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Different states of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160761/fronto-parietal-coherence-response-to-tdcs-modulation-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#1
Yang Bai, Xiaoyu Xia, Yong Wang, Yongkun Guo, Yi Yang, Jianghong He, Xiaoli Li
A transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol (2 min, 2 mA, anodal electrode at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathodal electrode at the right supraorbital area) was applied in patients with different degrees of disorders of consciousness (DoC). Although previous research indicates that it could improve patients' coma recovery scale-revised (CRS-R) scores, the brain's electrophysiological responses to tDCS are still unclear. Therefore, the present study was performed to explore the underlying brain responses of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) and a Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) to tDCS modulation...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156989/survival-and-consciousness-recovery-are-better-in-the-minimally-conscious-state-than-in-the-vegetative-state
#2
Frédéric Faugeras, Benjamin Rohaut, Mélanie Valente, Jacobo Sitt, Sophie Demeret, Francis Bolgert, Nicolas Weiss, Alexandra Grinea, Clémence Marois, Marion Quirins, Athena Demertzi, Federico Raimondo, Damien Galanaud, Marie-Odile Habert, Denis Engemann, Louis Puybasset, Lionel Naccache
BACKGROUND: The prognosis value of early clinical diagnosis of consciousness impairment is documented by an extremely limited number of studies, whereas it may convey important information to guide medical decisions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at determining if patients diagnosed at an early stage (<90 days after brain injury) as being in the minimally conscious state (MCS) have a better prognosis than patients in the vegetative state/Unresponsive Wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS), independent of care limitations or withdrawal decisions...
November 20, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156922/changes-in-laser-evoked-potentials-during-hypnotic-analgesia-for-chronic-pain-a-pilot-study
#3
Giovanna Squintani, Maria P Brugnoli, Emanuela Pasin, Alessia Segatti, Elisa Concon, Enrico Polati, Bruno Bonetti, Angela Matinella
BACKGROUND: Hypnotic analgesia is one of the most effective nonpharmacological methods for pain control. Hypnosis and distraction of attention from pain might share similar mechanisms by which brain responses to painful stimulation could be similarly reduced in both states. There is ample evidence for the efficacy of clinical hypnosis as a psychological intervention in the treatment of acute or chronic pain. Results are conflicting, however, with some studies showing an increase, others a reduction, and others still no change in the amplitude of event-related brain potentials during hypnosis as compared to control conditions...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147146/relationships-between-short-and-fast-brain-timescales
#4
Eva Déli, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Brain electric activity exhibits two important features: oscillations with different timescales, characterized by diverse functional and psychological outcomes, and a temporal power law distribution. In order to further investigate the relationships between low- and high- frequency spikes in the brain, we used a variant of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem which states that, when we assess the nervous activity as embedded in a sphere equipped with a fractal dimension, we achieve two antipodal points with similar features (the slow and fast, scale-free oscillations)...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146105/content-validation-of-behaviours-and-autonomic-responses-for-the-assessment-of-pain-in-critically-ill-adults-with-a-brain-injury
#5
Céline Gélinas, Kathleen A Puntillo, Madalina Boitor, Mélanie Bérubé, Jane Topolovec-Vranic, Anne-Sylvie Ramelet, Aaron M Joffe, Melissa Richard-Lalonde, Francis Bernard, David L Streiner
BACKGROUND: The evidence shows that brain-injured patients express behaviours that are related to their level of consciousness (LOC), and different from other patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, existing behavioural scales should be revised to enhance their content and validity for use in these patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the content relevance of behaviours and autonomic responses for pain assessment of brain-injured ICU patients from the perspective of critical care clinicians...
November 13, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128469/the-different-patterns-of-seizure-induced-aphasia-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsies
#6
Agnès Trebuchon, Isabelle Lambert, Bernard Guisiano, Aileen McGonigal, Charline Perot, Francesca Bonini, Romain Carron, Catherine Liegeois-Chauvel, Patrick Chauvel, Fabrice Bartolomei
OBJECTIVES: Ictal language disturbances may occur in dominant hemisphere temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but little is known about the precise anatomoelectroclinical correlations. This study investigated the different facets of ictal aphasia in intracerebrally recorded TLE. METHODS: Video-stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recordings of 37 seizures in 17 right-handed patients with drug-resistant TLE were analyzed; SEEG electroclinical correlations between language disturbance and involvement of temporal lobe structures were assessed...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125496/consciousness-in-hibernation-and-synthetic-torpor
#7
Matteo Cerri
While human hibernation would provide many advantages for medical applications and space exploration, the intrinsic risks of the procedure itself, as well as those involved if the procedure were to be misused, need to be assessed. Moreover, the distinctive brain state that is present during a hibernation-like state raises questions regarding the state of consciousness of the subject. Since, in animal studies, the cortical activity of this state differs from that of sleep, coma, or even general anesthesia, and resembles a sort of "slowed wakefulness", it is uncertain whether residual consciousness may still be present...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121879/hypnotic-susceptibility-and-affective-states-in-bipolar-i-and-ii-disorders
#8
Bingren Zhang, Jiawei Wang, Qisha Zhu, Guorong Ma, Chanchan Shen, Hongying Fan, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Highly hypnotizable individuals have impaired executive function, elevated motor impulsivity and increased emotional sensitivity, which are sometimes found in bipolar disorder patients. It is then reasonable to assume that certain aspects of hypnotic susceptibility differ with the types of bipolar disorder. METHODS: The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSS:C) test, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32) and the Plutchick-van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP) were applied to 62 patients with bipolar I disorder, 33 bipolar II disorder, and 120 healthy volunteers...
November 9, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121293/brain-functional-connectivity-differentiates-dexmedetomidine-from-propofol-and-natural-sleep
#9
P Guldenmund, A Vanhaudenhuyse, R D Sanders, J Sleigh, M A Bruno, A Demertzi, M A Bahri, O Jaquet, J Sanfilippo, K Baquero, M Boly, J F Brichant, S Laureys, V Bonhomme
Background: We used functional connectivity measures from brain resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify human neural correlates of sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol and their similarities with natural sleep. Methods: Connectivity within the resting state networks that are proposed to sustain consciousness generation was compared between deep non-rapid-eye-movement (N3) sleep, dexmedetomidine sedation, and propofol sedation in volunteers who became unresponsive to verbal command...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111501/understanding-variability-in-driving-recommendations-for-patients-with-seizures
#10
Sidrah Mahmud, Sean T Hwang
BACKGROUND: There is lack of consensus regarding driving restrictions for patients with epilepsy. Regulations vary by state. New York State (NYS) recommends driving restrictions for one year in a person with an episode of loss of consciousness (LOC), with physician discretion. Often, providers make recommendations to permit their patients to drive after a shorter seizure-free period than proposed guidelines. The prevalence and reasons behind more lenient recommendations have not been elucidated...
October 27, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111359/role-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-explicit-and-implicit-aspects-of-cognitive-flexibility-under-socially-conflicting-situations-a-resting-state-fmri-study-using-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations
#11
Junya Fujino, Shisei Tei, Kathryn F Jankowski, Ryosaku Kawada, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
We are constantly exposed to socially conflicting situations in everyday life, and cognitive flexibility is essential for adaptively coping with such difficulties. Flexible goal choice and pursuit are not exclusively conscious, and therefore cognitive flexibility involves both explicit and implicit forms of processing. However, it is unclear how individual differences in explicit and implicit aspects of flexibility are associated with neural activity in a resting state. Here, we measured intrinsic fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) as an indicator of regional brain spontaneous activity, together with explicit and implicit aspects of cognitive flexibility using the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS) and Implicit Association Test (IAT)...
October 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109260/natural-language-indicators-of-differential-gene-regulation-in-the-human-immune-system
#12
Matthias R Mehl, Charles L Raison, Thaddeus W W Pace, Jesusa M G Arevalo, Steve W Cole
Adverse social conditions have been linked to a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) in circulating leukocytes that may contribute to social gradients in disease. However, the CNS mechanisms involved remain obscure, in part because CTRA gene-expression profiles often track external social-environmental variables more closely than they do self-reported internal affective states such as stress, depression, or anxiety. This study examined the possibility that variations in patterns of natural language use might provide more sensitive indicators of the automatic threat-detection and -response systems that proximally regulate autonomic induction of the CTRA...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101338/in-human-non-rem-sleep-more-slow-wave-activity-leads-to-less-blood-flow-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Laura Tüshaus, Ximena Omlin, Ruth O'Gorman Tuura, Andrea Federspiel, Roger Luechinger, Philipp Staempfli, Thomas Koenig, Peter Achermann
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is related to integrated neuronal activity of the brain whereas EEG provides a more direct measurement of transient neuronal activity. Therefore, we addressed what happens in the brain during sleep, combining CBF and EEG recordings. The dynamic relationship of CBF with slow-wave activity (SWA; EEG sleep intensity marker) corroborated vigilance state specific (i.e., wake, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages N1-N3, wake after sleep) differences of CBF e.g. in the posterior cingulate, basal ganglia, and thalamus, indicating their role in sleep-wake regulation and/or sleep processes...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075901/endoscopic-diagnosis-of-hiatus-hernia-under-deep-inspiration-is-not-consistent-with-esophageal-manometric-diagnosis
#14
Yuriko Hanada, Shintaro Hoshino, Yoshimasa Hoshikawa, Nana Takenouchi, Mariko Umezawa, Noriyuki Kawami, Katsuhiko Iwakiri
BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between endoscopic and esophageal manometric hiatus hernia (HH). METHODS: Forty-six gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with endoscopic HH under maintenance therapy were recruited. Endoscopy was performed on all patients in a fully conscious state. Endoscopic HH was defined as apparent separation greater than 1 cm of the lower margin of the esophageal palisade vessels and the diaphragm hiatus on endoscopy under deep inspiration...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073920/homeostatic-modulation-on-unconscious-hedonic-responses-to-food
#15
Wataru Sato, Reiko Sawada, Yasutaka Kubota, Motomi Toichi, Tohru Fushiki
OBJECTIVE: Hedonic/affective responses to food play a critical role in eating behavior. Previous behavioral studies have shown that hedonic responses to food are elicited consciously and unconsciously. Although the studies also showed that hunger and satiation have a modulatory effect on conscious hedonic responses to food, the effect of these homeostatic states on unconscious hedonic responses to food remains unknown. RESULTS: We investigated unconscious hedonic responses to food in hungry and satiated participants using the subliminal affective priming paradigm...
October 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073221/distinct-retrosplenial-cortex-cell-populations-and-their-spike-dynamics-during-ketamine-induced-unconscious-state
#16
Grace E Fox, Meng Li, Fang Zhao, Joe Z Tsien
Ketamine is known to induce psychotic-like symptoms, including delirium and visual hallucinations. It also causes neuronal damage and cell death in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), an area that is thought to be a part of high visual cortical pathways and at least partially responsible for ketamine's psychotomimetic activities. However, the basic physiological properties of RSC cells as well as their response to ketamine in vivo remained largely unexplored. Here, we combine a computational method, the Inter-Spike Interval Classification Analysis (ISICA), and in vivo recordings to uncover and profile excitatory cell subtypes within layers 2&3 and 5&6 of the RSC in mice within both conscious, sleep, and ketamine-induced unconscious states...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066053/insomnia-heterogeneity-characteristics-to-consider-for-data-driven-multivariate-subtyping
#17
REVIEW
Jeroen S Benjamins, Filippo Migliorati, Kim Dekker, Rick Wassing, Sarah Moens, Tessa F Blanken, Bart H W Te Lindert, Jeffrey Sjauw Mook, Eus J W Van Someren
Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have reported surprisingly few consistent insomnia-characteristics with respect to cognitions, mood, traits, history of life events and family history. One interpretation of this limited consistency is that different subtypes of insomnia exist, each with its own specific multivariate profile of characteristics. Because previously unrecognized subtypes will be differentially represented in individual studies and dilute effect sizes of subtype-dependent characteristics of importance, they are unlikely to be reported consistently in individual studies, let alone in meta-analyses...
November 9, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060032/change-in-functional-networks-for-transitions-between-states-of-consciousness-during-midazolam-induced-sedation
#18
Minji Lee, Robert D Sanders, Seul-Ki Yeom, Dong-Ok Won, Hwi-Jae Kim, Bo-Ram Lee, Kwang-Suk Seo, Hyun Jeong Kim, Giulio Tononi, Seong-Whan Lee
How brain dynamics change across conscious states, including reliable signatures of the transitions between unconsciousness and consciousness, remains unclear. In this work, we addressed the changes in functional brain networks during self-titrated midazolam sedation using high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in ten subjects. We were particularly interested in the underlying network alterations, identified with graph theory, associated with transitions between states of consciousness. The weighted Phase Lag Index (wPLI) was used as the connectivity estimator between two signals...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042005/analysis-of-italian-regulations-on-pathways-of-care-for-patients-in-a-vegetative-or-minimally-conscious-state
#19
D Sattin, L De Torres, G Dolce, Francesco Arcuri, Anna Estraneo, V Cardinale, R Piperno, E Zavatta, Rita Formisano, Mariagrazia D'Ippolito, C Vassallo, B Dessi, G Lamberti, E Antoniono, C Lanzillotti, J Navarro, P Bramanti, Silvia Marino, M Zampolini, F Scarponi, R Avesani, L Salvi, S Ferro, L Mazza, P Fogar, S Feller, F De Nigris, A Martinuzzi, M Buffoni, A Pessina, P Corsico, M Leonardi
Different rehabilitation models for persons diagnosed with disorders of consciousness have been proposed in Europe during the last decade. In Italy, the Ministry of Health has defined a national healthcare model, although, to date, there is a lack of information on how this has been implemented at regional level. The INCARICO project collected information on different regional regulations, analysing ethical aspects and mapping care facilities (numbers of beds and medical units) in eleven regional territories...
July 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032875/ventilator-use-by-emergency-medical-services-during-911-calls-in-the-united-states
#20
Mazen El Sayed, Hani Tamim, Aurelie Mailhac, Mann N Clay
BACKGROUND: Emergency and transport ventilators use in the prehospital field is not well described. This study examines trends of ventilator use by EMS agencies during 911 calls in the United States and identifies factors associated with this use. METHODS: This retrospective study used four consecutive releases of the US National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) public research dataset (2011-2014) to describe scene EMS activations (911 calls) with and without reported ventilator use...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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