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Mark J Bailey, Felix Broecker, Paul E Leon, Gene S Tan
Antibodies play a crucial role in coupling the innate and adaptive immune responses against viral pathogens through their antigen binding domains and Fc-regions. Here, we describe how to measure the activation of Fc effector functions by monoclonal antibodies targeting the influenza virus hemagglutinin with the use of a genetically engineered Jurkat cell line expressing an activating type 1 Fc-FcγR. Using this method, the contribution of specific Fc-FcγR interactions conferred by immunoglobulins can be determined using an in vitro assay...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Gizem Ertürk, Rolf Lood
The ability to detect and quantitate biomolecules in complex solutions has always been highly sought-after within natural science; being used for the detection of biomarkers, contaminants, and other molecules of interest. A commonly used technique for this purpose is the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), where often one antibody is directed towards a specific target molecule, and a second labeled antibody is used for the detection of the primary antibody, allowing for the absolute quantification of the biomolecule under study...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Florentina Soto, Lei Zhao, Daniel Kerschensteiner
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) promote synapse formation in the developing nervous system. To what extent they maintain and can restore connections in the mature nervous system is unknown. Furthermore, how synaptic CAMs affect the growth of synapse-bearing neurites is unclear. Here, we use adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) to delete, re-, and overexpress the synaptic CAM NGL2 in individual retinal horizontal cells. When we removed NGL2 from horizontal cells, their axons overgrew and formed fewer synapses, irrespective of whether Ngl2 was deleted during development or in mature circuits...
March 19, 2018: ELife
Yi Chen, Zhenzhu Tang, Shuai Tang, Zhiyong Shen, Qiuying Zhu, Rongjian Li, Wenbo Huang, Yuman Huang, Fuxiong Liang, Lu Wang, Huanhuan Chen, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Sian Hsiang-Te Tsuei, Guanghua Lan
OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, the Chinese central government has implemented several harm reduction and preventive measures to control HIV. We aim to describe epidemiological trends of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis in Guangxi drug users after the policy implementation. METHOD: A total of 12,161-15,870 drug users in Guangxi, China, were recruited annually from 2009 to 2015 through community outreach or snowball sampling. The participants' demographics, behavior, and infection status were used to characterize rates of protective behaviors and disease prevalence (HIV, syphilis, and HCV)...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Erika Chenais, Karl Ståhl, Vittorio Guberti, Klaus Depner
The African swine fever epizootic in central and eastern European Union member states has a newly identified component involving virus transmission by wild boar and virus survival in the environment. Insights led to an update of the 3 accepted African swine fever transmission models to include a fourth cycle: wild boar-habitat.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Adrien Koeltz, Stephane Lastere, Sylvain Jean-Baptiste
During the 2014-2015 chikungunya outbreak in French Polynesia, 64 patients with confirmed chikungunya virus infection were admitted into intensive care. Sixty-three were nonpregnant adults; 11 had an atypical form, 21 had severe sepsis or septic shock, and 18 died. These findings indicate that critical illness frequently complicates the course of chikungunya virus infection.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Roukaya Al Hammoud, James R Murphy, Norma Pérez
Although transmission of rubella virus within the United States is rare, the risk for imported cases persists. We describe a rubella case in a newborn, conceived in Saudi Arabia, in Texas during 2017, highlighting the importance of active surveillance and early diagnosis of this disease.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ashley Howard, John Visintine, Jaime Fergie, Miguel Deleon
Since 2007, Zika virus has spread through the Pacific Islands and the Americas. Beginning in 2016, women in Brownsville, Texas, USA, were identified as possibly being exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy. We identified 18 pregnant women during 2016-2017 who had supportive serologic or molecular test results indicating Zika virus or flavivirus infection. Two infants were evaluated for congenital Zika syndrome after identification of prenatal microcephaly. Despite standard of care testing of mothers and neonates, comparative results were unreliable for mothers and infants, which highlights the need for clinical and epidemiologic evidence for an accurate diagnosis...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shu-Chia Hu, Chao-Lung Hsu, Ming-Shiuh Lee, Yang-Chang Tu, Jen-Chieh Chang, Chieh-Hao Wu, Shu-Hwae Lee, Lu-Jen Ting, Kwok-Rong Tsai, Ming-Chu Cheng, Wen-Jane Tu, Wei-Cheng Hsu
A putative new lyssavirus was found in 2 Japanese pipistrelles (Pipistrellus abramus) in Taiwan in 2016 and 2017. The concatenated coding regions of the virus showed 62.9%-75.1% nucleotide identities to the other 16 species of lyssavirus, suggesting that it may be representative of a new species of this virus.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Denis Kolbasov, Ilya Titov, Sodnom Tsybanov, Andrey Gogin, Alexander Malogolovkin
African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Wei Liu, Lili Deng, Xianyu Lin, Ximing Wang, Yuyan Ma, Qiuyun Deng, Xiaohua Xue, Ge Zhong, Li Jin
During May-August 2016, mumps virus genotype K was detected in 12 Vietnam citizens who entered China at the Shuikou border crossing and 1 girl from China. We provide evidence that mumps genotype K is circulating in Vietnam and was imported to China from Vietnam.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Juarez P Dias, Maria da Conceição N Costa, Gubio Soares Campos, Enny S Paixão, Marcio S Natividade, Florisneide R Barreto, Martha Suely C Itaparica, Cristina Goes, Francisca L S Oliveira, Eloisa B Santana, Neusa S J Silva, Carlos A A Brito, Laura C Rodrigues, Silvia Inez Sardi, Ramon C Saavedra, Maria Glória Teixeira
Chikungunya has had a substantial impact on public health because of the magnitude of its epidemics and its highly debilitating symptoms. We estimated the seroprevalence, proportion of symptomatic cases, and proportion of chronic form of disease after introduction of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2 cities in Brazil. We conducted the population-based study through household interviews and serologic surveys during October-December 2015. In Feira de Santana, we conducted a serologic survey of 385 persons; 57.1% were CHIKV-positive...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Seiya Yamayoshi, Maki Kiso, Atsuhiro Yasuhara, Mutsumi Ito, Yuelong Shu, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
To clarify the threat posed by emergence of highly pathogenic influenza A(H7N9) virus infection among humans, we characterized the viral polymerase complex. Polymerase basic 2-482R, polymerase basic 2-588V, and polymerase acidic-497R individually or additively enhanced virus polymerase activity, indicating that multiple replication-enhancing mutations in 1 isolate may contribute to virulence.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Amit A Vernekar, Gilles Berger, Anna E Czapar, Frank A Veliz, David I Wang, Nicole F Steinmetz, Stephen J Lippard
Efficient loading of drugs in novel delivery agents has the potential to substantially improve therapy by targeting the diseased tissue while avoiding unwanted side effects. Here we report the first systematic study of the loading mechanism of phenanthriplatin and its analogs into tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), previously used by our group as an efficient carrier for anticancer drug delivery. A detailed investigation of the preferential uptake of phenanthriplatin in its aquated form (∼2000 molecules per TMV particle versus ∼1000 for the chlorido form) is provided...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Adriely Goes, Gregor Fuhrmann
Biogenic and biomimetic therapeutics are a relatively new class of systems that are of physiological origin and/or take advantage of natural pathways, or aim at mimicking these to improve selective interaction with target tissue. The number of biogenic and bioengineered avenues for drug therapy and diagnostics has multiplied over the past years for many applications, indicating the high expectations associated with this biological route. Nevertheless, the use of "bio"-related approaches for treating or diagnosing infectious diseases is still rare...
March 19, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Zhiyan Wang, Chaochao Lv, Xin Xu, Xiangdong Li, Yali Yao, Xiaojing Gao, Zhe Sun, Yuzhou Wang, Yujie Sun, Yan Xiao, Kegong Tian
Rotavirus A (RVA) G9 genotype is recognized as an emerging genotype which is spreading worldwide, however, our knowledge on pathogenicity of this virus is limited. In this study, porcine RVA strain HN03 was successfully isolated on MA-104 cells, and the isolate was propagated continuously for 7 passages after a virus cloning at passage 3. The virus titers from 4 to 10 passages ranged from 107.1 to 108.1 TCID50 /ml. The growth curve of HN03 strain in cell culture was determined, and the virus production dynamics was confirmed by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Alajos Pár, Gabriella Pár
More than 25 years after the discovery of hepatitis C virus, the development of the direct acting antivirals can lead to the regional or long-term global elimination of the virus with over 90% efficacy. This is the success of basic and clinical translational research. Yet, some unsolved challanges remain, such as the great number of unidentified patients who are not aware of their condition, the limited access to the therapy due to the high prices of the drugs, and the treatment of resistance-associated variants...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Scott Ledger, Annett Howe, Stuart Turville, Anupriya Aggarwal, Borislav Savkovic, Andrew Ong, Orit Wolstein, Maureen Boyd, Michelle Millington, Paul R Gorry, John M Murray, Geoff Symonds
The gene therapeutic Cal-1 comprises the anti-HIV agents: sh5, a short hairpin RNA to CCR5 that down-regulates CCR5 expression; and maC46 (C46), a peptide that inhibits viral fusion with the cell membrane. These constructs were assessed for inhibition of viral replication and selective cell expansion in a number of settings. METHODS: HIV replication, selective outgrowth and cell surface viral binding were analysed with a single cycle infection assay of 6 pseudotyped HIV strains and a static and longitudinal passaging of MOLT4/CCR5 cells with HIV...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
Pragya Agarwala, Ekta Gupta, Manish Chandra Choudhary, Viniyendra Pamecha
Most cases of chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in solid organ transplant recipients are attributable to genotype 3. Although India is hyperendemic for HEV genotype 1, chronic infection in transplant patients has not been reported. In this study, 30 liver transplant recipients were followed up by systematic testing for various markers of HEV (IgM, IgG, HEV-Ag, and RNA) on blood and stool samples obtained pre-transplant, and then at 3 and 6 months post-transplant to look for HEV exposure and persistence...
March 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Rinat Sultanov, Olga Lebedeva, Georgij Arapidi, Maria Lagarkova, Sergei Kiselev
The genetic reprogramming technology allows generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006) [1]. iPSCs have the ability to self-renew, and to differentiate into any type of somatic cells, and are considered as a promising tool for drug development, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine. The reprogramming factors (oct4, sox2, klf4, c-myc) can be delivered to the cell nucleus either by vectors integrating into the genome (lentiviruses, retroviruses) or by non-integrative methods (e...
April 2018: Data in Brief
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