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farm animals

Marsha Taylor, William Cox, Michael Otterstatter, Nancy de With, Eleni Galanis
A collaborative investigation between public health and animal health led to numerous interventions along the food chain in response to an outbreak of human salmonellosis and increased incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) among poultry. Incidence of both human and chicken SE decreased substantially in 2012 and 2013 following these interventions. We used time series analysis to assess the impact of three interventions: vaccination of broiler breeder flocks, separation in the hatchery of breeder eggs, and an industry order to stop farm-gate sales of ungraded broiler hatching eggs...
October 13, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
D Jackson, O Moberg, E M Stenevik Djupevåg, F Kane, H Hareide
The control of sea lice infestations on cultivated Atlantic salmon is a major issue in many regions of the world. The numerous drivers which shape the priorities and objectives of the control strategies vary for different regions/jurisdictions. These range from the animal welfare and economic priorities of the producers, to the mitigation of any potential impacts on wild stocks. Veterinary ethics, environmental impacts of therapeutants, and impacts for organic certification of the produce are, amongst others, additional sets of factors which should be considered...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
C Jurado, E Fernández-Carrión, L Mur, S Rolesu, A Laddomada, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno
African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious disease of swine that has been present in Sardinia since 1978. Soon after introduction of the disease, several control and eradication programmes were established with limited success. Some researchers attributed the persistence of the disease in central and eastern areas to certain socio-economic factors, the existence of some local and traditional farming practices (i.e., unregistered free-ranging pigs known as brado animals) and the high density of wild boar in the region...
October 12, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Richard P Smith, Victor Andres, Francesca Martelli, Becky Gosling, Francisco Marco-Jimenez, Kelly Vaughan, Monika Tchorzewska, Rob Davies
AIMS: The control of Salmonella in pig production is necessary for public and animal health and vaccination was evaluated as a strategy to decrease pig prevalence. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study examined the efficacy of a live Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine, administered to sows on eight commercial farrow-to-finish herds experiencing clinical salmonellosis or Salmonella carriage associated with S. Typhimurium or its monophasic variants. Results of longitudinal Salmonella sampling were compared against eight similarly selected and studied control farms...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yuherman, Reswati, Yulianti Fitri Kurnia, Indahwati, Khalil
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Female exotic breed cattle raised by traditional small farms are susceptible to reproductive disturbances that result in failure or delay to produce calves. The present research investigated the hematologic profiles of exotic breed cattle having reproductive troubles versus heifers and pregnant cows raised by small farms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was conducted to identify the reproduction performance of 160 female Simmental cows raised at 15 smallholders in Payakumbuh, West Sumatra, Indonesia...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Michael D Baron, Bouna Diop, Felix Njeumi, Brian J Willett, Dalan Bailey
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a significant pathogen of small ruminants and is prevalent in much of Africa, the Near and Middle East and Asia. Despite the availability of an efficacious and cheap live-attenuated vaccine, the virus has continued to spread, with its range stretching from Morocco in the west to China and Mongolia in the east. Some of the world's poorest communities rely on small ruminant farming for subsistence and the continued endemicity of PPRV is a constant threat to their livelihoods...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Rebecca Mancy, Patrick M Brock, Rowland R Kao
Process models that focus on explicitly representing biological mechanisms are increasingly important in disease ecology and animal health research. However, the large number of process modelling approaches makes it difficult to decide which is most appropriate for a given disease system and research question. Here, we discuss different motivations for using process models and present an integrated conceptual analysis that can be used to guide the construction of infectious disease process models and comparisons between them...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Tomas Kupcinskas, Inga Stadaliene, Algimantas Paulauskas, Pavelas Trusevicius, Saulius Petkevicius, Johan Höglund, Mindaugas Sarkunas
BACKGROUND: According to targeted treatment (TT), the whole flock is dewormed based on knowledge of the risk, or parameters that quantify the mean level of infection, whereas according to targeted selective treatment (TST), only individual animals within the grazing group are treated, based on parasitological, production and/or morbidity parameters. The aim of this study was to compare two different treatment protocols on sheep farms in Lithuania. The study was conducted from 15 April to 31 October 2014 on three sheep farms...
October 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Yongjie Feng, Yaoyao Lu, Yinghua Wang, Longxian Zhang, Yurong Yang
BACKGROUND: The parasites Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and Neospora caninum (N. caninum) are globally distributed; they infect warm-blooded animals, including many avian species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of these parasites in ostriches from central China. In total, 402 ostrich (Struthio camelus) samples (293 hearts, 77 brains, and 32 serum) from slaughterhouses of the Henan Province and Hebei Province were collected. The heart juice (n = 283) and serum samples (n = 32) were tested for antibodies to T...
October 11, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Maren Bernau, Prisca Valerie Kremer-Rücker, Lena Sophie Kreuzer, Sebastian Schwanitz, Klaus Cussler, Andreas Hoffmann, Armin Manfred Scholz
OBJECTIVES: Vaccination is one of the most effective methods to keep up the health status in humans and in livestock. Therefore, farm animals are vaccinated several times during their lifetime. Although vaccines are being checked regarding their local reactogenicity, side effects occur frequently-especially in the case of the application of adjuvanted products. Many reports exist about local reactions in sheep. The present study aimed at testing MRI as a method to document injection site reactions three-dimensionally...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
Yolanda Trillo, Luis Angel Quintela, Mónica Barrio, Juan José Becerra, Ana Isabel Peña, Marcos Vigo, Pedro Garcia Herradon
The aim of this study was to describe the status of body condition score (BCS), hock injuries prevalence, locomotion and body hygiene score as animal welfare measures in 73 free-stall dairy cattle farms in Lugo (Spain). A benchmarking process was established across farms: (1) the animal-based indicators were ordered from low to high values; (2) The farms were classified into three categories based on the number of indicators within less than the 25th percentile, 25th to 75th percentile and above the 75th percentile...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
Carolina Ramírez, Jaime Romero
Seriola lalandi is an economically important species that is globally distributed in temperate and subtropical marine waters. Aquaculture production of this species has had problems associated with intensive fish farming, such as disease outbreaks or nutritional deficiencies causing high mortalities. Intestinal microbiota has been involved in many processes that benefit the host, such as disease control, stimulation of the immune response, and the promotion of nutrient metabolism, among others. However, little is known about the potential functionality of the microbiota and the differences in the composition between wild and aquacultured fish...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tiny Motlatso Hlokwe, Halima Said, Nomakorinte Gcebe
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in human and Mycobacterium bovis commonly causes tuberculosis in animals. Transmission of tuberculosis caused by both pathogens can occur from human to animals and vice versa. RESULTS: In the current study, M. tuberculosis, as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting 3 regions of difference (RD4, RD9 and RD12) on the genomes, was isolated from cattle originating from two epidemiologically unrelated farms in the Eastern Cape (E...
October 10, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
F Pandolfi, I Kyriazakis, K Stoddart, N Wainwright, S A Edwards
From 2013-2016, animal-based measures were collected as part of the "Real Welfare" protocol adopted by the Red Tractor Pigs Assurance Scheme to assess the welfare in finisher pig herds in the UK. Trained veterinarians from 89 veterinary practices assessed 112,241 pens (hospital pens excluded) from 1928 farms using a multistage sampling protocol, and collected data about pig welfare, management and farm environment. Multivariable analyses were conducted for five main welfare outcomes: lameness, pigs requiring hospitalization, severe tail lesions, severe body marks and enrichment use ratio (number of active pigs interacting with the enrichment/total number of active pigs)...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Anna Camilla Birkegård, Vibe Dalhoff Andersen, Tariq Halasa, Vibeke Frøkjær Jensen, Nils Toft, Håkan Vigre
Accurate and detailed data on antimicrobial exposure in pig production are essential when studying the association between antimicrobial exposure and antimicrobial resistance. Due to difficulties in obtaining primary data on antimicrobial exposure in a large number of farms, there is a need for a robust and valid method to estimate the exposure using register data. An approach that estimates the antimicrobial exposure in every rearing period during the lifetime of a pig using register data was developed into a computational algorithm...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
H Kasab-Bachi, A G Arruda, T E Roberts, J B Wilson
There is increasing interest among the poultry industry to develop a comprehensive index that can be used to evaluate overall intestinal health and impact on production performance. The Intestinal Integrity (I(2)) index is a quantitative measurement tool used to assess the intestinal health of flocks that use the Health Tracking System (HTSi), a global surveillance system developed by Elanco Animal Health that captures flock-level information on health and performance. To generate an I(2) index score for a flock, the presence of 23 intestinal health conditions is assessed and recorded, then entered into a mathematical equation...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Isabel Lechner, Marianne Wüthrich, Mireille Meylan, Bart H P van den Borne, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula
Since its first occurrence in August 2011 in Germany and the Netherlands, the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) spread rapidly across Europe, where it caused production losses and abortions in ruminants as well as congenital malformations in the offspring of affected animals. Several studies have investigated the impact of SBV on fertility and production parameters in dairy cows at herd level. However, the impact of clinical disease at the animal level remained undetermined. This study aimed at estimating the impact of clinical disease during and after an infection with SBV on production and fertility parameters in individual Swiss dairy cows...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
A Trocino, M Birolo, S Dabbou, F Gratta, N Rigo, G Xiccato
A total of 48 sub-adult hares and adult reproducing farmed hares were used to characterize carcass and meat traits according to the age and gender of animals. With respect to carcass traits, when age increased, the carcass weight significantly increased (2022 to 3391 g; P<0.001), but dressing out percentages did not change. The dissectible fat (1.3% to 2.2%; P<0.05) and Longissimus lumborum (LL) proportions (13.5% to 14.5%; P<0.001) and muscle-to-bone ratio of hind legs (5.11 to 6.23; P<0.001) increased, whereas the hind leg proportions decreased (37...
October 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
André Luiz Seccatto Garcia, Carlos Antonio Lopes de Oliveira, Hanner Mahmud Karim, César Sary, Humberto Todesco, Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro
Improvement of fillet traits and flesh quality attributes are of great interest in farmed tilapia and other aquaculture species. The main objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fillet traits (fillet weight and fillet yield) and the fat content of fillets from 1136 males combined with 2585 data records on growth traits (body weight at 290 days, weight at slaughter, and daily weight gain) of 1485 males and 1100 females from a third generation of the Aquaamerica tilapia strain. Different models were tested for each trait, and the best models were used to estimate genetic parameters for the fat content, fillet, and growth traits...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
Francesco Testa, Giuseppe Marano, Federico Ambrogi, Patrizia Boracchi, Antonio Casula, Elia Biganzoli, Paolo Moroni
Elevated bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) has a negative impact on milk production, milk quality, and animal health. Seasonal increases in herd level somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly associated with elevated environmental temperature and humidity. The Temperature Humidity Index (THI) has been developed to measure general environmental stress in dairy cattle; however, additional work is needed to determine a specific effect of the heat stress index on herd-level SCC. Generalized Additive Model methods were used for a flexible exploration of the relationships between daily temperature, relative humidity, and bulk milk somatic cell count...
September 28, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
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