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Different states of consciousness

Amanda C Marshall, Antje Gentsch, Simone Schütz-Bosbach
The notion of predictive coding assumes that perception is an iterative process between prior knowledge and sensory feedback. To date, this perspective has been primarily applied to exteroceptive perception as well as action and its associated phenomenological experiences such as agency. More recently, this predictive, inferential framework has been theoretically extended to interoception. This idea postulates that subjective feeling states are generated by top-down inferences made about internal and external causes of interoceptive afferents...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Zhenhu Liang, Cheng Huang, Yongwang Li, Darren F Hight, Logan J Voss, Jamie W Sleigh, Xiaoli Li, Yang Bai

 Objective. Significant spectral characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns exist in individual patients during re-establishing consciousness after general anesthesia. However, these EEG patterns cannot be quantitatively identified using commercially available depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitors. This study proposed an effective classification method and indices to classify these patterns among patients.
 Approach. Four types of emergence EEG patterns were identified based on EEG data set from 52patients undergoing sevoflurane general anesthesia from two hospitals...
March 7, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Caterina Mosti, Emil F Coccaro
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is highly prevalent, with an estimated occurrence in the United States of more than 1.3 million per year. While one consequence of mTBI is impulsive aggressive behavior, very few studies have examined the relationship between history of mTBI and aggressive behavior in impulsively aggressive individuals. The authors examined the relationship between history of mTBI in a healthy control group (HC; N=453), a control group with psychiatric disorders (PC; N=486), and individuals with intermittent explosive disorder (IED; N=695), a disorder of primary impulsive aggression...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Berno U H Overbeek, Henk J Eilander, Jan C M Lavrijsen, Raymond T C M Koopmans
Visual pursuit (VP) and visual fixation (VF) have been recognized as the first signs of emerging consciousness and, therefore, are considered indicative of the minimally conscious state (MCS). However, debate exists about their status as they are considered either conscious reactions or reflexes. The aim of this study is to review the evidence of the definition, operationalization, and assessment of VP and VF in unconscious patients. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for relevant papers between May 26, 1994 and October 1, 2016...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Yuchen Wang, Lanlan Ma, Xuejiao Wang, Ling Qin
Auditory steady state response (ASSR) and inhibitory gating (IG) are electrophysiological examinations commonly used to evaluate the sensory and cognitive functions of the brain. In some clinic examinations and animal experiments, general anesthesia is necessary to conduct electrophysiological recordings. However, the effects of anesthesia on ASSR and IG remain unclear. For this reason, we recorded local field potentials though electrodes implanted in different brain areas of rats: the auditory cortex (AC), hippocampus (HC), amygdala (AMY), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), and compared the characteristics of ASSR and IG under anesthetized and conscious conditions...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eleonora Tobaldini, Edgar Toschi-Dias, Pietro Davide Trimarchi, Nicola Brena, Angela Comanducci, Silvia Casarotto, Nicola Montano, Guya Devalle
OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC) may show alterations of autonomic function; however, in this clinical population, no data are available on the specific effects of nociceptive stimuli on cardiac autonomic control. Thus, we aimed at investigating the effects of a noxious stimulation on heart rate variability (HRV) in a population of patients with chronic DOC, taking into account different states of consciousness (vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, VS/UWS and minimally conscious state, MCS)...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Yun Li, Shengpei Wang, Chuxiong Pan, Fushan Xue, Junfang Xian, Yaqi Huang, Xiaoyi Wang, Tianzuo Li, Huiguang He
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of general anesthesia (GA) has been explored for hundreds of years, but unclear. Previous studies indicated a possible correlation between NREM sleep and GA. The purpose of this study is to compare them by in vivo human brain function to probe the neuromechanism of consciousness, so as to find out a clue to GA mechanism. METHODS: 24 healthy participants were equally assigned to sleep or propofol sedation group by sleeping ability. EEG and Ramsay Sedation Scale were applied to determine sleep stage and sedation depth respectively...
2018: PloS One
Abdulla Watad, Nicola L Bragazzi, Susanna Bacigaluppi, Howard Amital, Samaa Watad, Kassem Sharif, Bishara Bisharat, Anna Siri, Ala Mahamid, Hakim Abu Ras, Ahmed Nasr, Federico Bilotta, Chiara Robba, Mohammad Adawi
BACKGROUND: Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques play a major role in anesthesiology, even though their importance is often overlooked. In the extant literature, AI approaches, such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), have been underutilized, mainly being used to model patient's consciousness state, to predict the precise amount of anesthetic gases, the level of analgesia, or the need of anesthesiological blocks, among others. In the field of neurosurgery, ANNs have been effectively applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of cerebral tumors, seizures, low back pain, and also to the monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Leo Grandić, Ivna Olić, Zenon Pogorelić, Ivana Mrklić, Zdravko Perko
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of etiology, types of injury, levels of consciousness and the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) values on the selection of treatment modality and survival in patients with injuries of parenchymal abdominal organs. Case records of 224 patients treated for traumatic injury of parenchymal abdominal organs from January 2003 until December 2015 were reviewed. Th e values of ISS and AIS of injury severity were calculated and compared to the values obtained according to the etiology, state of consciousness and survival...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Jesús Escrivá Muñoz, Pedro Gambús, Erik W Jensen, Montserrat Vallverdú
OBJECTIVE: This works investigates the time-frequency content of impedance cardiography signals during a propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the last years, impedance cardiography (ICG) is a technique which has gained much attention. However, ICG signals need further investigation. Time-Frequency Distributions (TFDs) with 5 different kernels are used in order to analyze impedance cardiography signals (ICG) before the start of the anesthesia and after the loss of consciousness...
January 2018: Methods of Information in Medicine
B A Laraia, N E Adler, K Coleman-Phox, C Vieten, L Mellin, J L Kristeller, M Thomas, N E Stotland, R H Lustig, M F Dallman, F M Hecht, N R Bush, C L de Groat, E Epel
Background High stress and depression during pregnancy are risk factors for worsened health trajectories for both mother and offspring. This is also true for pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. Reducing stress and depression may be one path to prevent excessive caloric intake and gestational weight gain. Study Purpose We tested the feasibility of two novel interventions aimed at reducing stress and overeating during pregnancy. Reflecting different theoretical underpinnings, the interventions target different mechanisms...
February 17, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
D M Mateos, R Guevara Erra, R Wennberg, J L Perez Velazquez
Quantification of complexity in neurophysiological signals has been studied using different methods, especially those from information or dynamical system theory. These studies have revealed a dependence on different states of consciousness, and in particular that wakefulness is characterized by a greater complexity of brain signals, perhaps due to the necessity for the brain to handle varied sensorimotor information. Thus, these frameworks are very useful in attempts to quantify cognitive states. We set out to analyze different types of signals obtained from scalp electroencephalography (EEG), intracranial EEG and magnetoencephalography recording in subjects during different states of consciousness: resting wakefulness, different sleep stages and epileptic seizures...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Angelina Cistaro, Giuliano Lo Bianco, Piercarlo Fania, Simone Margotti, Simone Vigneri, Cristina Geraci, Natale Quartuccio
We report the case of a 59-year-old male patient suffering from locked-in syndrome (LIS) following basilar artery thrombosis despite an attempt of thrombolysis. Neurological examination showed quadriplegia and aphonia and a state of coma requiring mechanical ventilation was diagnosed. The use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) allowed to detect a normal 18F-FDG uptake in the main cerebral cortical areas and a significant reduction of 18F-FDG uptake in both cerebellar hemispheres, compatible with a functional deafferentation, helping confirming the clinical suspicion of LIS...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Emilio Portaccio, Azzurra Morrocchesi, Anna Maria Romoli, Bahia Hakiki, Maria Pia Taglioli, Elena Lippi, Martina Di Renzone, Antonello Grippo, Claudio Macchi
OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the prognostic utility of serial assessment on the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) during the first 4 weeks of intensive rehabilitation in patients surviving from severe brain injury DESIGN: prospective cohort study PARTICIPANTS: Patients consecutively admitted to the Intensive Rehabilitation Unit at the IRCCS Don Gnocchi Foundation (Florence, Italy). Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) due to acquired brain injury, age older than 18 years...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Demetrio Milardi, Antonino Cannavò, Alfredo Manuli, Antonio Buda, Carmela Casella, Placido Bramanti, Alberto Cacciola, Alessia Bramanti
Advanced functional neuroimaging approaches dealing with motor imagery have disclosed covert cognitive processes in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC). However, motor impairment and cognitive-motor dissociation can bias such approaches. Fourteen patients with post-traumatic DoC and ten healthy controls (HC) were provided with three motor tasks related to mirror neuron system (MNS) activation (movement observation, movement execution, and passive motor imagery of a movement) while recording electroencephalographic (EEG) metrics [EEG power and Granger Casualty Index (GCI)] to detect residual signs of conscious awareness...
February 7, 2018: Brain Topography
Fady Girgis, Darrin J Lee, Amir Goodarzi, Jochen Ditterich
Piaget's genetic epistemology has provided the constructivist approach upon which child developmental theories were founded, in that infants are thought to progress through distinct cognitive stages until they reach maturity in their early 20's. However, it is now well established that cognition continues to develop after early adulthood, and several "neo-Piagetian" theories have emerged in an attempt to better characterize adult cognitive development. For example, Kegan's Constructive Developmental Theory (CDT) argues that the thought processes used by adults to construct their reality change over time, and reaching higher stages of cognitive development entails becoming objectively aware of emotions and beliefs that were previously in the realm of the subconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Camila Sanz, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology ("what it feels like" to experience these states) is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Calixto Machado, Mario Estévez, Rafael Rodriguez-Rojas
Sutton and Clauss presented a detailed review about the effectiveness of zolpidem, discussing recoveries from brain damage due to strokes, trauma and hypoxia. A significant finding has been the unexpected and paradoxical increment of brain activity in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS). On the contrary, zolpidem is considered one of the best sleep inducers in normal subjects. We have studied series of VS/UWS cases after zolpidem intake. We have demonstrated EEG activation, increment of BOLD signal in different brain regions, and an autonomic influence, mainly characterized by a vagolytic chronotropic effect without a significant increment of the vasomotor sympathetic tone...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Anastasia Mangiaruga, Serena Scarpelli, Chiara Bartolacci, Luigi De Gennaro
Brain and sleep maturation covary across different stages of life. At the same time, dream generation and dream recall are intrinsically dependent on the development of neural systems. The aim of this paper is to review the existing studies about dreaming in infancy, adulthood, and the elderly stage of life, assessing whether dream mentation may reflect changes of the underlying cerebral activity and cognitive processes. It should be mentioned that some evidence from childhood investigations, albeit still weak and contrasting, revealed a certain correlation between cognitive skills and specific features of dream reports...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Jianfeng Zhang, Zirui Huang, Yali Chen, Jun Zhang, Diana Ghinda, Yuliya Nikolova, Jinsong Wu, Jianghui Xu, Wenjie Bai, Ying Mao, Zhong Yang, Niall Duncan, Pengmin Qin, Hao Wang, Bing Chen, Xuchu Weng, Georg Northoff
Which temporal features that can characterize different brain states (i.e., consciousness or unconsciousness) is a fundamental question in the neuroscience of consciousness. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we investigated the spatial patterns of two temporal features: the long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs), measured by power-law exponent (PLE), and temporal variability, measured by standard deviation (SD) during wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. We found that both PLE and SD showed global reductions across the whole brain during anesthetic state comparing to wakefulness...
January 28, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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