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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230414/analysis-of-the-ocular-refractive-state-in-fighting-bulls-astigmatism-prevalence
#1
Juan M Bueno, Matteo Lo Sapio, J Manuel Sanes, Juan Seva
The purpose of this study was to describe the ocular refractive state (ORS) of fighting bulls. The study consisted of 90 ophthalmological healthy animals (85 in post-mortem and 5 in living conditions, resp.). The ORS of the eyes (2 per animal) was determined using streak retinoscopy. In vivo animals were assessed at a fighting bull farm facility. Post-mortem measurements were carried out at a local arena. The ORS along the horizontal meridian ranged between -1.00 and +2.50 diopters (D), with a mean of +0.66 ± 0...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230403/farmer-and-veterinarian-attitudes-towards-the-bovine-tuberculosis-eradication-programme-in-spain-what-is-going-on-in-the-field
#2
Giovanna Ciaravino, Patricia Ibarra, Ester Casal, Sergi Lopez, Josep Espluga, Jordi Casal, Sebastian Napp, Alberto Allepuz
The effectiveness of health interventions against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is influenced by several "non-biological" factors that may hamper bTB detection and control. Although the engagement of stakeholders is a key factor for the eradication programme's success, social factors have been often ignored in the control programmes of animal diseases, especially in developed countries. In this study, we used a qualitative approach to investigate perceptions, opinions, attitudes, and beliefs of farmers, and veterinarians who may influence the effectiveness of the Spanish bTB eradication programme...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230402/animal-health-surveillance-in-scotland-in-2030-using-scenario-planning-to-develop-strategies-in-the-context-of-brexit
#3
Lisa A Boden, Harriet Auty, Aaron Reeves, Gustaf Rydevik, Paul Bessell, Iain J McKendrick
Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230010/serotype-and-virulence-genes-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-mink-and-its-pathogenesis-in-mice-and-mink
#4
Wang Jian-Li, Shang Yuan-Yuan, Guo Shou-Yu, Diao Fei-Fei, Yu Jia-Yu, Wei Xue-Hua, Zhao Yong-Feng, Jiang Shi-Jin, Xie Zhi-Jing
In the study, 15 K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from the mink experiencing respiratory distress in mideastern Shandong province, China, and the prevalence of K. pneumoniae in the sampled mink was 11.9% (15/126). Fourteen (93.33%) of the 15 K. pneumoniae isolates were identified as serotype K2 and hypermucoviscosity phenotype. The 12 virulence-associated genes of the K. pneumoniae isolates were tested. The prevalence of the wabG gene for the isolates were 100% (15/15), the ureA gene 100% (15/15), the rmpA gene 93...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226031/sodium-salt-medium-chain-fatty-acids-and-bacillus-based-probiotic-strategies-to-improve-growth-and-intestinal-health-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#5
Paula Simó-Mirabet, M Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Álvaro Ortiz, Mónica Puyalto, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Background: The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225142/ethical-concerns-regarding-animal-use-mediate-the-relationship-between-variety-of-pets-owned-in-childhood-and-vegetarianism-in-adulthood
#6
Sydney Heiss, Julia M Hormes
Plant-based and vegetarian diets have been shown to have diverse health and environmental benefits and also serve to reduce farmed animal exploitation. It is therefore worthwhile to gain a better understanding of the factors that play a role in the decision to refrain from animal products. Past studies have shown that childhood pet ownership predicts the likelihood of adherence to a vegetarian diet in adulthood. Building on this research, we tested the hypothesis that the number of different types of pets owned in childhood is positively associated with degree of restriction of animal products in adulthood, and that this relationship is mediated by pro-animal attitudes...
December 7, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224875/dairy-cow-preference-for-different-types-of-outdoor-access
#7
Anne-Marieke C Smid, Daniel M Weary, Joao H C Costa, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
Dairy cows display a partial preference for being outside, but little is known about what aspects of the outdoor environment are important to cows. The primary aim of this study was to test the preference of lactating dairy cattle for pasture versus an outdoor sand pack during the night. A secondary aim was to determine whether feeding and perching behavior changed when cows were provided outdoor access. A third objective was to investigate how the lying behavior of cows changed when given access to different outdoor areas...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224874/prepartum-application-of-internal-teat-sealant-or-intramammary-amoxicillin-on-dairy-heifers-effect-on-udder-health-survival-and-performance
#8
V S Machado, R C Bicalho
Intramammary infusion of antimicrobials (IA) and application of an internal teat sealant (ITS) at the end of the lactation is a common strategy to prevent and treat intramammary infections during the dry period. In heifers, precalving IA has been reported to improve udder health and milk quality; however, the effect of ITS in heifers housed in freestall barns is still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of prepartum application of ITS or IA on udder health of dairy heifers. A total of 886 heifers were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatment groups when they were 245 ± 3 d pregnant...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224871/short-communication-stall-occupancy-behavior-of-nili-ravi-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-when-first-introduced-to-freestall-housing
#9
S H Magsi, M N Haque, N Ahmad, M Q Shahid
The aim of the present study was to assess stall occupancy of Nili Ravi buffaloes when first introduced to freestall housing. Thirty Nili Ravi buffaloes of different parity, weight, and pregnancy status were enrolled from the dairy farm of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. All of the enrolled animals had no previous experience with freestalls. The selected buffaloes were introduced to the freestall shed. During an adaptation period of 7 d, all buffaloes had 24 h of free access to lie down in 1 of 3 areas: (1) freestalls, (2) alleys, and (3) an outside open area...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224863/quantifying-fecal-shedding-of-mycobacterium-avium-ssp-paratuberculosis-from-calves-after-experimental-infection-and-exposure
#10
Caroline S Corbett, Herman W Barkema, Jeroen De Buck
Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), causes large economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. Fecal shedding of MAP contaminates the environment, feed, and water and contributes to new infections on farm, yet there is limited knowledge regarding mechanisms of shedding, extent of intermittent shedding, and numbers of MAP bacteria shed. The objectives were to (1) compare (in an experimental setting) the frequency at which intermittent shedding occurred and the quantity of MAP shed among pen mates that were inoculated or contact-exposed (CE); and (2) determine whether an association existed between inoculation dose and quantity of MAP shed...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224861/a-survey-of-selected-animal-based-measures-of-dairy-cattle-welfare-in-the-eastern-alps-toward-context-based-thresholds
#11
A Zuliani, M Mair, M Kraševec, I Lora, M Brscic, G Cozzi, C Leeb, M Zupan, C Winckler, S Bovolenta
In the Alps, traditional dairy farms are small-scale operations where vertical transhumance from valley indoor housing systems to highland pasture-based systems is still practiced in summer. Vertical transhumance implies a substantial change of environment, available resources, and management practices from one season to another. In such systems, animal-based welfare measures need to be monitored throughout the year to capture the variation of welfare outcomes, based on which targeted welfare management plans can be implemented...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224130/molecular-epidemiology-and-characterization-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-in-domestic-yaks-bos-grunniens-on-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau-china
#12
Meng Wang, Yun Wang, Abdul Rasheed Baloch, Yangyang Pan, Fang Xu, Lili Tian, Qiaoying Zeng
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a member of the genus Deltaretrovirus of the family Retroviridae and cause a chronic lymphosarcoma, which is extensive in cattle. In yaks (Bos grunniens), the distribution, strains and genetic characteristics of BLV have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate BLV infections in domestic yaks and determine the genetic variability of BLV circulating in a region of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, China. Blood samples were collected from 798 yaks, which were from different farms from Gansu, Qinghai and Sichuan provinces surrounding the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau...
December 9, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223896/environmental-status-of-livestock-and-poultry-sectors-in-china-under-current-transformation-stage
#13
Yi Qian, Kaihui Song, Tao Hu, Tianyu Ying
Intensive animal husbandry had aroused great environmental concerns in many developed countries. However, some developing countries are still undergoing the environmental pollution from livestock and poultry sectors. Driven by the large demand, China has experienced a remarkable increase in dairy and meat production, especially in the transformation stage from conventional household breeding to large-scale industrial breeding. At the same time, a large amount of manure from the livestock and poultry sector is released into waterbodies and soil, causing eutrophication and soil degradation...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223308/what-we-have-lost-mastitis-resistance-in-holstein-friesians-and-in-a-local-cattle-breed
#14
Giulio Curone, Joel Filipe, Paola Cremonesi, Erminio Trevisi, Massimo Amadori, Claudia Pollera, Bianca Castiglioni, Lauretta Turin, Vittorio Tedde, Daniele Vigo, Paolo Moroni, Andrea Minuti, Valerio Bronzo, M Filippa Addis, Federica Riva
In Holstein Friesian dairy cows, selective pressure for increased milk production has led to a higher propensity to disease, including mastitis, when compared to less selected and lower producing dairy breeds. The biology underpinning the higher resistance to disease of such "local breeds" is not fully understood. With the aim of investigating the factors associated to this phenomenon, we applied a multidisciplinary approach to compare innate immune response patterns, metabolic parameters, milk protein profiles and the milk microbiota in Holstein Friesian and Rendena cows reared in the same farm and under the same management conditions...
November 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218859/looking-for-new-approaches-for-the-use-of-serology-in-the-context-of-control-programmes-against-pig-salmonellosis
#15
R C Mainar-Jaime, A Casanova-Higes, S Andrés-Barranco, J P Vico
Most swine Salmonella national control programmes in Europe have been based on the categorization of herds according to risk levels based on serological results. However, none of the non-Scandinavian countries have reported of any significant success on Salmonella infection reduction in fattening pigs or the number of human cases attributable to pigs or pork. The limited accuracy of the tests used, the small number of animals sampled and the likely lack of herd representativeness of the samples used could be major factors affecting the suitability of these programmes...
December 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218843/potential-of-saprophage-diptera-to-acquire-culturable-livestock-associated-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#16
S M Russell, V A Chittick, D T Sangweme, E C Lampert
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria is one of the most intractable challenges in 21st-century public health. Dipterans that associate with livestock, livestock waste products and cadavers have the potential to acquire livestock-associated antibiotic-resistant bacteria (LA-ARB) and transmit them to humans. In this study, piglet cadavers were used to attract saprophage dipterans from the environment and those dipterans were sampled for the presence of LA-ARB. In the first trial, culturable microbes resistant to both aminoglycoside and β-lactam antibiotics were found in all cadavers and masses of dipteran larvae, and in three-quarters of adult dipterans...
December 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218304/from-invention-to-innovation-risk-analysis-to-integrate-one-health-technology-in-the-dairy-farm
#17
Andrea Lombardo, Carlo Boselli, Simonetta Amatiste, Simone Ninci, Chiara Frazzoli, Roberto Dragone, Alberto De Rossi, Gerardo Grasso, Alberto Mantovani, Giovanni Brajon
Current Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approaches mainly fit for food industry, while their application in primary food production is still rudimentary. The European food safety framework calls for science-based support to the primary producers' mandate for legal, scientific, and ethical responsibility in food supply. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project ALERT pivots on the development of the technological invention (BEST platform) and application of its measurable (bio)markers-as well as scientific advances in risk analysis-at strategic points of the milk chain for time and cost-effective early identification of unwanted and/or unexpected events of both microbiological and toxicological nature...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215593/risk-factors-associated-with-brucella-seropositivity-in-sheep-and-goats-in-duhok-province-iraq
#18
Ali G Alhamada, Ihab Habib, Anne Barnes, Ian Robertson
Sera from 432 small ruminants (335 sheep and 97 goats) from 72 farms in Duhok Province, northern Iraq, were collected to investigate risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Using parallel interpretation, RBT and iELISA results showed that 31.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 26.1, 36.3) of sheep and 34.0% (95% CI: 24.7, 44.3) of goats had antibodies against Brucella in the study area...
December 7, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214171/evaluating-swine-injection-technologies-as-a-workplace-musculoskeletal-injury-intervention-a-study-protocol
#19
Catherine Trask, Brenna Bath, Stephan Milosavljevic, Aaron M Kociolek, Bernardo Predicala, Erika Penz, Olugbenga Adebayo, Lee Whittington
Intensification of modern swine production has led to many new technologies, including needleless injectors. Although needleless injectors may increase productivity (by reducing injection time) and reduce needlestick injuries, the effect on risk for musculoskeletal disorders is not clear. This project will compare conventional needles with needleless injectors in terms of cost, productivity, injury rates, biomechanical exposures, and worker preference. Muscle activity (EMG) and hand/wrist posture will be measured on swine workers performing injection tasks with both injection methods...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214048/good-vaccination-practice-it-all-starts-with-a-good-vaccine-storage-temperature
#20
Frédéric Vangroenweghe
Background: Recent introduction of strategies to reduce antibiotic use in food animal production implies an increased use of vaccines in order to prevent the economic impact of several important diseases in swine. Good Vaccination Practice (GVP) is an overall approach on the swine farm aiming to obtain maximal efficacy of vaccination through good storage, preparation and finally correct application to the target animals. In order to have a better insight into GVP on swine farms and the vaccine storage conditions, a survey on vaccination practices was performed on a farmers' fair and temperatures in the vaccine storage refrigerators were measured during farm visits over a period of 1 year...
2017: Porcine Health Management
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