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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691860/outbreaks-of-diarrhoea-winter-scours-in-weaned-merino-sheep-in-south-eastern-australia
#1
K J Stanger, H McGregor, Jwa Larsen
OBJECTIVE: Identify the cause of outbreaks of diarrhoea during winter that are not attributable to gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned Merino sheep in the high rainfall regions of south-eastern Australia and determine the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat this syndrome. METHODS: We investigated 45 outbreaks on 24 farms. Faecal samples from affected animals were cultured for Yersinia, Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. Risk factors, including rainfall, temperature and worm egg count (WEC), were assessed...
May 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689818/fleas-insecta-siphonaptera-with-public-health-relevance-in-domestic-pigs-artiodactyla-suidae-from-argentina
#2
Juliana Patricia Sanchez, MarÍa Cecilia Ezquiaga, Melanie Ruiz
The presence of fleas can have a great negative impact on the productivity and well-being of the animals, and can contribute towards propagation of causative pathogens of important diseases in animals and humans. Fleas and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) are a known association. However, knowledge about fleas on pigs in Argentina is scarce. In this country, swine farming has become one of the main components of livestock production. This activity is primarily carried out by smallholder farmers, involving a potential risk to humans of acquiring pathogens...
January 17, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689078/support-amongst-uk-pig-farmers-and-agricultural-stakeholders-for-the-use-of-food-losses-in-animal-feed
#3
Erasmus K H J Zu Ermgassen, Moira Kelly, Eleanor Bladon, Ramy Salemdeeb, Andrew Balmford
While food losses (foods which were intended for human consumption, but which ultimately are not directly eaten by people) have been included in animal feed for millennia, the practice is all but banned in the European Union. Amid recent calls to promote a circular economy, we conducted a survey of pig farmers (n = 82) and other agricultural stakeholders (n = 81) at a UK agricultural trade fair on their attitudes toward the use of food losses in pig feed, and the potential relegalisation of swill (the use of cooked food losses as feed)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688824/first-report-of-chlamydia-seroprevalence-in-farmed-wild-boars-in-china
#4
Lan-Bi Nie, Qin-Li Liang, Yang Zou, Yun-Hang Gao, Quan Zhao, Gui-Xue Hu, Xing-Quan Zhu
Chlamydia is Gram-negative obligate bacterium, which can cause human diseases worldwide and has huge economic impact on animals. It is yet to know whether farmed wild boars are infected with Chlamydia in China. To assess risk factors of Chlamydia infection in farmed wild boars in China, from April 2015 to February 2016, a total of 837 serum samples of farmed wild boars were collected in Jilin province, northeastern China, and antibodies against Chlamydia were examined by the indirect hemagglutination assay...
April 24, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687629/managing-complexity-simplifying-assumptions-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-models-for-swine
#5
A C Kinsley, K VanderWaal, M E Craft, R B Morrison, A M Perez
Compartmental models have often been used to test the effectiveness and efficiency of alternative control strategies to mitigate the spread of infectious animal diseases. A fundamental principle of epidemiological modelling is that models should start as simple as possible and become as complex as needed. The simplest version of a compartmental model assumes that the population is closed, void of births and deaths and that this closed population mixes homogeneously, meaning that each infected individual has an equal probability of coming into contact with each susceptible individual in the population...
April 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687218/assessment-of-biosecurity-level-in-small-scale-broiler-farms-in-the-western-highlands-of-cameroon-central-africa
#6
Marc K Kouam, Manjeli Jacouba, Inouss N Nsangou, Alexis Teguia
The recent outbreak of avian influenza in the poultry sector of Cameroon has raised a concern about the level of implementation of biosecurity measures (BM) on poultry farms. Therefore, a study using a questionnaire on 102 randomly selected poultry farms was undertaken. Some measures with high adoption levels (> 90%) included "protection of airing openings of poultry barns by a wire mesh," "no external animal allowed to enter the farm," "respect of all-in all-out principle," "functional footbath," "rodent control," and "feedstuff protection from access to rodents...
April 23, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686992/the-history-of-in-vivo-tuberculin-testing-in-bovines-tuberculosis-a-one-health-issue
#7
REVIEW
Margaret Good, Douwe Bakker, Anthony Duignan, Daniel M Collins
Tuberculosis (TB) is more than 3 million years old thriving in multiple species. Ancestral Mycobacterium tuberculosis gave rise to multiple strains including Mycobacterium bovis now distributed worldwide with zoonotic transmission happening in both directions between animals and humans. M. bovis in milk caused problems with a significant number of deaths in children under 5 years of age due largely to extrapulmonary TB. This risk was effectively mitigated with widespread milk pasteurization during the twentieth century, and fewer young children were lost to TB...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686089/skin-microbiota-and-allergic-symptoms-associate-with-exposure-to-environmental-microbes
#8
Jenni Lehtimäki, Hanna Sinkko, Anna Hielm-Björkman, Elina Salmela, Katriina Tiira, Tiina Laatikainen, Sanna Mäkeläinen, Maria Kaukonen, Liisa Uusitalo, Ilkka Hanski, Hannes Lohi, Lasse Ruokolainen
A rural environment and farming lifestyle are known to provide protection against allergic diseases. This protective effect is expected to be mediated via exposure to environmental microbes that are needed to support a normal immune tolerance. However, the triangle of interactions between environmental microbes, host microbiota, and immune system remains poorly understood. Here, we have studied these interactions using a canine model (two breeds, n = 169), providing an intermediate approach between complex human studies and artificial mouse model studies...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685445/insights-into-the-knowledge-practices-and-training-needs-of-veterinarians-working-with-smallholder-livestock-producers-in-australia
#9
L Hayes, S Britton, G Weerasinghe, R G Woodgate, M Hernandez-Jover
The location of properties holding livestock is fluid; edging towards the boundaries of urban Australia, increasing the likelihood that veterinarians will be exposed to livestock as part of the provision of routine veterinary services. This study was conducted to ascertain the challenges, knowledge level and training needs of veterinarians working within this landscape, with the ultimate aim of informing the development of resources and training to better equip them in this capacity. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study, using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among Australian veterinarians...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685433/domestic-water-buffaloes-access-to-surface-water-disease-prevalence-and-associated-economic-losses
#10
Ehsan Elahi, Muhammad Abid, Huiming Zhang, Weijun Cui, Shabeh Ul Hasson
Given the shortage and non-availability of freshwater in Pakistan, wastewater is being used for bathing water buffaloes; however, this has a negative impact on animal welfare. Although there is a vast literature on indirect linkages between wastewater and animal productivity, studies focusing on the direct impacts of water buffaloes bathing in wastewater on animal productivity and economic losses are rare. Therefore, using 360 domestic water buffalo farms, this study examines the expenditure and production losses associated with bathing (in wastewater and freshwater) and non-bathing water buffaloes by employing partial budgeting and resource adjustment component techniques...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685275/silage-review-interpretation-of-chemical-microbial-and-organoleptic-components-of-silages
#11
REVIEW
Limin Kung, R D Shaver, R J Grant, R J Schmidt
The goal of making silage is to produce a stable feed with a high recovery of dry matter, energy, and highly digestible nutrients compared with the fresh crop. Microbial fermentation in the silo produces an array of end products and can change many nutritive aspects of a forage. High-quality silage should be void of undesirable compounds that could negatively affect animal performance, the environment, or net farm income. This review discusses the interpretation of the common fermentation end products, microbial populations, organoleptic properties, and changes in nutritive aspects of silages during storage of silages with emphasis on a North American perspective...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684932/-antibiotic-use-and-reduction-in-veterinary-medicine
#12
Thomas Blaha
After a short history of the development of antimicrobial substances and the initially underestimated resistance problem, the paper describes the method of monitoring the use of antibiotics in food animals at farm level. The resulting benchmarking led to a remarkable reduction of the amount of antibiotics used in animals. However, it is also explained that, apart from reducing the use of antibiotics, the rules for "prudent use" of antibiotics have to be complied with. Concluding, a critical analysis of the effectiveness of the current interpretation of the "critically important antimicrobials for human medicine is discussed...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684664/secnidazole-for-control-of-giardiasis-in-dairy-calves
#13
Andreia Volpato, Bruno F Fortuoso, Gabriela Campigotto, Patrícia Glombowsky, Nathieli B Bottari, Leandro S Lopes, Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva
The aim of this study was to verify whether secnidazole, given in a single oral dose (10 mg/kg), decreases or eliminates the excretion of Giardia duodenalis cysts. Holstein calves were raised from birth to 15 ± 2 days of age in individual stalls. Subsequently, 12 calves were grouped and housed in collective stalls. After seven days (day of life 21), we collected stool samples directly from the rectal ampulla in order to determine the degree of parasitic infection. Fecal examination was performed by a centrifugal-flotation technique, which allows for visualization and quantification of G...
April 11, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683779/antibiotic-resistance-in-food-animals-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Luria Leslie Founou, Daniel Gyamfi Amoako, Raspail Carrel Founou, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
OBJECTIVES: This study critically reviewed the published literature and performed a meta-analysis to determine the overall burden of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food animals in Africa. METHODS: English and French published articles indexed in EBSCOhost, PubMed, Web of Science, and African Journals Online were retrieved, with searches being conducted up to August, 2015. Data were pooled and meta-analysis performed using a random-effects model, and the results are described as event rates...
April 23, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680646/from-cow-to-cheese-novel-phenotypes-related-to-the-sensory-profile-of-model-cheeses-from-individual-cows
#15
C Cipolat-Gotet, A Cecchinato, M A Drake, A Marangon, B Martin, G Bittante
Milk samples were taken once from a total of 1,224 Brown Swiss cows from 83 herds, and 1,500 mL of raw full-fat milk from each cow was processed according to a laboratory-scale model-cheese-making procedure. A sensory panel was assembled and the members trained to evaluate the sensory profile of individual model cheeses. The protocol scorecard was composed of 7 main sensory descriptors related to smell intensity, flavor intensity, taste (salt and sour), and texture (elasticity, firmness, and moisture), and 40 sensory attributes describing smell and flavor profiles...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675419/a-cross-sectional-study-into-the-prevalence-of-dairy-cattle-lameness-and-associated-herd-level-risk-factors-in-england-and-wales
#16
Bethany E Griffiths, Dai Grove White, Georgios Oikonomou
Lameness is one of the most pressing issues within the dairy industry; it has severe economic implications while causing a serious impact on animal welfare. A study conducted approximately 10 years ago found the within farm lameness prevalence in the UK to be 36.8%. Our objective here is to provide an update on within farm lameness prevalence in the UK, and to provide further evidence on farm level risk factors. A convenience sample of 61 dairy farms were recruited across England and Wales from September 2015 to December 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674531/complete-genome-sequencing-of-10-brucella-abortus-biovar-3-strains-isolated-from-water-buffalo
#17
Rubina Paradiso, Massimiliano Orsini, Daniela Criscuolo, Rosanna Borrelli, Ornella Valvini, Cesare Cammà, Maria Luisa Chiusano, Giorgio Galiero, Giorgia Borriello
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that affects both humans and animals. Its distribution is global, concentrated in the Mediterranean area, India, Central Asia, and Latin America. Here, we present a complete genome assembly of 10 Brucella abortus strains isolated from water buffaloes farmed in the Campania region of Italy.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673990/removal-of-antibiotics-from-water-and-waste-milk-by-ozonation-kinetics-byproducts-and-antimicrobial-activity
#18
Omar A Alsager, Mohammed N Alnajrani, Hatem A Abuelizz, Ibrahim A Aldaghmani
The use of antibiotics in the dairy farming for curing and growth promotion results in the production of massive quantities of non-recyclable wastewater by the conventional purification techniques. Additionally, waste milk is produced during the drug withholding periods, which is not suitable for human or animal consumption and cause huge economic loss as well as present serious environmental waste. This study was designed to investigate the decomposition of various antibiotic compounds in un-buffered aqueous solutions and milk samples by ozonation process...
April 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673916/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-the-zona-pellucida-3-gene-is-associated-with-the-first-parity-litter-size-in-hu-sheep
#19
Yuqing Chong, Huarong Huang, Guiqiong Liu, Xunping Jiang, Weiheng Rong
Zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) is a primary sperm receptor and acrosome reaction inducer. As a candidate gene, the ZP3 gene has been widely studied since it has great influence on reproductive traits in farm animals. However, little is known about the association between polymorphisms of the coding region of the ZP3 gene and the first parity litter size in Hu sheep. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ZP3 gene associated with the first parity litter size in Hu sheep...
March 31, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673815/role-of-animal-movement-and-indirect-contact-among-farms-in-transmission-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#20
Kimberly VanderWaal, Andres Perez, Montse Torremorrell, Robert M Morrison, Meggan Craft
Epidemiological models of the spread of pathogens in livestock populations primarily focus on direct contact between farms based on animal movement data, and in some cases, local spatial spread based on proximity between premises. The roles of other types of indirect contact among farms is rarely accounted for. In addition, data on animal movements is seldom available in the United States. However, the spread of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) in U.S. swine represents one of the best documented emergences of a highly infectious pathogen in the U...
April 12, 2018: Epidemics
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