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Different states of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338107/how-often-is-the-diagnosis-of-the-permanent-vegetative-state-incorrect-a-review-of-the-evidence
#1
Derick T Wade
BACKGROUND: Some research suggests that 40% of people in the vegetative state are misdiagnosed. This review investigates the frequency, nature and causes of reported misdiagnosis of patients in the vegetative state, focusing on the nature of the error. METHOD: A systematic review of all relevant literature, using references from key papers identified. Data summarised in tables. RESULTS: Five clinical studies of rate of misdiagnosis in practice were identified, encompassing 236 patients in the vegetative state of whom 80 (34%) were reclassified has having some awareness, often minimal...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325560/feasibility-and-predictive-performance-of-the-hendrich-fall-risk-model-ii-in-a-rehabilitation-department-a-prospective-study
#2
Isabella Campanini, Stefano Mastrangelo, Annalisa Bargellini, Agnese Bassoli, Gabriele Bosi, Francesco Lombardi, Stefano Tolomelli, Mirco Lusuardi, Andrea Merlo
BACKGROUND: Falls are a common adverse event in both elderly inpatients and patients admitted to rehabilitation units. The Hendrich Fall Risk Model II (HIIFRM) has been already tested in all hospital wards with high fall rates, with the exception of the rehabilitation setting. This study's aim is to address the feasibility and predictive performances of HIIFRM in a hospital rehabilitation department. METHODS: A 6 months prospective study in a Italian rehabilitation department with patients from orthopaedic, pulmonary, and neurological rehabilitation wards...
January 11, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319461/hypnosis-is-more-effective-than-clinical-interviews
#3
Francisco Xavier De Almeida-Marques, José Sánchez-Blanco, Francisco Javier Cano-García
To determine whether hypnosis is more effective than conventional interviewing to find traumatic life events in patients with fibromyalgia, we carried out a within-subject experimental design with complete intragroup counterbalancing. Thirty-two women under care in a public primary care center gave 2 identical interviews, with an interval of 3 months, in which the occurrence of traumatic life events was explored, once in a state of wakefulness and once in a state of hypnosis. The state of consciousness was evaluated using 3 measures: bispectral index, skin conductance level, and pain intensity...
January 2018: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291185/disparity-in-opinions-on-lip-protrusiveness-in-contemporary-african-american-faces
#4
Yvette Battle, Monica Schneider, Laurence Magder, Eung-Kwon Pae
Objective: In accordance with the changing demographics in the United States, orthodontists working on various ethnic populations should be more conscious when using the standardized profile analyses for the African American patient. The objective of this study was to examine whether the perception of lip protrusiveness in modern African American faces has changed. For this purpose, we investigated the most favorable African American lip profile using the opinions of 10 experienced and 10 newly trained younger orthodontists...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278634/pain-intensity-scales-comparison-in-patient-with-abdominal-pain
#5
Zoran Trninić, Manja Spahalić, Gordan Galić, Davorin Kozomara, Valentina Lasić, Danijel Bevanda, Nikica Šutalo
BACKGROUND: The aim of study was to explore efficiency of the pain rating scales on patients experiencing abdominal pain, determine correlation between the scales and their applicability to general population and determine the minimal clinical important difference in mm on the VAS as discriminatory for difference in pain intensity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was performed at the Emergency Department of the University Clinical Hospital of Mostar on patients with abdominal pain which started less than 24 hours before, excluding patients under 16 years old, uncooperative patients and those with altered state of consciousness...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274102/effect-of-age-on-narcotrend-index-monitoring-during-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-children-below-2%C3%A2-years-of-age
#6
Nils Dennhardt, Stefanie Arndt, Christiane Beck, Dietmar Boethig, Sebastian Heiderich, Barbara Schultz, Frank Weber, Robert Sümpelmann
BACKGROUND: In older children, different electroencephalogram-based algorithms for measuring depth of anesthesia displayed a similar performance as in adults, but in infants they have not displayed the same reliability so far. According to the individual developmental state, the Narcotrend distinguishes "differentiated" electroencephalograms, which can be classified using the full Narcotrend Index scale, from "undifferentiated" electroencephalograms, which are classified using a scale with fewer stages...
December 23, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225064/intracranial-high-%C3%AE-connectivity-distinguishes-wakefulness-from-sleep
#7
Ezequiel Mikulan, Eugenia Hesse, Lucas Sedeño, Tristán Bekinschtein, Mariano Sigman, María Del Carmen García, Walter Silva, Carlos Ciraolo, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibáñez
Neural synchrony in the γ-band is considered a fundamental process in cortical computation and communication and it has also been proposed as a crucial correlate of consciousness. However, the latter claim remains inconclusive, mainly due to methodological limitations, such as the spectral constraints of scalp-level electroencephalographic recordings or volume-conduction confounds. Here, we circumvented these caveats by comparing γ-band connectivity between two global states of consciousness via intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), which provides the most reliable measurements of high-frequency activity in the human brain...
December 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219939/psychometric-evaluation-of-the-chinese-respiratory-distress-observation-scale-on-critically-ill-patients-with-cardiopulmonary-diseases
#8
Ya-Hsiang Chan, Hua-Shan Wu, Chih-Ching Yen, Margaret L Campbell
BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress is a common and distressing experience that strikes most critically ill patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Now, most dyspnea assessment tools rely on patient's self-report. Only one instrument, the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale (RDOS), is valid for assessing respiratory distress when the patient cannot provide a dyspnea self-report. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to develop the Chinese version of RDOS through two-way translation and examine its reliability and validity...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209270/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-patients-with-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-combined-behavioral-and-event-related-potential-evidence
#9
Ye Zhang, Weiqun Song, Jubao Du, Su Huo, Guixiang Shan, Ran Li
Background: The electrophysiological evidence supporting the therapeutic efficacy of multiple transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) sessions on consciousness improvement in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DOCs) has not been firmly established. Objectives: To assess the effects of repeated tDCS in patients with prolonged DOCs by Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) score and event-related potential (ERP). Method: Using a sham-controlled randomized double-blind design, 26 patients were randomly assigned to either a real [five vegetative state (VS) and eight minimally conscious state (MCS) patients] or sham (six VS and seven MCS patients) stimulation group...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196661/fmri-investigation-on-gradual-change-of-awareness-states-in-implicit-sequence-learning
#10
Jianping Huang, Yingli Li, Jianxin Zhang, Xiangpeng Wang, Chunlu Huang, Antao Chen, Dianzhi Liu
Awareness of implicit knowledge is a changing process. Previous studies have examined brain activation patterns corresponding to the start and end stages of implicit learning, but failed to reveal the gradual changing course of awareness in implicit learning. The present study explored brain activation changes corresponding to different awareness states elicited by two different stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA, 850 ms and 1350 ms) over the whole course of implicit sequence learning (i.e., divided into three phases), by using a process dissociation procedure (PDP) paradigm and the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196270/eeg-microstates-as-a-tool-for-studying-the-temporal-dynamics-of-whole-brain-neuronal-networks-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Christoph M Michel, Thomas Koenig
The present review discusses a well-established method for characterizing resting-state activity of the human brain using multichannel electroencephalography (EEG). This method involves the examination of electrical microstates in the brain, which are defined as successive short time periods during which the configuration of the scalp potential field remains semi-stable, suggesting quasi-simultaneity of activity among the nodes of large-scale networks. A few prototypic microstates, which occur in a repetitive sequence across time, can be reliably identified across participants...
November 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172623/the-structure-of-emotional-experience-and-its-relation-to-trait-emotional-awareness-a-theoretical-review
#12
Ryan Smith, William D S Killgore, Richard D Lane
Emotional experience (EE) and trait emotional awareness (tEA) have recently become topics of considerable experimental/theoretical interest within the cognitive and neural sciences. However, to date there has been limited empirical focus on how individual differences in the factors contributing to EE (a state-based construct) might account for differences in tEA. To promote clear, well-guided empirical research in this area, in this article we first offer a concise review of the primary factors contributing to EE...
November 27, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164571/assessment-of-mismatch-negativity-and-p300-response-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#13
X-Y Wang, H-Y Wu, H-T Lu, T-T Huang, H Zhang, T Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in mismatch negativity (MMN) and P300 response in vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) patients before and after treatment, and their value for prediction of prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Event-related potentials (ERPs), performed on 11 patients classified as VS (n = 6) or MCS (n = 5), and five healthy participants (i.e., control group). We performed a six months telephone follow-up to monitor changes in consciousness recovery...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163104/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-does-not-improve-behavioral-and-neurophysiological-measures-in-patients-with-subacute-vegetative-unresponsive-wakefulness-state-vs-uws
#14
Mauro Mancuso, Laura Abbruzzese, Stefania Canova, Giulia Landi, Simone Rossi, Emiliano Santarnecchi
Background: The absence of efficient treatments capable to promote central nervous system recovery in patients in vegetative state (VS) due to a severe acquired brain injury highlights the need of exploring alternative neuromodulatory treatments that can lead to neurobehavioral gains. Some encouraging preliminary observations suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation could be effective in disorders of consciousness (DoC) patients, especially when applied on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with minimally conscious state (MCS) but not in those with VS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160761/fronto-parietal-coherence-response-to-tdcs-modulation-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#15
Yang Bai, Xiaoyu Xia, Yong Wang, Yongkun Guo, Yi Yang, Jianghong He, Xiaoli Li
A transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol (2 min, 2 mA, anodal electrode at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathodal electrode at the right supraorbital area) was applied in patients with different degrees of disorders of consciousness (DoC). Although previous research indicates that it could improve patients' coma recovery scale-revised (CRS-R) scores, the brain's electrophysiological responses to tDCS are still unclear. Therefore, the present study was performed to explore the underlying brain responses of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) and a Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) to tDCS modulation...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156989/survival-and-consciousness-recovery-are-better-in-the-minimally-conscious-state-than-in-the-vegetative-state
#16
Frédéric Faugeras, Benjamin Rohaut, Mélanie Valente, Jacobo Sitt, Sophie Demeret, Francis Bolgert, Nicolas Weiss, Alexandra Grinea, Clémence Marois, Marion Quirins, Athena Demertzi, Federico Raimondo, Damien Galanaud, Marie-Odile Habert, Denis Engemann, Louis Puybasset, Lionel Naccache
BACKGROUND: The prognosis value of early clinical diagnosis of consciousness impairment is documented by an extremely limited number of studies, whereas it may convey important information to guide medical decisions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at determining if patients diagnosed at an early stage (<90 days after brain injury) as being in the minimally conscious state (MCS) have a better prognosis than patients in the vegetative state/Unresponsive Wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS), independent of care limitations or withdrawal decisions...
November 20, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156922/changes-in-laser-evoked-potentials-during-hypnotic-analgesia-for-chronic-pain-a-pilot-study
#17
Giovanna Squintani, Maria P Brugnoli, Emanuela Pasin, Alessia Segatti, Elisa Concon, Enrico Polati, Bruno Bonetti, Angela Matinella
BACKGROUND: Hypnotic analgesia is one of the most effective nonpharmacological methods for pain control. Hypnosis and distraction of attention from pain might share similar mechanisms by which brain responses to painful stimulation could be similarly reduced in both states. There is ample evidence for the efficacy of clinical hypnosis as a psychological intervention in the treatment of acute or chronic pain. Results are conflicting, however, with some studies showing an increase, others a reduction, and others still no change in the amplitude of event-related brain potentials during hypnosis as compared to control conditions...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147146/relationships-between-short-and-fast-brain-timescales
#18
Eva Déli, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Brain electric activity exhibits two important features: oscillations with different timescales, characterized by diverse functional and psychological outcomes, and a temporal power law distribution. In order to further investigate the relationships between low- and high- frequency spikes in the brain, we used a variant of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem which states that, when we assess the nervous activity as embedded in a sphere equipped with a fractal dimension, we achieve two antipodal points with similar features (the slow and fast, scale-free oscillations)...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146105/content-validation-of-behaviours-and-autonomic-responses-for-the-assessment-of-pain-in-critically-ill-adults-with-a-brain-injury
#19
Céline Gélinas, Kathleen A Puntillo, Madalina Boitor, Mélanie Bérubé, Jane Topolovec-Vranic, Anne-Sylvie Ramelet, Aaron M Joffe, Melissa Richard-Lalonde, Francis Bernard, David L Streiner
BACKGROUND: The evidence shows that brain-injured patients express behaviours that are related to their level of consciousness (LOC), and different from other patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, existing behavioural scales should be revised to enhance their content and validity for use in these patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the content relevance of behaviours and autonomic responses for pain assessment of brain-injured ICU patients from the perspective of critical care clinicians...
November 13, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128469/the-different-patterns-of-seizure-induced-aphasia-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsies
#20
Agnès Trebuchon, Isabelle Lambert, Bernard Guisiano, Aileen McGonigal, Charline Perot, Francesca Bonini, Romain Carron, Catherine Liegeois-Chauvel, Patrick Chauvel, Fabrice Bartolomei
OBJECTIVES: Ictal language disturbances may occur in dominant hemisphere temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but little is known about the precise anatomoelectroclinical correlations. This study investigated the different facets of ictal aphasia in intracerebrally recorded TLE. METHODS: Video-stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recordings of 37 seizures in 17 right-handed patients with drug-resistant TLE were analyzed; SEEG electroclinical correlations between language disturbance and involvement of temporal lobe structures were assessed...
January 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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