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farm animals

Hongping Shi, Xueyan Zhou, Wencheng Zou, Yongxiang Wang, Changwei Lei, Rong Xiang, Long Zhou, Bihui Liu, Anyun Zhang, Hongning Wang
The objective of this study was to investigate the co-occurrence of biofilms and quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium mediated by IncHI2-type oqxAB-positive plasmids. Among the 40 Salmonella strains, we found that 27 isolates formed biofilms and displayed identical multidrug-resistance profiles to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ampicillin and streptomycin, based on biofilm formation assays and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In particular, a single S...
June 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Naveen K Kalagatur, Oriparambil S Nirmal Ghosh, Naveen Sundararaj, Venkataramana Mudili
Application of synthetic fungicides in agricultural commodities has been restricted due to development of fungicide resistance fungi and deleterious impact on environment and health of farm animals and humans. Hence, there is an urge for development of mycobiocides, and the present study was undertaken to determine the antifungal activity of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (CMEO) on post-harvest pathogen Fusarium graminearum . The CMEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and GC-MS chemical profile revealed the presence of 46 compounds and abundant was geraniol (19...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Eric Lim Teik Chung, Michael Predith, Frisco Nobilly, Anjas Asmara Samsudin, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Teck Chwen Loh
Brachiaria decumbens is an extremely productive tropical grass due to its aggressive growth habit and its adaptation to a varied range of soil types and environments. As a result of the vast availability, treated B. decumbens demonstrates as a promising local material that could be utilised as an improved diet for sheep and goats. Despite the fact that the grass significantly increases weight gains in grazing farm animals, there were many reports of general ill-thrift and sporadic outbreaks of photosensitivity in livestock due to the toxic compound of steroidal saponin found in B...
June 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Xubiao Wei, Rujuan Wu, Lulu Zhang, Baseer Ahmad, Dayong Si, Rijun Zhang
The hybrid peptide cecropin A (1⁻8)⁻LL37 (17⁻30) (C⁻L), derived from the sequence of cecropin A (C) and LL-37 (L), showed significantly increased antibacterial activity and minimized hemolytic activity than C and L alone. To obtain high-level production of C⁻L, the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence encoding C⁻L with preferred codons was cloned into pET-SUMO to construct a fusion expression vector, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) BL21 (DE3). The maximum fusion protein (92% purity) was obtained with the yield of 89...
June 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Natalia Gc Vasileiou, Dimitris A Gougoulis, Valentina Riggio, Katerina S Ioannidi, Dimitris C Chatzopoulos, Vasia S Mavrogianni, Efthymia Petinaki, George C Fthenakis
The objective of the research described in this Research Communication was to describe potential associations of subclinical mastitis with sheep breeds in Greece. A countrywide survey (2198 ewes in 111 farms) was performed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 0·260. Results did not indicate any difference in the prevalence of subclinical mastitis between farms with pure-bred and farms with cross-bred animals, nor any difference in prevalence between farms with Greek pure-bred animals and farms with imported pure-bred animals...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Leonardo Bueno Cruvinel, João Eduardo Nicaretta, Thiago de Souza Azeredo Bastos, Luiz Fellipe Monteiro Couto, Jordana Belos Dos Santos, Dina María Beltrán Zapa, Alliny Souza de Assis Cavalcante, Breno Cayeiro Cruz, Dyego Gonçalves Lino Borges, Fernando de Almeida Borges, Vando Edésio Soares, Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes
This study aimed to identify the frequency of occurrence of Eimeria species in Holstein (taurine dairy cattle) and Nelore (zebu beef cattle) on 12 farms in the state of Goiás, Brazil. A total of 2,601 animals were evaluated, and the cattle were divided into the following age-group categories: up to three months old, four to eight months old, nine to 16 months old and cows. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of all animals. None of the cattle presented any clinical signs of eimeriosis during the survey...
June 14, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Farshid Yekani, Mahnaz Azarnia, Fereshteh Esfandiari, Seyedeh-Nafiseh Hassani, Hossein Baharvand
Optimization of an in vitro culture that supports blastocyst (BL) development from single blastomeres (SBs) is essential to generate additional embryos for farm animals and humans and unravel the mechanisms that underlie totipotency. In this study, we have examined BL development from SBs that were derived from 2-cell and 4-cell mouse embryos in different media. Moreover, BLs were assessed for inner cell mass (ICM) by staining with Oct4. We found that BL development was improved in a lower volume of medium (1 µL) compared with a higher volume (5 µL)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Pablo Valdes-Donoso, Julio Alvarez, Lovell S Jarvis, Robert B Morrison, Andres M Perez
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an endemic disease causing important economic losses to the US swine industry. The complex epidemiology of the disease, along with the diverse clinical outputs observed in different types of infected farms, have hampered efforts to quantify PRRS' impact on production over time. We measured the impact of PRRS on the production of weaned pigs using a log-linear fixed effects model to evaluate longitudinal data collected from 16 sow farms belonging to a specific firm...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Paula Simó-Mirabet, Erick Perera, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Juan M Afonso, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Sirtuins (SIRTs) represent a conserved protein family of deacetylases that act as master regulators of metabolism, but little is known about their roles in fish and livestock animals in general. The present study aimed to assess the value of SIRTs for the metabolic phenotyping of fish by assessing their co-expression with a wide-representation of markers of energy and lipid metabolism and intestinal function and health in two genetically different gilthead sea bream strains with differences in growth performance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Julie M K Ojango, James Audho, Edwin Oyieng, Maren Radeny, Philip Kimeli, John Recha, Anne W T Muigai
Livestock traders are a key conduit for incentives in livestock production systems. Their actions affect producer prices, investment decisions, and their livelihoods. However, smallholder farmers in rural communities of eastern Africa often have limited understanding of the marketing process and the interactions among market actors. This study was undertaken following the introduction of improved indigenous goat and sheep breeds in Climate Smart Villages of Nyando in western Kenya. We sought to understand the marketing of sheep and goats in five key rural markets used by the smallholder farmers of Nyando, to generate information on key market actors, their functions in the value chain, and their preferences for attributes in sheep and goats...
June 18, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Tippawan Jantafong, Sakchai Ruenphet, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya, Kazuaki Takehara
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the fourth-generation quaternary ammonium compounds, didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), on the efficacy of bacterial and viral decontamination against pathogens commonly found in livestock industry including Salmonella infantis (SI), Escherichia coli , and avian influenza virus (AIV). Materials and Methods: The DDAB was prepared at 500, 250, and 125 parts per million (ppm) for absent and present organic material...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Minami Kawasaki, Jerome Delamare-Deboutteville, Rachel O Bowater, Mark J Walker, Scott Beatson, Nouri L Ben Zakour, Andrew C Barnes
Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) causes disease in a wide range of animals. The serotype Ib lineage is highly adapted to aquatic hosts, exhibiting substantial genome reduction compared with terrestrial conspecifics. Here we sequence genomes from 40 GBS isolates including 25 from wild fish and captive stingrays in Australia, six local veterinary or human clinical isolates, and nine isolates from farmed tilapia in Honduras and compare with 42 genomes from public databases. Phylogenetic analysis based on non-recombinant core genome SNPs indicated that aquatic serotype Ib isolates from Queensland were distantly related to local veterinary and human clinical isolates...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Giuseppe La Rosa, Isabelle Vallée, Gianluca Marucci, François Casabianca, Ennio Bandino, Fabio Galati, Pascal Boireau, Edoardo Pozio
BACKGROUND: The zoonotic nematode Trichinella britovi was discovered in two neighboring Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia, almost simultaneously at the beginning of the 21st century. An epidemiological link between the two parasite populations was generally assumed. In 2015, an outbreak of trichinellosis in Nice, the South of France, was reportedly caused by the consumption of raw pork delicatessen imported from Corsica. The aims of the present study were to investigate, by multilocus genotype (MLG) analyses, the hypothesis of the common origin of the Corsican and Sardinian T...
June 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Karin Alvåsen, Ian Dohoo, Anki Roth, Ulf Emanuelson
BACKGROUND: Longevity is an important trait for increasing the profitability of dairy production. Long cow longevity is also essential to reduce the environmental impact of milk production, and to maintain positive consumer attitude. Genetic selection for increased longevity has been effective, but the phenotypic trend of longevity in Swedish dairy cows has not been improved. The objective of this study was to identify herd characteristics and management routines that are associated with the average cow longevity in a herd...
June 19, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Marina García-Llorente, Radha Rubio-Olivar, Inés Gutierrez-Briceño
Green care is an innovative approach that combines simultaneously caring for people and caring for land through three elements that have not been previously connected: (1) multifunctional agriculture and recognition of the plurality of agricultural system values; (2) social services and health care; and (3) the possibility of strengthening the farming sector and local communities. The current research provides a comprehensive overview of green care in Europe as a scientific discipline through a literature review ( n = 98 studies)...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marilyn C Roberts, Gemina Garland-Lewis, Sally Trufan, J Scott Meschke, Heather Fowler, Ryan C Shean, Alexander L Greninger, Peter M Rabinowitz
Dairy farming involves frequent contact among animals, workers and farm environments. To explore the Staphylococcus spp. diversity that occurs on dairy farms, a pilot study sampled dairy workers, cows, and the farm environments from five farms, two organic and three conventional farms, in Washington State. Samples were taken from the nares and hands of consenting workers (n = 24), udders and nares of selected cows (n = 25) and representative environmental surfaces (n = 96) from each farm. To increase diversity of the Staphylococcus spp...
June 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Macarena P Quintana-Hayashi, Médea Padra, János Tamás Padra, John Benktander, Sara K Lindén
Gastrointestinal infections cause significant challenges and economic losses in animal husbandry. As pathogens becoming resistant to antibiotics are a growing concern worldwide, alternative strategies to treat infections in farmed animals are necessary in order to decrease the risk to human health and increase animal health and productivity. Mucosal surfaces are the most common route used by pathogens to enter the body. The mucosal surface that lines the gastrointestinal tract is covered by a continuously secreted mucus layer that protects the epithelial surface...
June 18, 2018: Microorganisms
Médiha Khamassi Khbou, Samaher Htira, Kaouther Harabech, M'hammed Benzarti
A case-control study was conducted, aimed to describe the clinical human brucellosis (CHB) pattern during 2015 in the Gafsa region (Southwest Tunisia) and to investigate the main risk factors involved in the disease occurrence. One hundred and four CHB cases were notified in 2015 in Gafsa district. All CHB cases that own ruminants were contacted, but only 32 accepted to participate in a matched case-control study. Thirty-two and thirty-one CHB cases and controls, respectively, were included in the study. The subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire...
June 2018: One Health
Mary Garvey
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is a bacterial parasite and the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a disease predominately found in cattle and sheep. Infection with this microorganism results in substantial farming economic losses and animal morbidity. The link between infection with this pathogen and human disease has been theorised for many years with Crohn's disease being one of many suspected resultant conditions. Mycobacterium avium may be spread from animal to human hosts by water and foodborne transmission routes, where the foodborne route of exposure represents a significant risk for susceptible populations, namely children and the immune-compromised...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Joseph W Lozier, Andrew J Niehaus, Andrew Muir, Jeffrey Lakritz
Transfixation pin casts (TPC) may be useful in management of fractures in ruminants. A retrospective study was conducted to report the uses, complications, and outcomes of TPC in ruminant fracture stabilization. Twenty-five cattle, 7 goats, and 7 sheep with long bone fractures managed with TPC met the inclusion criteria. Long-term outcome was assessed from telephone interviews with owners. Thirty-one animals (79%) survived to removal of external coaptation and return to the farm. Common complications included pin-hole osteitis and disuse osteopenia...
June 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
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