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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538874/clinical-and-laboratory-characteristics-staging-and-outcomes-of-individuals-with-aids-associated-kaposi-s-sarcoma-at-an-university-hospital
#1
Catarina Tenório de Lima, Paulo Sérgio Ramos de Araújo, Heberton Medeiros de Teixeira, Josemir Belo Dos Santos, Vera Magalhães da Silveira
Background: Kaposi's sarcoma continues to be the most common human immunodeficiency virus - associated neoplasm with considerable morbidity and mortality. Objective: To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics, initial staging, and outcomes of aids patients with Kaposi's sarcoma at an university hospital of Recife, Pernambuco. Methods: This is a descriptive study with analytic character, retrospective, of a case series between 2004 and 2014...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538739/multiplex-pcr-method-for-minion-and-illumina-sequencing-of-zika-and-other-virus-genomes-directly-from-clinical-samples
#2
Joshua Quick, Nathan D Grubaugh, Steven T Pullan, Ingra M Claro, Andrew D Smith, Karthik Gangavarapu, Glenn Oliveira, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Thomas F Rogers, Nathan A Beutler, Dennis R Burton, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Jaqueline Goes de Jesus, Marta Giovanetti, Sarah C Hill, Allison Black, Trevor Bedford, Miles W Carroll, Marcio Nunes, Luiz Carlos Alcantara, Ester C Sabino, Sally A Baylis, Nuno R Faria, Matthew Loose, Jared T Simpson, Oliver G Pybus, Kristian G Andersen, Nicholas J Loman
Genome sequencing has become a powerful tool for studying emerging infectious diseases; however, genome sequencing directly from clinical samples (i.e., without isolation and culture) remains challenging for viruses such as Zika, for which metagenomic sequencing methods may generate insufficient numbers of viral reads. Here we present a protocol for generating coding-sequence-complete genomes, comprising an online primer design tool, a novel multiplex PCR enrichment protocol, optimized library preparation methods for the portable MinION sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) and the Illumina range of instruments, and a bioinformatics pipeline for generating consensus sequences...
June 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538734/zika-virus-evolution-and-spread-in-the-americas
#3
Hayden C Metsky, Christian B Matranga, Shirlee Wohl, Stephen F Schaffner, Catherine A Freije, Sarah M Winnicki, Kendra West, James Qu, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Aaron E Lin, Christopher H Tomkins-Tinch, Simon H Ye, Daniel J Park, Cynthia Y Luo, Kayla G Barnes, Rickey R Shah, Bridget Chak, Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Edson Delatorre, Yasmine R Vieira, Lauren M Paul, Amanda L Tan, Carolyn M Barcellona, Mario C Porcelli, Chalmers Vasquez, Andrew C Cannons, Marshall R Cone, Kelly N Hogan, Edgar W Kopp, Joshua J Anzinger, Kimberly F Garcia, Leda A Parham, Rosa M Gélvez Ramírez, Maria C Miranda Montoya, Diana P Rojas, Catherine M Brown, Scott Hennigan, Brandon Sabina, Sarah Scotland, Karthik Gangavarapu, Nathan D Grubaugh, Glenn Oliveira, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Andrew Rambaut, Lee Gehrke, Sandra Smole, M Elizabeth Halloran, Luis Villar, Salim Mattar, Ivette Lorenzana, Jose Cerbino-Neto, Clarissa Valim, Wim Degrave, Patricia T Bozza, Andreas Gnirke, Kristian G Andersen, Sharon Isern, Scott F Michael, Fernando A Bozza, Thiago M L Souza, Irene Bosch, Nathan L Yozwiak, Bronwyn L MacInnis, Pardis C Sabeti
Although the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas and its link to birth defects have attracted a great deal of attention, much remains unknown about ZIKV disease epidemiology and ZIKV evolution, in part owing to a lack of genomic data. Here we address this gap in knowledge by using multiple sequencing approaches to generate 110 ZIKV genomes from clinical and mosquito samples from 10 countries and territories, greatly expanding the observed viral genetic diversity from this outbreak. We analysed the timing and patterns of introductions into distinct geographic regions; our phylogenetic evidence suggests rapid expansion of the outbreak in Brazil and multiple introductions of outbreak strains into Puerto Rico, Honduras, Colombia, other Caribbean islands, and the continental United States...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538727/establishment-and-cryptic-transmission-of-zika-virus-in-brazil-and-the-americas
#4
N R Faria, J Quick, I M Claro, J Thézé, J G de Jesus, M Giovanetti, M U G Kraemer, S C Hill, A Black, A C da Costa, L C Franco, S P Silva, C-H Wu, J Raghwani, S Cauchemez, L du Plessis, M P Verotti, W K de Oliveira, E H Carmo, G E Coelho, A C F S Santelli, L C Vinhal, C M Henriques, J T Simpson, M Loose, K G Andersen, N D Grubaugh, S Somasekar, C Y Chiu, J E Muñoz-Medina, C R Gonzalez-Bonilla, C F Arias, L L Lewis-Ximenez, S A Baylis, A O Chieppe, S F Aguiar, C A Fernandes, P S Lemos, B L S Nascimento, H A O Monteiro, I C Siqueira, M G de Queiroz, T R de Souza, J F Bezerra, M R Lemos, G F Pereira, D Loudal, L C Moura, R Dhalia, R F França, T Magalhães, E T Marques, T Jaenisch, G L Wallau, M C de Lima, V Nascimento, E M de Cerqueira, M M de Lima, D L Mascarenhas, J P Moura Neto, A S Levin, T R Tozetto-Mendoza, S N Fonseca, M C Mendes-Correa, F P Milagres, A Segurado, E C Holmes, A Rambaut, T Bedford, M R T Nunes, E C Sabino, L C J Alcantara, N J Loman, O G Pybus
Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was first confirmed in May 2015 in northeast Brazil. Brazil has had the highest number of reported ZIKV cases worldwide (more than 200,000 by 24 December 2016) and the most cases associated with microcephaly and other birth defects (2,366 confirmed by 31 December 2016). Since the initial detection of ZIKV in Brazil, more than 45 countries in the Americas have reported local ZIKV transmission, with 24 of these reporting severe ZIKV-associated disease. However, the origin and epidemic history of ZIKV in Brazil and the Americas remain poorly understood, despite the value of this information for interpreting observed trends in reported microcephaly...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538723/genomic-epidemiology-reveals-multiple-introductions-of-zika-virus-into-the-united-states
#5
Nathan D Grubaugh, Jason T Ladner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Gytis Dudas, Amanda L Tan, Karthik Gangavarapu, Michael R Wiley, Stephen White, Julien Thézé, Diogo M Magnani, Karla Prieto, Daniel Reyes, Andrea M Bingham, Lauren M Paul, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Glenn Oliveira, Darryl Pronty, Carolyn M Barcellona, Hayden C Metsky, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Kayla G Barnes, Bridget Chak, Catherine A Freije, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Andreas Gnirke, Cynthia Luo, Bronwyn MacInnis, Christian B Matranga, Daniel J Park, James Qu, Stephen F Schaffner, Christopher Tomkins-Tinch, Kendra L West, Sarah M Winnicki, Shirlee Wohl, Nathan L Yozwiak, Joshua Quick, Joseph R Fauver, Kamran Khan, Shannon E Brent, Robert C Reiner, Paola N Lichtenberger, Michael J Ricciardi, Varian K Bailey, David I Watkins, Marshall R Cone, Edgar W Kopp, Kelly N Hogan, Andrew C Cannons, Reynald Jean, Andrew J Monaghan, Robert F Garry, Nicholas J Loman, Nuno R Faria, Mario C Porcelli, Chalmers Vasquez, Elyse R Nagle, Derek A T Cummings, Danielle Stanek, Andrew Rambaut, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Pardis C Sabeti, Leah D Gillis, Scott F Michael, Trevor Bedford, Oliver G Pybus, Sharon Isern, Gustavo Palacios, Kristian G Andersen
Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an unprecedented epidemic linked to severe congenital abnormalities. In July 2016, mosquito-borne ZIKV transmission was reported in the continental United States; since then, hundreds of locally acquired infections have been reported in Florida. To gain insights into the timing, source, and likely route(s) of ZIKV introduction, we tracked the virus from its first detection in Florida by sequencing ZIKV genomes from infected patients and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. We show that at least 4 introductions, but potentially as many as 40, contributed to the outbreak in Florida and that local transmission is likely to have started in the spring of 2016-several months before its initial detection...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538705/uk-pigs-at-the-time-of-slaughter-investigation-into-the-correlation-of-infection-with-prrsv-and-hev
#6
Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sylvia Grierson, Tanya Cheney, Falko Steinbach, Bhudipa Choudhury, Susanna Williamson
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and are both globally prevalent in the pig population. While HEV does not cause clinical disease in pigs, its zoonotic potential has raised concerns in the food safety sector. PRRS has become endemic in the United Kingdom (UK) since its introduction in 1991, and continues to cause considerable economic losses to the swine industry. A better understanding of the current prevalence and diversity of PRRSV and HEV in the UK, and their potential association, is needed to assess risks and target control measures appropriately...
May 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538682/enteric-viruses-and-fecal-bacteria-indicators-to-assess-groundwater-quality-and-suitability-for-irrigation
#7
Osvalda De Giglio, Giuseppina Caggiano, Francesco Bagordo, Giovanna Barbuti, Silvia Brigida, Federica Lugoli, Tiziana Grassi, Giuseppina La Rosa, Luca Lucentini, Vito Felice Uricchio, Antonella De Donno, Maria Teresa Montagna
According to Italian Ministerial Decree No. 185 of 12 June 2003, water is considered suitable for irrigation if levels of fecal bacteria (i.e., Escherichia coli and Salmonella) are within certain parameters. The detection of other microorganisms is not required. The aim of this study is to determine the bacteriological quality of groundwater used for irrigation and the occurrence of enteric viruses (Norovirus, Enterovirus, Rotavirus, Hepatovirus A), and to compare the presence of viruses with the fecal bacteria indicators...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538421/malnutrition-is-associated-with-hiv-infection-in-children-less-than-5-years-in-bobo-dioulasso-city-burkina-faso-a-case-control-study
#8
Ghislain Gnimbar Poda, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Jane C-J Chao
Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and malnutrition are still 2 major health issues in sub-Saharan Africa including Burkina Faso where few studies have been conducted on child malnutrition and HIV infection. This study assessed the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV infection and also compared the prevalence of malnutrition in terms of an inadequate diet, underweight, stunting, and wasting among HIV-infected and uninfected children less than 5 years in Bobo-Dioulasso city, Burkina Faso...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538269/novel-therapies-and-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-the-management-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#9
Joao M Serigado, Manhal Izzy, Harmit Kalia
Chronic hepatitis B is a persistent and progressive inflammatory liver disease caused by infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). More than 240 million individuals are infected with HBV worldwide and hepatitis B accounts for an estimated 650 000 deaths annually. Approximately up to 30% of chronically infected patients will develop complications of HBV infection including, but not limited to, liver cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently approved therapies have improved clinical outcomes, but have a considerable side-effect profile, elevated cost, and a finite course of treatment...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538268/etiological-factors-of-chronic-hepatitis-in-italy-a-2014-national-survey
#10
Tommaso Stroffolini, Evangelista Sagnelli, Piero L Almasio, Angelo Andriulli, Antonina Smedile, Mario Pirisi, Caterina Sagnelli, Maurizio Russello, Nicola Coppola, Massimo de Luca, Mariantonietta Pisaturo, Floriano Rosina, Giovanni B Gaeta
BACKGROUND: The last Italian prevalence survey on chronic hepatitis (CH) conducted in 2001 showed that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was the main agent associated with CH. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological changes in CH occurring after 13 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Enrollment of 1392 CH consecutive patients referred to 16 Italian liver units in 2014 scattered all over the country (four in the North, four in the Center, four in the South, and four in the Islands) was performed...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538267/cirrhosis-has-no-impact-on-therapeutic-responses-of-entecavir-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#11
Pin-Chao Wang, Tao-Yang Wei, Tai-Chung Tseng, Hans Hsienhong Lin, Chia-Chi Wang
OBJECTIVE: As the efficacy of a direct antiviral agent is reduced in cirrhotic chronic hepatitis C patients, prolonged duration of treatment or addition of ribavirin is recommended to improve the rates of sustained virological response. However, the impact of cirrhosis on the efficacy of antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remained unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study screened entecavir (ETV)-treated CHB patients in Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital from January 2007 till October 2014...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538243/bk-virus-as-a-mediator-of-graft-dysfunction-following-kidney-transplantation
#12
Stephanie G Yi, Richard J Knight, Keri E Lunsford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: BK virus is a significant risk factor for kidney allograft dysfunction and loss among renal transplant recipients. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment except for the reduction of immunosuppression. In this review, we discuss diagnostic challenges and current treatment options for BK in kidney transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiviral and antibiotic therapies have been employed for BK viraemia with variable efficacy. In addition, novel therapeutic regimens such as adoptive transfer of targeted T cells have been described as possible treatment options for recipients with BK nephropathy...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538186/an-engineered-virus-library-as-a-resource-for-the-spectrum-wide-exploration-of-virus-and-vector-diversity
#13
Wenli Zhang, Jun Fu, Jing Liu, Hailong Wang, Maren Schiwon, Sebastian Janz, Lukas Schaffarczyk, Lukas von der Goltz, Eric Ehrke-Schulz, Johannes Dörner, Manish Solanki, Philip Boehme, Thorsten Bergmann, Andre Lieber, Chris Lauber, Andreas Dahl, Andreas Petzold, Youming Zhang, A Francis Stewart, Anja Ehrhardt
Adenoviruses (Ads) are large human-pathogenic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses presenting an enormous natural diversity associated with a broad variety of diseases. However, only a small fraction of adenoviruses has been explored in basic virology and biomedical research, highlighting the need to develop robust and adaptable methodologies and resources. We developed a method for high-throughput direct cloning and engineering of adenoviral genomes from different sources utilizing advanced linear-linear homologous recombination (LLHR) and linear-circular homologous recombination (LCHR)...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538182/targeting-metabolic-reprogramming-by-influenza-infection-for-therapeutic-intervention
#14
Heather S Smallwood, Susu Duan, Marie Morfouace, Svetlana Rezinciuc, Barry L Shulkin, Anang Shelat, Erika E Zink, Sandra Milasta, Resha Bajracharya, Ajayi J Oluwaseum, Martine F Roussel, Douglas R Green, Ljiljana Pasa-Tolic, Paul G Thomas
Influenza is a worldwide health and financial burden posing a significant risk to the immune-compromised, obese, diabetic, elderly, and pediatric populations. We identified increases in glucose metabolism in the lungs of pediatric patients infected with respiratory pathogens. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we found metabolic changes occurring after influenza infection in primary human respiratory cells and validated infection-associated increases in c-Myc, glycolysis, and glutaminolysis. We confirmed these findings with a metabolic drug screen that identified the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 as a regulator of infectious virus production...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538165/the-complexity-in-herpesvirus-entry
#15
REVIEW
Karthik Sathiyamoorthy, Jia Chen, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
Enveloped viruses have evolved diverse transmembrane proteins and protein complexes to enable host cell entry by regulating and activating membrane fusion in a target cell-specific manner. In general terms, the entry process requires a receptor binding step, an activation step and a membrane fusion step, which can be encoded within a single viral protein or distributed among multiple viral proteins. HIV and influenza virus, for example, encode all of these functions in a single trimeric glycoprotein, HIV env or influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)...
May 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537896/5t4-oncofoetal-glycoprotein-an-old-target-for-a-novel-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy
#16
Federica Cappuccini, Emily Pollock, Stephen Stribbling, Adrian V S Hill, Irina Redchenko
The tumour-associated antigen 5T4 is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. However to date, reported 5T4-specific cellular immune responses induced by various immunisation platforms have been largely weak or non-existent. In the present study, we have evaluated a heterologous prime boost regime based on the simian adenovirus ChAdOx1 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing 5T4 for immunogenicity and tumour protective efficacy in a mouse cancer model. Vaccination-induced immune responses were strong, durable and attributable primarily to CD8+ T cells...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535669/acute-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-but-not-d-is-still-prevalent-in-mongolia-a-time-trend-analysis
#17
Oidov Baatarkhuu, Hye Won Lee, Jacob George, Dashchirev Munkh-Orshikh, Baasankhuu Enkhtuvshin, Sosorbaram Ariunaa, Mohammed Eslam, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Do Young Kim
Background/Aims: Mongolia has one of the highest hepatitis A, C, B and D infection incidences worldwide. We sought to investigate changes in the proportion of acute viral hepatitis types in Mongolia over the last decade. Methods: The cohort comprised 546 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis from January 2012 to December 2014 in Ulaanbaatar Hospital, Mongolia. A time trend analysis investigating the change in proportion of acute hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection among the cohort with respect to a previous published study was undertaken...
May 2, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535668/stability-of-retroviral-vectors-against-ultracentrifugation-is-determined-by-the-viral-internal-core-and-envelope-proteins-used-for-pseudotyping
#18
Soo-Hyun Kim, Kwang-Il Lim
Retroviral and lentiviral vectors are mostly pseudotyped and often purified and concentrated via ultracentrifugation. In this study, we quantified and compared the stabilities of retroviral [murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based] and lentiviral [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-based] vectors pseudotyped with relatively mechanically stable envelope proteins, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoproteins (VSVGs), and the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins against ultracentrifugation. Lentiviral genomic and functional particles were more stable than the corresponding retroviral particles against ultracentrifugation when pseudotyped with VSVGs...
May 2, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535626/-expression-and-prognostic-significance-of-microenvironment-related-prognostic-factors-in-patients-with-classical-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#19
T T Wang, S X Li, B Xia, H F Zhao, W Xu, H L Yang, X F Wang, Y Yu, B C Sun, Y Z Zhang
Objective: To observe the expression of three microenvironment related prognostic factors, i. e. programmed death 1 (PD-1), forkhead box protein 3(FOXP3) and colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor(CSF-1R) protein in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (CHL) patients, and to explore the correlation between the protein expression and the prognosis of the patients. Methods: A total of 45 cases of CHL patients, who had been admitted to the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital and Chinese PLA General Hospital from February 2005 to August 2010 were analyzed, including clinical features, prognostic factors, and treatment regimens...
May 16, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535437/comparative-evaluation-of-three-fda-approved-hiv-ag-ab-combination-tests-using-a-genetically-diverse-hiv-panel-and-diagnostic-specimens
#20
Xiaoxing Qiu, Lori Sokoll, Paul Yip, Debra J Elliott, Renu Dua, Phaedre Mohr, Xiao Yan Wang, Megan Spencer, Priscilla Swanson, George J Dawson, John Hackett
BACKGROUND: HIV Ag/Ab combination assays are recommended by CDC for routine screening and several HIV Ag/Ab combination tests are now FDA-approved. Maintaining high specificity and consistent sensitivity across diverse HIV strains is critical for these assays to accurately detect HIV infection and expedite delivery of patient results. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate performance of three FDA-approved HIV tests: ARCHITECT HIV Combo (Abbott), ADVIA Centaur HIV Combo (Siemens) and BioPlex HIV Ag-Ab (Bio-Rad)...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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