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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728401/research-trends-in-outdoor-pig-production
#1
Hyun-Suk Park, Sang Hyon Oh
Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728058/high-prevalence-of-esbls-in-retail-chicken-meat-despite-reduced-use-of-antimicrobials-in-chicken-production-france
#2
Tiago Casella, Mara Correa Lelles Nogueira, Estelle Saras, Marisa Haenni, Jean-Yves Madec
Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are critically important antibiotics for humans and their use in animals poses a potential threat for public health. Chicken represents an increasing part of the human diet and has also been regarded as a source of ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae because of the worldwide off-label use of ceftiofur, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin. Thus, numerous studies pointed out chicken as a reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC genes, plasmids and/or clones at risk for humans. In France, late 2011, strong political pressure led to a drastic reduction of ceftiofur use and all other antibiotics in chicken production...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727116/technical-note-development-of-a-feed-matrix-as-inoculum-in-salmonella-infection-studies-in-piglets
#3
R Litjens, A-K Oudshoorn, P J Roubos-van den Hil
Current methods used for oral administration of pathogens to piglets are stressful for the animals because of fixation and use of inoculation methods such as oral gavage. In the present study an alternative way to challenge piglets with Typhimurium (ST) is investigated. The strategy was to incorporate the in a feed matrix, which is fed to the piglets and eaten voluntary. Different types of feed matrices were tested for their absorption capacity, handling properties, and palatability to piglets. Furthermore, the viability of ST in feed matrices was studied...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#4
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727089/the-use-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-live-animals-in-vivo-to-predict-meat-quality-deterioration-postmortem-in-vitro-caused-by-changes-in-muscle-biochemical-components
#5
E N Ponnampalam, D L Hopkins, K Giri, J L Jacobs, T Plozza, P Lewandowski, A Bekhit
This study was conducted to determine whether circulating concentrations of blood isoprostanes can be used as an effective biomarker in lambs to predict degradation of color and/or lipid stability in meat. Lambs ( = 84) were fed diets of either lucerne pasture, annual ryegrass pasture, a commercial feedlot pellet, or a combination of annual ryegrass and feedlot pellet for 8 wk, including a 2-wk adaptation period. Blood isoprostane concentration at wk 0, 4, 6 or 8 of feeding was determined. Blood isoprostane concentration for each animal was then correlated with muscle biochemical components that impact color and/or lipid oxidative status during retail display...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727070/short-term-heat-stress-causes-altered-intracellular-signaling-in-oxidative-skeletal-muscle
#6
S Ganesan, C M Summers, S C Pearce, N K Gabler, R J Valentine, L H Baumgard, R P Rhoads, J T Selsby
Heat stress (HS) causes morbidities and mortalities, in part by inducing organ-specific injury and dysfunction. Further, HS markedly reduces farm animal productivity, and this is especially true for lean tissue accretion. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which short-term HS caused muscle dysfunction in skeletal muscle. We have previously found increased free radical injury in skeletal muscle following 24 h of HS. Thus, we hypothesized that HS would lead to apoptosis, autophagy, and decreased mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727028/production-management-and-the-environment-symposium-measurement-and-mitigation-of-reactive-nitrogen-species-from-swine-and-poultry-production
#7
W Powers, M Capelari
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726609/influenza-d-virus-in-animal-species-in-guangdong-province-southern-china
#8
Shao-Lun Zhai, He Zhang, Sheng-Nan Chen, Xia Zhou, Tao Lin, Runxia Liu, Dian-Hong Lv, Xiao-Hui Wen, Wen-Kang Wei, Dan Wang, Feng Li
Molecular tests revealed influenza D viruses of D/OK lineage widely circulating in farmed animal species in Guangdong Province, southern China. In particular, we found high levels of influenza D virus infection in goats and pigs. We also detected viral RNA in serum specimens and feces of animals with certain severe diseases.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723906/genomic-prediction-with-parallel-computing-for-slaughter-traits-in-chinese-simmental-beef-cattle-using-high-density-genotypes
#9
Peng Guo, Bo Zhu, Lingyang Xu, Hong Niu, Zezhao Wang, Long Guan, Yonghu Liang, Hemin Ni, Yong Guo, Yan Chen, Lupei Zhang, Xue Gao, Huijiang Gao, Junya Li
Genomic selection has been widely used for complex quantitative trait in farm animals. Estimations of breeding values for slaughter traits are most important to beef cattle industry, and it is worthwhile to investigate prediction accuracies of genomic selection for these traits. In this study, we assessed genomic predictive abilities for average daily gain weight (ADG), live weight (LW), carcass weight (CW), dressing percentage (DP), lean meat percentage (LMP) and retail meat weight (RMW) using Illumina Bovine 770K SNP Beadchip in Chinese Simmental cattle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721858/detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus-in-the-tissues-of-asymptomatic-pigs-in-smallholder-farming-systems-along-the-kenya-uganda-border-implications-for-transmission-in-endemic-areas-and-asf-surveillance-in-east-africa
#10
Edward Okoth Abworo, Cynthia Onzere, Joshua Oluoch Amimo, Victor Riitho, Waithaka Mwangi, Jocelyn Davies, Sandra Blome, Richard Peter Bishop
The persistence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in endemic areas, with small-scale but regular outbreaks in domestic pigs, is not well understood. ASFV has not been detected using conventional diagnosis in these pigs or adjacent populations of resistant African wild pigs, that could act as potential carriers during the outbreaks. However, such data are crucial for the design of evidence-based control strategies. We conducted cross-sectional (1107 pigs) and longitudinal (100 pigs) monitoring of ASFV prevalence in local pigs in Kenya and Uganda...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720157/the-influence-of-azaperone-treatment-at-weaning-on-reproductive-performance-of-sows-altering-effects-of-season-and-parity
#11
T Schwarz, J Nowicki, R Tuz, P M Bartlewski
Azaperone treatment can control aggression and decrease stress due to weaning, re-grouping and hierarchical fighting of gilts and sows. However, the effects of this butyrophenone neuroleptic and sedative administered at weaning on pig reproductive function are poorly characterized. In this year-long study, a total of 619 cross-bred sows (Polish Large White×Polish Landrace) kept on a commercial farm received an i.m. injection of azaperone (Stresnil®; 2 mg/kg BW) just before weaning and were artificially inseminated during the ensuing estrus with 3×109 spermatozoa per dose of an inseminate; 1180 sows served as untreated controls...
July 19, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719840/environmental-and-human-health-challenges-of-industrial-livestock-and-poultry-farming-in-china-and-their-mitigation
#12
REVIEW
Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks...
July 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717849/an-assessment-of-benzimidazole-resistance-against-caprine-nematodes-in-central-india
#13
A K Dixit, G Das, Pooja Dixit, A P Singh, N K Kumbhakar, M Sankar, R L Sharma
Current status of resistance to benzimidazole (BZ) group of anthelmintic drugs against caprine nematodes in Central India at Amanala goat farm, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh (M. P.), was systematically investigated using faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test and egg hatch test (EHT). Besides, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) was deployed to ascertain the susceptible genotype (alleles) especially of the Haemonchus contortus. Randomly selected 30 goats, irrespective of age and sex, were divided into three groups of 10 each, to serve as treated and untreated controls...
July 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717323/epidemiological-study-of-tick-infestation-in-buffalo-of-various-regions-of-district-khairpur-pakistan
#14
Farzana Abbasi, Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Tahmeena Fakhur Nissa, Zohaib Ahmed Bhutto, Muhammed Asif Arain, Rab Nawaz Soomro, Farman Ali Siyal, Sarfraz Ali Fazlani
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological infestation and identification of Ixodidae and Argasidae ticks species in buffalo of different parts of district Khairpur, Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 720 Water buffaloes from three tehsils (subdivisions) were selected randomly and examined from organized and unorganized dairy farms for tick infestation in district Khairpur, Pakistan. This epidemiological survey was conducted during April to September 2015...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717314/enhancing-the-growth-performance-of-replacement-female-breeder-goats-through-modification-of-feeding-program
#15
A A A Ghani, M S Shahudin, M Zamri-Saad, A B Zuki, H Wahid, A Kasim, M S Salisi, Hasliza Abu Hassim
AIM: The study was conducted at a smallholder goat farm located in Labu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of proper feeding program on growth performances of replacement breeder goats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 healthy female boer cross goats at the age of 4 months old with average initial live body weight (BW) of 20.05±0.5 kg were used for on-farm feeding trial to evaluate the growth performance as preparation for breeding purposes...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717306/prevalence-of-paratuberculosis-in-organized-and-unorganized-dairy-cattle-herds-in-west-bengal-india
#16
Jitendrakumar M Bhutediya, Premanshu Dandapat, Arijit Chakrabarty, Ratan Das, Pramod Kumar Nanda, Samiran Bandyopadhyay, Tapas Kumar Biswas
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence pattern of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, in unorganized as well as organized cattle herds in West Bengal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four organized cattle farms with identical management practice in Nadia (n=3) and South 24 Parganas (n=1) districts and three unorganized cattle herds, one each from three districts, namely, Burdwan, North 24 Parganas, and Purba Midnapur, were selected randomly and screened for paratuberculosis by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716204/a-protocol-to-identify-and-minimise-selection-and-information-bias-in-abattoir-surveys-estimating-prevalence-using-fasciola-hepatica-as-an-example
#17
Rebecca I Carroll, Andrew Forbes, David A Graham, Locksley L McV Messam
Abattoir surveys and findings from post-mortem meat inspection are commonly used to estimate infection or disease prevalence in farm animal populations. However, the function of an abattoir is to slaughter animals for human consumption, and the collection of information on animal health for research purposes is a secondary objective. This can result in methodological shortcomings leading to biased prevalence estimates. Selection bias can occur when the study population as obtained from the abattoir is not an accurate representation of the target population...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716201/a-matched-case-control-study-comparing-udder-health-production-and-fertility-parameters-in-dairy-farms-before-and-after-the-eradication-of-bovine-virus-diarrhoea-in-switzerland
#18
A Tschopp, R Deiss, M Rotzer, S Wanda, B Thomann, G Schüpbach-Regula, M Meylan
An obligatory eradication programme for Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD) was implemented in Switzerland in 2008. Between 2008 and 2012, all bovines were tested for antigen or antibodies against BVDV. By the year 2012, eradication was completed in the majority of farms. A decrease of the prevalence of persistently infected (PI) newborn calves was observed from 1.4% in 2008 to <0.02% in 2012. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of BVD eradication on different parameters of animal health, production and fertility in Swiss dairy herds which had completed the eradication programme...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716200/benchmarking-of-pluck-lesions-at-slaughter-as-a-health-monitoring-tool-for-pigs-slaughtered-at-170kg-heavy-pigs
#19
Annalisa Scollo, Flaviana Gottardo, Barbara Contiero, Claudio Mazzoni, Philippe Leneveu, Sandra A Edwards
Abattoir post-mortem inspections offer a useful tool for the development and monitoring of animal health plans and a source of data for epidemiological investigation. The aim of the present work was to develop an abattoir benchmarking system which provides feedback on the prevalence and severity of lesions of the pluck (lung, pleura and liver) in batches of pigs to inform individual producers and their veterinarians of the occurrence of pathological conditions affecting their herds. The weekly collection of data throughout a year (from September 2014 to September 2015) supported the further aim of providing benchmark values for the prevalence of lesions and their seasonality in Italian heavy pig production...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716198/herd-specific-interventions-to-reduce-antimicrobial-usage-in-pig-production-without-jeopardising-technical-and-economic-performance
#20
L Collineau, C Rojo-Gimeno, A Léger, A Backhans, S Loesken, E Okholm Nielsen, M Postma, U Emanuelson, E Grosse Beilage, M Sjölund, E Wauters, K D C Stärk, J Dewulf, C Belloc, S Krebs
Pig farmers are strongly encouraged to reduce their antimicrobial usage in order to reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Herd-level intervention is needed to achieve national and European reduction targets. Alternative, especially preventive measures, have to be implemented to reduce the need for antimicrobial treatments. However, little is known about the feasibility, effectiveness and return on investment of such measures. The objective of this study was to assess, across four countries, the technical and economic impact of herd-specific interventions aiming at reducing antimicrobial usage in pig production while implementing alternative measures...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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