who underwent multiple intestinal polyps resection in Peking University Third Hospital from Janurary to May 2016 were randomly divided into dexmedetomidine group (D group, n=30) and propofol group (P group, n=30). There were 28 males and 32 females with a mean age of (70.4±4.5) years old (range: 65-80 years old)...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891111/editorial-brain-oscillations-and-predictive-coding-in-the-context-of-different-conscious-states-and-sleep-wake-cycle-implications-for-decision-making-and-psychopathology
#4
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887735/influence-of-general-anaesthesia-on-the-brainstem
#5
L Bosch, J Fernández-Candil, A León, P L Gambús
The exact role of the brainstem in the control of body functions is not yet well known and the same applies to the influence of general anaesthesia on brainstem functions. Nevertheless in all general anaesthesia the anaesthesiologist should be aware of the interaction of anaesthetic drugs and brainstem function in relation to whole body homeostasis. As a result of this interaction there will be changes in consciousness, protective reflexes, breathing pattern, heart rate, temperature or arterial blood pressure to name a few...
November 22, 2016: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882170/acute-encephalitis-with-refractory-repetitive-partial-seizures-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Bin Zhang, Lin Wang
A male 46 year-old patient was admitted to the Emergency Intensive Care Unit of Qinghai Provincial People's Hospital (Xining, China) in December 2008 with complaints of a headache and fever that had lasted for three days. In addition, the patient had experienced two general convulsions accompanied with consciousness disorders for 7 h. Although the patient's clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and cerebrospinal fluid examinations were consistent with numerous features associated with acute encephalitis, the patient's clinical course was different to that of acute encephalitis, and the prognosis was poor...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881778/attentive-motion-discrimination-recruits-an-area-in-inferotemporal-cortex
#7
Heiko Stemmann, Winrich A Freiwald
: Attentional selection requires the interplay of multiple brain areas. Theoretical accounts of selective attention predict different areas with different functional properties to support endogenous covert attention. To test these predictions, we devised a demanding attention task requiring motion discrimination and spatial selection and performed whole-brain imaging in macaque monkeys. Attention modulated the early visual cortex, motion-selective dorsal stream areas, the lateral intraparietal area, and the frontal eye fields...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866005/interoception-and-gender-what-aspects-should-we-pay-attention-to
#8
Aida Grabauskaitė, Mindaugas Baranauskas, Inga Griškova-Bulanova
Interoception is involved in both somatic and mental disorders with different prevalence between genders; however, gender differences are often neglected. To examine the potential gender differences in interoceptive awareness, we recruited 376 healthy subjects (51% males, aged 17-30years), to fill in the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA). Of that sample, in a subgroup of 40 subjects (50% males), interoceptive accuracy was assessed by heartbeat counting task (HCT). The results on interroceptive awareness suggest that females tendto notice bodily sensations more often, better understand relations between bodily sensations and emotional states, worry or experience more emotional distress with sensations of pain or discomfort and see body as less safe...
November 17, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858712/self-consciousness-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#9
Eva Ma Arroyo-Anlló, Adèle Turpin Boustonb, Marie-Noëlle Fargeau, Begoña Orgaz Baz, Roger Gil
Self-consciousness (SC) is multifaceted and considered to be the consciousness of one's own mental states. The main aim of this paper is to compare SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Three groups (control and patient groups) of 23 subjects each were assessed using an SC questionnaire. Both types of dementia clearly induce an alteration of SC. The bvFTD group showed a greater impairment in SC than the AD and control groups. The SC score was strongly associated with frontal functions...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856683/the-challenging-experience-questionnaire-characterization-of-challenging-experiences-with-psilocybin-mushrooms
#10
Frederick S Barrett, Matthew P Bradstreet, Jeannie-Marie S Leoutsakos, Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
Acute adverse psychological reactions to classic hallucinogens ("bad trips" or "challenging experiences"), while usually benign with proper screening, preparation, and support in controlled settings, remain a safety concern in uncontrolled settings (such as illicit use contexts). Anecdotal and case reports suggest potential adverse acute symptoms including affective (panic, depressed mood), cognitive (confusion, feelings of losing sanity), and somatic (nausea, heart palpitation) symptoms. Responses to items from several hallucinogen-sensitive questionnaires (Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the States of Consciousness Questionnaire, and the Five-Dimensional Altered States of Consciousness questionnaire) in an Internet survey of challenging experiences with the classic hallucinogen psilocybin were used to construct and validate a Challenging Experience Questionnaire...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854088/long-term-and-strong-immunotherapy-to-treat-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-with-refractory-status-epilepticus
#11
Lan-Hsin Lee, Chien-Jung Lu
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is responsive to immunotherapy and removal of tumor, but there is no consensus in the treatment of severe anti- NMDAR encephalitis with prolonged refractory status epilepticus (SE). CASE REPORT: A 17-year-old girl presented as acute psychosis, refractory seizures, hyperkinesia, autonomic instability, and soon progressed to a dissociative state of coma. Anti-NMDAR antibodies were positive in serum and CSF...
September 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853537/global-field-synchronization-reveals-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-as-most-synchronized-brain-state-in-the-human-eeg
#12
Peter Achermann, Thomas Rusterholz, Roland Dürr, Thomas König, Leila Tarokh
Sleep is characterized by a loss of consciousness, which has been attributed to a breakdown of functional connectivity between brain regions. Global field synchronization (GFS) can estimate functional connectivity of brain processes. GFS is a frequency-dependent measure of global synchronicity of multi-channel EEG data. Our aim was to explore and extend the hypothesis of disconnection during sleep by comparing GFS spectra of different vigilance states. The analysis was performed on eight healthy adult male subjects...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849233/characterization-of-the-motor-performance-of-newborns-in-a-neonatal-unit-of-tertiary-level
#13
Luciana Giachetta, Carla Marques Nicolau, Regina Célia Turola Passos Juliani, Werther Brunow de Carvalho, Vera Lúcia Jornada Krebs
Objective: To characterize the motor performance of newborns in a neonatal unit of tertiary level and compare the results to the values recommended by the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP). Method: Newborns between 34 and 416/7 weeks of corrected gestational age, breathing spontaneously and presenting state of consciousness 4 or 5, according to Brazelton, were included. TIMP was used to evaluate the motor performance. Results: The age groups of 34-35 and 36-37 weeks showed on average TIMP scores similar to the reference values (p>0...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830923/comparison-of-effects-on-dysphagia-and-psychological-state-after-cerebral-infarction-between-chin-tuck-against-resistance-exercise-and-shaker-exercise
#14
Jing Gao, Hui J Zhang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of stroke is high in China. The dysphagia caused by cerebral infarction (CI), seriously affects patients' life quality, and even endangers patients' lives. It is necessary to explore how to improve dysphagia caused by CI. AIM: To compare the effects of rehabilitation training on dysphagia and psychological state after CI between Shaker exercise and chin tuck against resistance (CTAR) exercise. DESIGN: Control study...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825555/neuroticism-traits-selectively-impact-long-term-illness-course-and-cognitive-decline-in-late-life-depression
#15
Kevin J Manning, Grace Chan, David C Steffens
OBJECTIVES: Neuroticism is a broad construct that conveys a predisposition to experience psychological distress and negative mood states. Vulnerability to stress (VS) is one neuroticism trait that has been linked to worse mood and cognitive outcomes in older adults. We hypothesized that elevated VS would be associated with worse illness course and cognitive decline in older adults with late-life major depression (LLD). DESIGN: Participants were enrolled in the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly (NCODE), a longitudinal investigation of the predictors of poor illness course and cognitive decline in LLD...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818813/familial-hemiplegic-migraine-with-severe-attacks-a-new-report-with-atp1a2-mutation
#16
E Martínez, R Moreno, L López-Mesonero, I Vidriales, M Ruiz, A L Guerrero, J J Tellería
Introduction. Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare disorder characterized by migraine attacks with motor weakness during the aura phase. Mutations in CACNA1A, ATP1A2, SCN1A, and PRRT2 genes have been described. Methods. To describe a mutation in ATP1A2 gene in a FHM case with especially severe and prolonged symptomatology. Results. 22-year-old woman was admitted due to migraine-type headache and sudden onset of right-sided weakness and aphasia; she had similar episodes in her childhood. Her mother was diagnosed with hemiplegic migraine without genetic confirmation...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814759/maternal-near-miss-and-predictive-ability-of-potentially-life-threatening-conditions-at-selected-maternity-hospitals-in-latin-america
#17
Bremen De Mucio, Edgardo Abalos, Cristina Cuesta, Guillermo Carroli, Suzanne Serruya, Daniel Giordano, Gerardo Martinez, Claudio G Sosa, João Paulo Souza
BACKGROUND: Every year millions of women around the world suffer from pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum complications. Women who survive the most serious clinical conditions are regarded as to have experienced a severe acute maternal complication called maternal near miss (MNM). Information about MNM cases may complement the data collected through the analysis of maternal death, and was proposed as a helpful tool to identify strengths and weaknesses of health systems in relation to maternal health care...
November 4, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810793/testing-the-significance-of-connectivity-networks-comparison-of-different-assessing-procedures
#18
Jlenia Toppi, Donatella Mattia, Monica Risetti, Rita Formisano, Fabio Babiloni, Laura Astolfi
: Despite the well-established use of partial directed coherence (PDC) to estimate interactions between brain signals, the assessment of its statistical significance still remains controversial. Commonly used approaches are based on the generation of empirical distributions of the null case, implying a considerable computational time, which may become a serious limitation in practical applications. Recently, rigorous asymptotic distributions for PDC were proposed. The aim of this work is to compare the performances of the asymptotic statistics with those of an empirical approach, in terms of both accuracy and computational time...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798256/how-should-neuroscience-study-emotions-by-distinguishing-emotion-states-concepts-and-experiences
#19
Ralph Adolphs
In this debate with Lisa Feldman Barrett, I defend a view of emotions as biological functional states. Affective neuroscience studies emotions in this sense, but it also studies the conscious experience of emotion ("feelings"), our ability to attribute emotions to others and to animals ("attribution", "anthropomorphizing"), our ability to think and talk about emotion ("concepts of emotion", "semantic knowledge of emotion"), and the behaviors caused by an emotion ("expression of emotions", "emotional reactions")...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793075/does-modafinil-improve-the-level-of-consciousness-for-people-with-a-prolonged-disorder-of-consciousness-a-retrospective-pilot-study
#20
Samira Kashinath Dhamapurkar, Barbara A Wilson, Anita Rose, Peter Watson, Agnes Shiel
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Modafinil is best known as a sleep regulator among healthy individuals, but studies suggest that it reduces excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with brain injury. This retrospective pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of Modafinil for people with a prolonged disorder of consciousness and whether those with a traumatic brain injury did better than those with a non-traumatic brain injury. METHOD: Twenty four prolonged disorder of consciousness patients who were prescribed Modafinil, were assessed at least four times both before and during treatment...
October 28, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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