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Different states of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938276/anesthesia-with-dexmedetomidine-and-low-dose-isoflurane-increases-solute-transport-via-the-glymphatic-pathway-in-rat-brain-when-compared-with-high-dose-isoflurane
#1
Helene Benveniste, Hedok Lee, Fengfei Ding, Qian Sun, Ehab Al-Bizri, Rany Makaryus, Stephen Probst, Maiken Nedergaard, Elliot A Stein, Hanbing Lu
BACKGROUND: The glymphatic pathway transports cerebrospinal fluid through the brain, thereby facilitating waste removal. A unique aspect of this pathway is that its function depends on the state of consciousness of the brain and is associated with norepinephrine activity. A current view is that all anesthetics will increase glymphatic transport by inducing unconsciousness. This view implies that the effect of anesthetics on glymphatic transport should be independent of their mechanism of action, as long as they induce unconsciousness...
September 22, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926151/hospital-in-the-home-nurses-recognition-and-response-to-clinical-deterioration
#2
Erika Gray, Judy Currey, Julie Considine
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To obtain an understanding of how HITH (Hospital in the Home) nurses recognise and respond to clinical deterioration in patients receiving care at home or in their usual place of residence. BACKGROUND: Recognising and responding to clinical deterioration is an international safety priority and a key nursing responsibility. Despite an increase in care delivery in home environments, how HITH nurses recognise and respond to clinical deterioration is not yet fully understood...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922361/impact-of-four-different-recumbencies-on-the-distribution-of-ventilation-in-conscious-or-anaesthetized-spontaneously-breathing-beagle-dogs-an-electrical-impedance-tomography-study
#3
Tamas D Ambrisko, Johannes P Schramel, Ulrike Auer, Yves P S Moens
The aim was to examine the effects of recumbency and anaesthesia on distribution of ventilation in beagle dogs using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Nine healthy beagle dogs, aging 3.7±1.7 (mean±SD) years and weighing 16.3±1.6 kg, received a series of treatments in a fixed order on a single occasion. Conscious dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency (RLR) and equipped with 32 EIT electrodes around the thorax. Following five minutes of equilibration, two minutes of EIT recordings were made in each recumbency in the following order: RLR, dorsal (DR), left (LLR) and sternal (SR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914138/the-role-of-conscious-attention-in-how-weight-serves-as-an-embodiment-of-importance
#4
Colin A Zestcott, Jeff Stone, Mark J Landau
Inconsistency among findings in the embodied cognition literature suggests a need for theoretical boundary conditions. The current research proposes that conscious attention of a bodily state can moderate its influence on social judgment. Three studies tested this possibility in the case of the demonstrated effect of weight sensations on judgments of an abstract idea's importance. Studies 1 and 2 showed that participants rated a topic as more important when holding a moderately heavy, compared with light, clipboard...
August 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882629/intracranial-markers-of-conscious-face-perception-in-humans
#5
Fabiano Baroni, Jochem van Kempen, Hiroto Kawasaki, Christopher K Kovach, Hiroyuki Oya, Matthew A Howard, Ralph Adolphs, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Investigations of the neural basis of consciousness have greatly benefited from protocols that involve the presentation of stimuli at perceptual threshold, enabling the assessment of the patterns of brain activity that correlate with conscious perception, independently of any changes in sensory input. However, the comparison between perceived and unperceived trials would be expected to reveal not only the core neural substrate of a particular conscious perception, but also aspects of brain activity that facilitate, hinder or tend to follow conscious perception...
September 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872658/evidence-of-hysteresis-in-propofol-pharmacodynamics
#6
P O Sepúlveda, E Carrasco, L F Tapia, M Ramos, F Cruz, P Conget, Q F B Olivares, I Cortínez
It is commonly assumed that loss of responsiveness and recovery of responsiveness occur at similar concentrations of propofol. However, the 'conscious' and 'anaesthetised' conditions produced by general anaesthetics may behave as two bistable states. We hypothesised that loss of responsiveness and recovery of responsiveness occur at different propofol concentrations. Propofol was administered to 19 healthy volunteers by effect-site target-controlled infusion using increasing and decreasing stable concentration steps of 7 min...
September 5, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871712/some-quantitative-eeg-features-in-default-mode-resting-state-network-under-general-anaesthesia
#7
Peter Jombík, Michal Drobny, Beata Saniova, Martin Fischer, Petra Kaderjaková, Marianna Lajčiaková, Erika Bakosova, Eva Drobna, Petr Bob, Vladimír Nosáľ
OBJECTIVES: The default mode resting state network (DMRSN) constitutes a circuit which is active in conditions when the subject is at rest. We tested the hypothesis that its function will be altered during unconsciousness. METHODS: Changes in the mean squared coherences in five conventional frequency bands (delta to gamma) in DMRSN during general anaesthesia (GA) were investigated in 39 patients. They were compared with the normal EEG of 86 alert subjects, severely abnormal EEG of 112 patients with dementia and/or encephalopathy, and the mathematical model of brain death...
August 5, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863720/harmonic-brain-modes-a-unifying-framework-for-linking-space-and-time-in-brain-dynamics
#8
Selen Atasoy, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Joel Pearson
A fundamental characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is coherent oscillations covering a wide range of frequencies. Interestingly, these temporal oscillations are highly correlated among spatially distributed cortical areas forming structured correlation patterns known as the resting state networks, although the brain is never truly at "rest." Here, we introduce the concept of harmonic brain modes-fundamental building blocks of complex spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity. We define these elementary harmonic brain modes as harmonic modes of structural connectivity; that is, connectome harmonics, yielding fully synchronous neural activity patterns with different frequency oscillations emerging on and constrained by the particular structure of the brain...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855866/structure-function-revisited-a-simple-tool-for-complex-analysis-of-neuronal-activity
#9
Federico Nanni, Daniela S Andres
Neural systems are characterized by their complex dynamics, reflected on signals produced by neurons and neuronal ensembles. This complexity exhibits specific features in health, disease and in different states of consciousness, and can be considered a hallmark of certain neurologic and neuropsychiatric conditions. To measure complexity from neurophysiologic signals, a number of different nonlinear tools of analysis are available. However, not all of these tools are easy to implement, or able to handle clinical data, often obtained in less than ideal conditions in comparison to laboratory or simulated data...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854742/impact-of-alternative-electrical-stunning-parameters-on-the-ability-of-broilers-to-recover-consciousness-and-meat-quality
#10
D V Bourassa, B C Bowker, H Zhuang, K M Wilson, C E Harris, R J Buhr
Broilers in the United States are typically electrically stunned using low voltage-high frequency (12-38 V, ≥400 Hz) DC or AC water bath stunners. In the European Union, however, broilers are required to be electrocuted using high voltage-low frequency (50-150 V, 50-350 Hz) AC. Low voltage stunned broilers regain consciousness in the absence of bleeding. In contrast, high voltage stunned broilers die due to induction of cardiac fibrillation. For birds stunned with low voltage systems, concerns have been raised regarding animal welfare during bleeding...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846696/the-hypnotic-state-and-eye-movements-less-there-than-meets-the-eye
#11
Etzel Cardeña, Barbara Nordhjem, David Marcusson-Clavertz, Kenneth Holmqvist
Responsiveness to hypnotic procedures has been related to unusual eye behaviors for centuries. Kallio and collaborators claimed recently that they had found a reliable index for "the hypnotic state" through eye-tracking methods. Whether or not hypnotic responding involves a special state of consciousness has been part of a contentious debate in the field, so the potential validity of their claim would constitute a landmark. However, their conclusion was based on 1 highly hypnotizable individual compared with 14 controls who were not measured on hypnotizability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836922/a-neutral-control-condition-for-hypnosis-experiments-wiki-text
#12
Katalin Varga, Zoltán Kekecs, P S Myhre, Emese Józsa
A new control condition called Wiki is introduced. Key themes of each test suggestion of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C, were matched by a corresponding extract from Wikipedia.org. The authors compared phenomenological reports of participants across 4 conditions: hypnosis split into high and low hypnotizable subgroups, music, and Wiki condition, using the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. High hypnotizables undergoing hypnosis reported higher altered experience and altered states of awareness than individuals in the Wiki condition, supporting the authors' hypothesis that the Wiki condition does not evoke an altered state of consciousness (internal dialogue, volitional control, and self-awareness did not differ)...
October 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810588/chronic-disorders-of-consciousness
#13
Qiuyou Xie, Xiaoxiao Ni, Ronghao Yu, Yuanqing Li, Ruiwang Huang
Over the last 20 years, studies have provided greater insight into disorders of consciousness (DOC), also known as altered state of consciousness. Increased brain residual functions have been identified in patients with DOC due to the successful application of novel next-generation imaging technologies. Many unconscious patients have now been confirmed to retain considerable cognitive functions. It is hoped that greater insight regarding the psychological state of patients may be achieved through the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging and brain-computer interfaces...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800575/disruption-of-frontal-parietal-connectivity-during-conscious-sedation-by-propofol-administration
#14
Pil-Jong Kim, Hong-Gee Kim, Gyu-Jeong Noh, Yong-Seo Koo, Teo Jeon Shin
The sedative state is a transitional state from wakefulness to general anesthesia. However, little is understood regarding the mechanism of conscious sedation, different from general anesthesia while maintaining wakefulness. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in functional connectivity of the parietal-frontal network, implicated in wakefulness during conscious sedation induced by propofol infusion. The electroencephalography was obtained at the frontal and parietal areas of adult volunteers who maintain wakefulness during low-dose propofol infusion (1...
September 27, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760626/how-do-the-brain-s-time-and-space-mediate-consciousness-and-its-different-dimensions-temporo-spatial-theory-of-consciousness-ttc
#15
REVIEW
Georg Northoff, Zirui Huang
Time and space are the basic building blocks of nature. As a unique existent in nature, our brain exists in time and takes up space. The brain's activity itself also constitutes and spreads in its own (intrinsic) time and space that is crucial for consciousness. Consciousness is a complex phenomenon including different dimensions: level/state, content/form, phenomenal aspects, and cognitive features. We propose a Temporo-spatial Theory of Consciousness (TTC) focusing primarily on the temporal and spatial features of the brain activity...
July 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751260/identification-of-appropriate-qtc-formula-in-beagle-dogs-for-nonclinical-safety-assessment
#16
Shitalkumar Patel, Laxit Bhatt, Rajesh Patel, Chitrang Shah, Vipul Patel, Jitendra Patel, Rajesh Sundar, Upendra Bhatnagar, Mukul Jain
A number of drugs belonging to different therapeutic classes cause increase in QT interval duration, and this change has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias. Investigation of changes in QT intervals in toxicity studies in dogs is therefore of potential value. Estimation of a direct effect of drugs on the duration of the QT interval can be confused by drug-induced increases in heart rate. The objective of this evaluation was to identify an appropriate correction formula by comparing different formulae that could appropriately correct changes in QT interval in conscious beagle dogs in toxicology studies...
July 25, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750884/predictive-value-of-eeg-in-postanoxic-encephalopathy-a-quantitative-model-based-approach
#17
Evdokia Efthymiou, Roland Renzel, Christian R Baumann, Rositsa Poryazova, Lukas L Imbach
INTRODUCTION: The majority of comatose patients after cardiac arrest do not regain consciousness due to severe postanoxic encephalopathy. Early and accurate outcome prediction is therefore essential in determining further therapeutic interventions. The electroencephalogram is a standardized and commonly available tool used to estimate prognosis in postanoxic patients. The identification of pathological EEG patterns with poor prognosis relies however primarily on visual EEG scoring by experts...
July 24, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746883/comparing-undergraduate-and-community-recruited-adult-non-gamblers-motives-for-not-gambling-do-they-differ
#18
Christina L Rash, Hyoun S Kim, David C Hodgins, Daniel S McGrath
The field of gambling studies has extensively focused on isolating risk factors for developing a gambling disorder. Conversely, little attention has been paid to identifying protective factors against gambling disorder among people who choose to not gamble at all. Moreover, the limited number of studies that have focused on non-gamblers have neglected to differentiate current from lifetime non-gamblers. The purpose of the present study was to examine motives for not gambling among a diverse sample of adult lifetime non-gamblers recruited from the community and to compare these motives to an undergraduate student sample of non-gamblers from a previous study...
July 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743752/thalamocortical-synchronization-during-induction-and-emergence-from-propofol-induced-unconsciousness
#19
Francisco J Flores, Katharine E Hartnack, Amanda B Fath, Seong-Eun Kim, Matthew A Wilson, Emery N Brown, Patrick L Purdon
General anesthesia (GA) is a reversible drug-induced state of altered arousal required for more than 60,000 surgical procedures each day in the United States alone. Sedation and unconsciousness under GA are associated with stereotyped electrophysiological oscillations that are thought to reflect profound disruptions of activity in neuronal circuits that mediate awareness and cognition. Computational models make specific predictions about the role of the cortex and thalamus in these oscillations. In this paper, we provide in vivo evidence in rats that alpha oscillations (10-15 Hz) induced by the commonly used anesthetic drug propofol are synchronized between the thalamus and the medial prefrontal cortex...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740471/no-evidence-of-narrowly-defined-cognitive-penetrability-in-unambiguous-vision
#20
Nikki A Lammers, Edward H de Haan, Yair Pinto
The classical notion of cognitive impenetrability suggests that perceptual processing is an automatic modular system and not under conscious control. Near consensus is now emerging that this classical notion is untenable. However, as recently pointed out by Firestone and Scholl, this consensus is built on quicksand. In most studies claiming perception is cognitively penetrable, it remains unclear which actual process has been affected (perception, memory, imagery, input selection or judgment). In fact, the only available "proofs" for cognitive penetrability are proxies for perception, such as behavioral responses and neural correlates...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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