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Different states of consciousness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634728/aroma-oil-therapy-in-palliative-care-a-pilot-study-with-physiological-parameters-in-conscious-as-well-as-unconscious-patients
#1
Melanie Goepfert, Patrick Liebl, Natalie Herth, Giancarlo Ciarlo, Jens Buentzel, Jutta Huebner
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study is to analyze the reactions of healthy test persons and conscious as well as unconscious palliative patients to aroma stimuli. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a randomized controlled study, healthy probands, conscious and unconscious palliative patients were exposed to two essential oils (lemon, lavender). Water was used as the control stimulus. Physiological parameters (breathing rate and heart rate, oxygen saturation, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure) were measured...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633545/late-recovery-of-awareness-in-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#2
Kudret Yelden, Sophie Duport, Leon M James, Agnieszka Kempny, Simon F Farmer, Alex P Leff, E Diane Playford
PURPOSE: To detect any improvement of awareness in prolonged disorders of consciousness in the long term. METHODS: A total of 34 patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (27 vegetative state and seven minimally conscious state; 16 males; aged 21-73) were included in the study. All patients were initially diagnosed with vegetative/minimally conscious state on admission to our specialist neurological rehabilitation unit. Re-assessment was performed 2-16 years later using Coma Recovery Scale-Revised...
June 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624284/comparing-the-effect-of-homogenization-and-heat-processing-on-the-properties-and-in-vitro-digestion-of-milk-from-organic-and-conventional-dairy-herds
#3
D L Van Hekken, M H Tunick, D X Ren, P M Tomasula
We compared the effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole and nonfat milk fat standards, and processed with or without homogenization, and with high-temperature-short-time or UHT pasteurization. The milk then underwent in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Comparison of milk from organic and conventional herds showed that the milks responded to processing in similar ways...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615674/meta-analysis-of-genome-wide-snp-and-pathway-based-associations-for-facets-of-neuroticism
#4
Song E Kim, Han-Na Kim, Yeo-Jun Yun, Seong Gu Heo, Juhee Cho, Min-Jung Kwon, Yoosoo Chang, Seungho Ryu, Hocheol Shin, Chol Shin, Nam H Cho, Yeon Ah Sung, Hyung-Lae Kim
Neuroticism is a heritable personality trait that is comprised of distinct sub-factors, or facets. Sub-factors of neuroticism are linked to different emotional states or psychiatric symptoms and studying the genetic variants associated with these facets may help reveal the biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. In the present study, a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for six facets of neuroticism was performed in 5584 participants from three cohorts. Additionally, a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was conducted to find biological pathways associated with each facet...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603875/impairments-of-spontaneous-and-deliberative-mentalizing-co-occur-yet-dissociate-in-schizophrenia
#5
Robyn Langdon, Michaela Flynn, Emily Connaughton, Martin Brüne
OBJECTIVES: Evidence of impairment in explicit mentalizing in people with schizophrenia has inspired interventions to improve awareness of others' mental states in these individuals. Less is known of implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia, with current findings mixed. We sought to resolve previous inconsistencies using Heider & Simmel's (H&S) classic animation to elicit spontaneous mentalizing and examined relations between spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing. METHODS: Forty-five schizophrenia outpatients and 27 general-community controls completed two explicit theory-of-mind (TOM) tasks and then described the H&S animation (to elicit spontaneous social attributions about emotionally driven, as well as goal-driven, behaviours), before and after an instruction to think of the shapes as people...
June 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601751/error-consciousness-predicts-physiological-response-to-an-acute-psychosocial-stressor-in-men
#6
Jianhui Wu, Xiaofang Sun, Li Wang, Liang Zhang, Guillén Fernández, Zhuxi Yao
There are substantial individual differences in the response towards acute stressor. The aim of the current study was to examine how the neural activity after an error response during a non-stressful state, prospectively predicts the magnitude of physiological stress response (e.g., cortisol response and heart rate) and negative affect elicited by a laboratory stress induction procedure in nonclinical participants. Thirty-seven healthy young male adults came to the laboratory for the baseline neurocognitive measurement on the first day during which they performed a Go/Nogo task with their electroencephalogram recorded...
June 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595443/shedding-light-on-the-fundamental-mechanism-underlying-hypnotic-analgesia
#7
Joachim Keppler
Owing to the increasing importance of clinical hypnosis in pain therapy and palliative care, there is a growing interest in uncovering the mechanism underlying hypnotic analgesia. The neurophysiological findings suggest that the hypnotic state is associated with an altered operating mode of the brain that is clearly different from the normal operating mode. While in the normal operating mode a dolorogenic stimulus induces a highly synchronized large-scale activity pattern that leads to the experience of pain, the altered operating mode inhibits the synchronization of spatially divided brain regions...
May 3, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588471/functional-network-connectivity-patterns-between-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-with-myoclonic-and-absence-seizures
#8
Qifu Li, Yongmin Chen, Yong Wei, Shengmei Chen, Lin Ma, Zhiyi He, Zhibin Chen
The extensive cerebral cortex and subcortical structures are considered as the major regions related to the generalized epileptiform discharges in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. However, various clinical syndromes and electroencephalogram (EEG) signs exist across generalized seizures, such as the loss of consciousness during absence seizures (AS) and the jerk of limbs during myoclonic seizures (MS). It is presumed that various functional systems affected by discharges lead to the difference in syndromes of these seizures...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579971/altered-default-mode-network-on-resting-state-fmri-in-children-with-infantile-spasms
#9
Ya Wang, Yongxin Li, Huirong Wang, Yanjun Chen, Wenhua Huang
Infantile spasms (IS) syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, which occurs in children characterized by spasms, impaired consciousness, and hypsarrhythmia. Abnormalities in default mode network (DMN) might contribute to the loss of consciousness during seizures and cognitive deficits in children with IS. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the changes in DMN with functional connectivity (FC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), the two methods to discover the potential neuronal underpinnings of IS...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575483/that-s-me-in-the-spotlight-neural-basis-of-individual-differences-in-self-consciousness
#10
Irene de Caso, Giulia Poerio, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
A long-standing literature implicates activity within the default mode network (DMN) to processes linked to the self. However, contemporary work suggests that other large-scale networks networks might also be involved. For instance, goal-directed autobiographical planning requires positive functional connectivity (FC) between DMN and frontoparietal control (FPCN) networks. The present study examined the inter-relationship between trait self-focus (measured via a self-consciousness scale; SCS), incidental memory in a self-reference paradigm, and resting state FC of large-scale networks...
May 29, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558616/a-mediation-model-for-ideas-of-reference
#11
Cristina Senín-Calderón, Salvador Perona-Garcelán, Sandra Fuentes-Márquez, Juan F Rodríguez-Testal
Ideas of reference are common in human beings, but they are frequent in certain psychopathological disorders, mainly those concerning the psychotic spectrum. The purpose of this study was to attempt to construct a model predicting the appearance of ideas of reference and to test the relationship of personality (based on the Gray model), emotional, and self-consciousness variables. Five-hundred and seventy-four participants (287 patients with several different psychopathological diagnoses) filled in the Referential Thinking Scale (REF), the GHQ-28, the Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS-R), and the SPSRQ Scale...
June 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553427/functional-evaluation-of-awareness-in-vegetative-and-minimally-conscious-state
#12
Silvia Marino, Lilla Bonanno, Rosella Ciurleo, Annalisa Baglieri, Rosa Morabito, Silvia Guerrera, Carmela Rifici, Antonio Giorgio, Placido Bramanti, Nicola De Stefano
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess differences in brain activation in a large sample of Vegetative State (VS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS) patients, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: We studied 50 patients four to seven months after brain injury. By using international clinical criteria and validated behavioural scales such as the Glasgow Coma Scale and the Clinical Unawareness Assessment Scale, the patients were grouped into VS (n=23) and MCS (n=27)...
2017: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545341/interidentity-amnesia-in-dissociative-identity-disorder
#13
John Morton
INTRODUCTION: Patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID) usually present with alternative personality states (alters) who take separate control of consciousness. Commonly, one alter will claim they have no awareness of events which took place when another alter was in control. However, some kinds of material are transferred across the alter boundary. Huntjens et al. devised an objective method of demonstrating such transfer. METHODS: In the main study, following Huntjens et al...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534673/effects-of-preference-and-sensory-modality-on-behavioural-reaction-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#14
L Heine, B Tillmann, M Hauet, A Juliat, A Dubois, S Laureys, M Kandel, J Plailly, J Luauté, F Perrin
BACKGROUND: Reliable evaluation of patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or in a minimally conscious state (MCS) remains a major challenge. It has been suggested that the expression of residual cerebral function could be improved by allowing patients to listen to their favourite music. However, the potential effect of music on behavioural responsiveness, as well as the effect of preferred stimuli in other sensory modalities (e.g. olfaction), remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of sensory modality (auditory versus olfactory) and preference (preferred versus neutral) of the test stimuli on patients' subsequent performance on the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R)...
May 23, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534652/a-review-of-the-evidence-of-zolpidem-efficacy-in-neurological-disability-after-brain-damage-due-to-stroke-trauma-and-hypoxia-a-justification-of-further-clinical-trials
#15
J A Sutton, R P Clauss
During 15 years, 23 clinical reports and 6 studies have demonstrated associations between sub-sedative doses of zolpidem and recoveries from brain damage due to strokes, trauma and hypoxia. Clinical findings include unexpected awakenings from vegetative states and regressions of stroke symptoms after dosing that disappear during elimination and reappear on repeat dosing. Initially single-photon emission computed tomography scans showed improved perfusion within, around and distant from infarctions. Then positron emission tomography scans and electroencephalography detected renewed metabolic and neuronal activity...
May 23, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506433/awareness-in-the-crowd-beta-power-and-alpha-phase-of-prestimulus-oscillations-predict-object-discrimination-in-visual-crowding
#16
Luca Ronconi, Rosilari Bellacosa Marotti
Visual crowding is among the factors that most hamper conscious object perception. However, we currently ignore the neural states that predispose to an accurate perception within different crowding regimes. Here, we performed single-trial analyses of the electroencephalographical (EEG) oscillations, evaluating the prestimulus power and phase differences between correct and incorrect discrimination during a letter-crowding task, where irrelevant letters were placed nearby (strong crowding) or far (mid crowding) relative to the target...
May 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486269/neurophysiologic-correlates-of-ketamine-sedation-and-anesthesia-a-high-density-electroencephalography-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#17
Phillip E Vlisides, Tarik Bel-Bahar, UnCheol Lee, Duan Li, Hyoungkyu Kim, Ellen Janke, Vijay Tarnal, Adrian B Pichurko, Amy M McKinney, Bryan S Kunkler, Paul Picton, George A Mashour
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated inconsistent neurophysiologic effects of ketamine, although discrepant findings might relate to differences in doses studied, brain regions analyzed, coadministration of other anesthetic medications, and resolution of the electroencephalograph. The objective of this study was to characterize the dose-dependent effects of ketamine on cortical oscillations and functional connectivity. METHODS: Ten healthy human volunteers were recruited for study participation...
July 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482760/association-of-lectin-pathway-protein-levels-and-genetic-variants-early-after-injury-with-outcomes-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Michael Osthoff, Bernhard Walder, Cécile Delhumeau, Marten Trendelenburg, Natacha Turck
The lectin pathway of the complement system has been implicated in secondary ischemic/inflammatory injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, previous experimental studies have yielded conflicting results, and human studies are scarce. In this exploratory study we investigated associations of several lectin pathway proteins early after injury and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with outcomes after severe TBI [mortality at 14 days (primary outcome) and consciousness assessed with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at 14 days, disability assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) at 90 days]...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480811/changes-in-brain-activation-during-sedation-induced-by-dexmedetomidine
#19
Won-Ho Kim, Dongrae Cho, Boreom Lee, Jae-Jin Song, Teo Jeon Shin
Objective Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been widely used as a sedative, acting as an α2-adrenergic agonist on autoreceptors, presynaptic receptors and postsynaptic receptors without risk of respiratory depression. Although consciousness impairment is closely related to disturbances of brain function in different frequency bands, the time-varying DEX effects on cortical activity in specific frequency bands has not yet been studied. Methods We used electroencephalography (EEG) to analyse differences in cerebral cortex activity between the awake and sedated states, using electromagnetic tomography (standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA)) to localize multiple channel scalp recordings of cerebral electric activity to specific brain regions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458434/noninvasive-recording-of-electrocardiogram-in-conscious-rat-a-new-device
#20
Pradeep Kumar, Pooja Srivastava, Ankit Gupta, Manish Bajpai
AIM: Electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important tool for the study of cardiac electrophysiology both in human beings and experimental animals. Existing methods of ECG recording in small animals like rat have several limitations and ECG recordings of the anesthetized rat lack validity for heart rate (HR) variability analysis. The aim of the present study was to validate the ECG data from new device with ECG of anesthetized rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ECG was recorded on student's physiograph (BioDevice, Ambala) and suitable coupler and electrodes in six animals first by the newly developed device in conscious state and second in anesthetized state (stabilized technique)...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
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