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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241493/neuronal-stress-and-injury-caused-by-hiv-1-cart-and-drug-abuse-converging-contributions-to-hand
#1
REVIEW
Ana B Sanchez, Marcus Kaul
Multiple mechanisms appear to contribute to neuronal stress and injury underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which occur despite the successful introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can itself be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH), seems to compromise antiretroviral therapy and aggravate HAND. However, the combined effect of virus and recreational and therapeutic drugs on the brain is still incompletely understood...
February 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241456/evaluation-of-rice-resistance-to-southern-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-and-rice-ragged-stunt-virus-through-combined-field-tests-quantitative-real-time-pcr-and-proteome-analysis
#2
Zhenchao Wang, Lu Yu, Linhong Jin, Wenli Wang, Qi Zhao, Longlu Ran, Xiangyang Li, Zhuo Chen, Rong Guo, Yongtian Wei, Zhongcheng Yang, Enlong Liu, Deyu Hu, Baoan Song
: Diseases caused by southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) considerably decrease grain yield. Therefore, determining rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV is necessary. In this study, rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV were evaluated through field trials in Shidian and Mangshi county, Yunnan province, China. SYBR Green I-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to quantitatively detect virus gene expression levels in different rice varieties...
February 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241447/comparison-of-influenza-epidemiological-and-virological-characteristics-between-outpatients-and-inpatients-in-zhejiang-province-china-march-2011-june-2015
#3
Wei Cheng, Zhao Yu, Shelan Liu, Xueying Zhang, Xiaoxiao Wang, Jian Cai, Feng Ling, Enfu Chen
Given the rapid rate of global spread and consequently healthcare costs related to influenza, surveillance plays an important role in monitoring the emerging pandemics in China. However, the characteristics of influenza in Southeast of China haven't been fully studied. Our study use the surveillance data collected from 16 sentinel hospitals across Zhejiang Province during March 2011 through June 2015, including the demographic information and respiratory specimens from influenza-like illness (ILI) patients and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) patients...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241311/timing-of-antioxidant-gene-therapy-implications-for-treating-dry-amd
#4
Manas R Biswal, Pingyang Han, Ping Zhu, Zhaoyang Wang, Hong Li, Cristhian J Ildefonso, Alfred S Lewin
Purpose: To investigate whether antioxidant gene therapy protects the structure and function of retina in a murine model of RPE atrophy, and to determine whether antioxidant gene therapy can prevent degeneration once it has begun. Methods: We induced mitochondrial oxidative stress in RPE by conditional deletion of Sod2, the gene for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). These mice exhibited localized atrophy of the RPE and overlying photoreceptors. We restored Sod2 to the RPE of one eye using adeno-associated virus (AAV) by subretinal injection at an early (6 weeks) and a late stage (6 months), injecting the other eye with an AAV vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241263/bridging-knowledge-gaps-to-understand-how-zika-virus-exposure-and-infection-affect-child-development
#5
Bill G Kapogiannis, Nahida Chakhtoura, Rohan Hazra, Catherine Y Spong
Importance: The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has profoundly affected the lives of children and families across the Americas. As the number of children born with ZIKV-related complications continues to grow, the long-term developmental trajectory for these children and the effect on their families remains largely unknown. In September 2016, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and partner National Institutes of Health institutes convened a workshop to develop a research agenda to improve the evaluation, monitoring, and management of neonates, infants, or children affected by ZIKV and its complications...
February 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241186/distribution-and-quantity-of-sites-of-john-cunningham-virus-persistence-in-immunologically-healthy-patients-correlation-with-john-cunningham-virus-antibody-and-urine-john-cunningham-virus-dna
#6
Joseph R Berger, Craig S Miller, Robert J Danaher, Kathryn Doyle, Kenneth J Simon, Elizabeth Norton, Leonid Gorelik, Ellen Cahir-McFarland, Divya Singhal, Nawaz Hack, Joseph Ryan Owens, Peter T Nelson, Janna H Neltner
Importance: Although seroepidemiological studies indicate that greater than 50% of the population has been infected with John Cunningham virus (JCV), the sites of JCV persistence remain incompletely characterized. Objective: To determine sites of JCV persistence in immunologically healthy individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: Tissue specimens from multiple sites including brain, renal, and nonrenal tissues were obtained at autopsy performed in the Department of Pathology at the University of Kentucky from 12 immunologically healthy patients between February 9, 2011, and November 27, 2012...
February 27, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241170/main-characteristics-of-zika-virus-exanthema-in-guadeloupe
#7
Nadège Cordel, Xavier Birembaux, Hugo Chaumont, Frédérique Delion, Olivier Chosidow, Benoit Tressières, Cécile Herrmann Storck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241146/prophage-wo-genes-recapitulate-and-enhance-wolbachia-induced-cytoplasmic-incompatibility
#8
Daniel P LePage, Jason A Metcalf, Sarah R Bordenstein, Jungmin On, Jessamyn I Perlmutter, J Dylan Shropshire, Emily M Layton, Lisa J Funkhouser-Jones, John F Beckmann, Seth R Bordenstein
The genus Wolbachia is an archetype of maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect the germline of numerous invertebrate species worldwide. They can selfishly alter arthropod sex ratios and reproductive strategies to increase the proportion of the infected matriline in the population. The most common reproductive manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility, which results in embryonic lethality in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. Females infected with the same Wolbachia strain rescue this lethality...
February 27, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241075/the-transcriptome-of-hiv-1-infected-intestinal-cd4-t-cells-exposed-to-enteric-bacteria
#9
Alyson C Yoder, Kejun Guo, Stephanie M Dillon, Tzu Phang, Eric J Lee, Michael S Harper, Karen Helm, John C Kappes, Christina Ochsenbauer, Martin D McCarter, Cara C Wilson, Mario L Santiago
Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation...
February 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241074/arsenite-induced-stress-granule-formation-is-inhibited-by-elevated-levels-of-reduced-glutathione-in-west-nile-virus-infected-cells
#10
Mausumi Basu, Sean C Courtney, Margo A Brinton
Oxidative stress activates the cellular kinase HRI, which then phosphorylates eIF2α, resulting in stalled translation initiation and the formation of stress granules (SGs). SG assembly redirects cellular translation to stress response mRNAs and inhibits cap-dependent viral RNA translation. Flavivirus infections were previously reported to induce oxidative stress in infected cells but flavivirus-infected cells paradoxically develop resistance to arsenite (Ars)-induced SG formation with time after infection...
February 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241071/structure-of-a-pentameric-virion-associated-fiber-with-a-potential-role-in-orsay-virus-entry-to-host-cells
#11
Yanlin Fan, Yusong R Guo, Wang Yuan, Ying Zhou, Matthew V Holt, Tao Wang, Borries Demeler, Nicolas L Young, Weiwei Zhong, Yizhi J Tao
Despite the wide use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, the first virus naturally infecting this organism was not discovered until six years ago. The Orsay virus and its related nematode viruses have a positive-sense RNA genome, encoding three proteins: CP, RdRP, and a novel δ protein that shares no homology with any other proteins. δ can be expressed either as a free δ or a CP-δ fusion protein by ribosomal frameshift, but the structure and function of both δ and CP-δ remain unknown. Using a combination of electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, computational and biophysical analyses, here we show that the Orsay δ protein forms a ~420-Å long, pentameric fiber with an N-terminal α-helical bundle, a β-stranded filament in the middle, and a C-terminal head domain...
February 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241053/release-of-hiv-1-sequestered-in-the-vesicles-of-oral-and-genital-mucosal-epithelial-cells-by-epithelial-lymphocyte-interaction
#12
Aizezi Yasen, Rossana Herrera, Kristina Rosbe, Kathy Lien, Sharof M Tugizov
Oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia of fetuses/neonates/infants and the genital epithelia of adults play a critical role in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission of virus, respectively. To study the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission through mucosal epithelium, we established polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. Analysis of HIV-1 transmission through epithelial cells showed that approximately 0.05% of initially inoculated virions transmigrated via epithelium. More than 90% of internalized virions were sequestered in the endosomes of epithelial cells, including multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and vacuoles...
February 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241052/osbpl10-rxra-and-lipid-metabolism-confer-african-ancestry-protection-against-dengue-haemorrhagic-fever-in-admixed-cubans
#13
Beatriz Sierra, Petr Triska, Pedro Soares, Gissel Garcia, Ana B Perez, Eglys Aguirre, Marisa Oliveira, Bruno Cavadas, Béatrice Regnault, Mayling Alvarez, Didye Ruiz, David C Samuels, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Luisa Pereira, Maria G Guzman
Ethnic groups can display differential genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases. The arthropod-born viral dengue disease is one such disease, with empirical and limited genetic evidence showing that African ancestry may be protective against the haemorrhagic phenotype. Global ancestry analysis based on high-throughput genotyping in admixed populations can be used to test this hypothesis, while admixture mapping can map candidate protective genes. A Cuban dengue fever cohort was genotyped using a 2.5 million SNP chip...
February 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240976/reassortant-clade-2-3-4-4-avian-influenza-a-h5n6-virus-in-a-wild-mandarin-duck-south-korea-2016
#14
Jung-Hoon Kwon, Dong-Hun Lee, David E Swayne, Jin-Yong Noh, Seong-Su Yuk, Tseren-Ochir Erdene-Ochir, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Sol Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Seok Lee, Chang-Seon Song
A reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 avian influenza A(H5N6) virus was isolated from a fecal sample of a Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) in South Korea during October 2016. This virus was genetically similar to H5N6 subtype virus isolates from China, Vietnam, Laos, and Hong Kong, including human isolates.
May 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240789/evaluation-of-hepatitis-b-reactivation-among-62-920-veterans-treated-with-oral-hepatitis-c-antivirals
#15
Pamela S Belperio, Troy A Shahoumian, Larry A Mole, Lisa I Backus
: Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been reported in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals receiving direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. The overall risk among patients with current or prior HBV infection in the context of DAA treatment is unknown. The aim of this evaluation was to identify and characterize HBV reactivation among veterans treated with oral DAA therapy. This retrospective evaluation included 62,290 HCV-infected veterans completing oral DAA treatment...
February 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240747/antibodies-against-nonstructural-protein-1-protect-mice-from-dengue-virus-induced-mast-cell-activation
#16
Ya-Ting Chu, Shu-Wen Wan, Yu-Chang Chang, Chien-Kuo Lee, Betty A Wu-Hsieh, Robert Anderson, Yee-Shin Lin
Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). DHF/DSS patients have been reported to have increased levels of urinary histamine, chymase, and tryptase, which are major granule-associated mediators from mast cells. Previous studies also showed that DENV-infected human mast cells induce production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, suggesting a role played by mast cells in vascular perturbation as well as leukocyte recruitment. In this study, we show that DENV but not UV-inactivated DENV enhanced degranulation of mast cells and production of chemokines (MCP-1, RANTES, and IP-10) in a mouse model...
February 27, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240606/anticancer-kinase-inhibitors-impair-intracellular-viral-trafficking-and-exert-broad-spectrum-antiviral-effects
#17
Elena Bekerman, Gregory Neveu, Ana Shulla, Jennifer Brannan, Szu-Yuan Pu, Stanley Wang, Fei Xiao, Rina Barouch-Bentov, Russell R Bakken, Roberto Mateo, Jennifer Govero, Claude M Nagamine, Michael S Diamond, Steven De Jonghe, Piet Herdewijn, John M Dye, Glenn Randall, Shirit Einav
Global health is threatened by emerging viral infections, which largely lack effective vaccines or therapies. Targeting host pathways that are exploited by multiple viruses could offer broad-spectrum solutions. We previously reported that AAK1 and GAK, kinase regulators of the host adaptor proteins AP1 and AP2, are essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underlying mechanism and relevance to other viruses or in vivo infections remained unknown. Here, we have discovered that AP1 and AP2 cotraffic with HCV particles in live cells...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240600/the-antiviral-restriction-factor-ifn-induced-transmembrane-protein-3-prevents-cytokine-driven-cmv-pathogenesis
#18
Maria A Stacey, Simon Clare, Mathew Clement, Morgan Marsden, Juneid Abdul-Karim, Leanne Kane, Katherine Harcourt, Cordelia Brandt, Ceri A Fielding, Sarah E Smith, Rachael S Wash, Silvia Gimeno Brias, Gabrielle Stack, George Notley, Emma L Cambridge, Christopher Isherwood, Anneliese O Speak, Zoë Johnson, Walter Ferlin, Simon A Jones, Paul Kellam, Ian R Humphreys
The antiviral restriction factor IFN-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) inhibits cell entry of a number of viruses, and genetic diversity within IFITM3 determines susceptibility to viral disease in humans. Here, we used the murine CMV (MCMV) model of infection to determine that IFITM3 limits herpesvirus-associated pathogenesis without directly preventing virus replication. Instead, IFITM3 promoted antiviral cellular immunity through the restriction of virus-induced lymphopenia, apoptosis-independent NK cell death, and loss of T cells...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240509/community-based-prevalence-of-genital-human-papilloma-virus-hpv-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Sasidharanpillai Sabeena, Parvati V Bhat, Veena Kamath, Shashikala K Bhat, Sreekumaran Nair, Ravishankar n, Kiran Chandrabharani, Govindakarnavar Arunkumar
Introduction: Cervical cancer probably represents the best-studied human cancer caused by a viral infection and the causal association of this preventable cancer with human papilloma virus (HPV) is well established. Worldwide there is a scarcity of data regarding HPV prevalence with vast differences existing among populations. Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the community-based HPV prevalence estimates among asymptomatic women from urban and rural set ups and in participants of cancer screening clinics...
1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240504/solitary-extramedullary-plasmacytoma-of-the-colon-rectum-and-anus
#20
M Mjoli, N Vorajee, Y Naidoo, T Madiba
Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) is a neoplastic proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells that occur outside of the bone and bone marrow. It is rare, commonly occurring in the head and neck region, followed by the gastrointestinal tract. The aetiology, risk factors, natural history and consequent treatment are not well defined. We report an unusual case of SEP of the colon in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient. The patient was managed with colonic resection and made an uneventful recovery...
June 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
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