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tick born infections

Richard Lindqvist, Chaitanya Kurhade, Jonathan D Gilthorpe, Anna K Överby
BACKGROUND: Flaviviruses are a group of diverse and emerging arboviruses and an immense global health problem. A number of flaviviruses are neurotropic, causing severe encephalitis and even death. Type I interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense of the innate immune system against flavivirus infection. IFNs elicit the concerted action of numerous interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to restrict both virus infection and replication. Viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible) is an ISG with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple flaviviruses in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jinho Park, Du-Gyeong Han, Ji-Hyoung Ryu, Jeong-Byoung Chae, Joon-Seok Chae, Do-Hyeon Yu, Bae-Keun Park, Hyeon-Cheol Kim, Kyoung-Seong Choi
Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne infectious disease that affects both human and animal health. This study was performed to characterize and investigate the prevalence of infection with Anaplasma bovis in Holstein cattle originating from two regions in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Blood samples (n = 151; 80 from Namwon and 71 from Jeju Island) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and the prevalence of A. bovis infection was compared before and after grazing. In Namwon, A. bovis infection was not detected, while in the Jeju Island, A...
March 12, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Mengfei Wang, Dan Zhu, Jianfeng Dai, Zhengwei Zhong, Yi Zhang, Jingwen Wang
Ticks are important disease vectors as they transmit a variety of human and animal pathogens worldwide. Symbionts that co-evolved with ticks confer crucial benefits to their host in nutrition metabolism, fecundity and vector competence. Although over a hundred-tick species have been identified in China, general information of tick symbiosis is limited. Here, we visualized the tissue distribution of Coxiella sp. and Rickettsia sp. in lab reared Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides by fluorescent in situ hybridization...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Anne-Claire Lagrée, Clotilde Rouxel, Maëllys Kevin, Thibaud Dugat, Guillaume Girault, Benoît Durand, Martin Pfeffer, Cornelia Silaghi, Marion Nieder, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Nadia Haddad
BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic tick-borne intracellular alpha-proteobacterium causing tick-borne fever, which leads to significant economic losses in domestic ruminants in Europe. Its epidemiological cycles are complex and reservoir host species of bovine strains have not yet been identified. Given that little genetic information is available on strains circulating within a defined bovine environment, our objective was to assess the genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum obtained from the same farms over time...
March 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Yanfang Zhang, Shu Shen, Yaohui Fang, Jinliang Liu, Zhengyuan Su, Jinhao Liang, Zhong Zhang, Qiaoli Wu, Cheng Wang, Abulikemu Abudurexiti, Zhihong Hu, Yujiang Zhang, Fei Deng
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne natural focal disease with a mortality rate of approximately 50%. CCHFV is widely prevalent in Africa, southern Asia, the Middle East, and southeast Europe. CCHF outbreaks have been reported previously in Xinjiang province, China, especially in its southern region. Epidemiological surveys conducted on ticks and animals have revealed the presence of CCHFV strains in ticks, rodents, and infected individuals from cities and counties in southern Xinjiang...
March 8, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Juntra Wattanamethanont, Morakot Kaewthamasorn, Sonthaya Tiawsirisup
Ixodid ticks are important vectors of tick-borne disease agents affecting humans and animals, with wildlife often serving as important reservoirs. This study examined protozoal and bacterial infection in questing ticks in forest habitats in Chonburi Province, Thailand in 2015, using PCR and DNA sequencing techniques. A total of 12,184 ticks were morphologically identified to species and a subset of ticks were confirmed by PCR, targeting the tick mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Tick species collected included Haemaphysalis lagrangei (92...
March 5, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Ιlias Chaligiannis, Isabel G Fernández de Mera, Anna Papa, Smaragda Sotiraki, José de la Fuente
Ticks are vectors for a variety of human and animal pathogens (bacteria, protozoa and viruses). In order to investigate the pathogens carried by ticks in Greece, a total of 179 adult ticks (114 female and 65 male) were collected from domestic animals (sheep, goats and dogs) from 14 prefectures of six regions of Greece. Among them, 40 were Dermacentor marginatus, 25 Haemaphysalis parva, 22 H. sulcata, one H. punctata, 13 Ixodes gibbosus, 77 Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and one R. bursa. All ticks were tested for the presence of DNA of Anaplasma spp...
March 7, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Klaudia Sowula, Jacek Składzień, Joanna Szaleniec, Jolanta Gawlik
infections are borreliosis (Lyme disease) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Lately there is growing incidence of Bartonella, Babesia, Anaplasma and Brucella co-infections. The similarity between the symptoms of tick-borne diseases and other pathologies causes serious diagnostic issues. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 216 patients aged 18-55, who presented to the outpatient clinic for tick-borne diseases in the years 2014-2016, were enrolled in the study. The patients had been diagnosed with Lyme disease and co-infections...
February 28, 2018: Otolaryngologia Polska
Nischay Mishra, Adrian Caciula, Adam Price, Riddhi Thakkar, James Ng, Lokendra V Chauhan, Komal Jain, Xiaoyu Che, Diego A Espinosa, Magelda Montoya Cruz, Angel Balmaseda, Eric H Sullivan, Jigar J Patel, Richard G Jarman, Jennifer L Rakeman, Christina T Egan, Chantal B E M Reusken, Marion P G Koopmans, Eva Harris, Rafal Tokarz, Thomas Briese, W Ian Lipkin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is implicated in fetal stillbirth, microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, and ocular anomalies following vertical transmission from infected mothers. In adults, infection may trigger autoimmune inflammatory polyneuropathy. Transmission most commonly follows the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes but may also occur through sexual intercourse or receipt of blood products. Definitive diagnosis through detection of viral RNA is possible in serum or plasma within 10 days of disease onset, in whole blood within 3 weeks of onset, and in semen for up to 3 months...
March 6, 2018: MBio
Hein Sprong, Tal Azagi, Dieuwertje Hoornstra, Ard M Nijhof, Sarah Knorr, M Ewoud Baarsma, Joppe W Hovius
Lyme borreliosis (LB) and other Ixodes ricinus-borne diseases (TBDs) are diseases that emerge from interactions of humans and domestic animals with infected ticks in nature. Nature, environmental and health policies at (inter)national and local levels affect the risk, disease burden and costs of TBDs. Knowledge on ticks, their pathogens and the diseases they cause have been increasing, and resulted in the discovery of a diversity of control options, which often are not highly effective on their own. Control strategies involving concerted actions from human and animal health sectors as well as from nature managers have not been formulated, let alone implemented...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Scott R Larson, Xia Lee, Susan M Paskewitz
Two species of mice, the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque; Rodentia: Cricetidae) and the woodland deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner; Rodentia: Cricetidae), serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens in many parts of North America. However, the role P. maniculatus plays in the amplification and maintenance of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichiaceae) and Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) is not well understood. In northern Wisconsin, from 2012 to 2014, 560 unique mice were captured at 83 sites distributed across five forests...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Vladislav A Lobanov, Maristela Peckle, Carlos L Massard, W Brad Scandrett, Alvin A Gajadhar
BACKGROUND: Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is an economically significant infection of horses and other equine species caused by the tick-borne protozoa Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. The long-term carrier state in infected animals makes importation of such subclinical cases a major risk factor for the introduction of EP into non-enzootic areas. Regulatory testing for EP relies on screening of equines by serological methods. The definitive diagnosis of EP infection in individual animals will benefit from the availability of sensitive direct detection methods, for example, when used as confirmatory assays for non-negative serological test results...
March 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Cassandra L Olds, Kathleen L Mason, Glen A Scoles
BACKGROUND: East Coast fever (ECF) is a devastating disease of cattle and a significant constraint to improvement of livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. The protozoan parasite causing ECF, Theileria parva, undergoes obligate sexual stage development in its tick vector Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Tick-borne acquisition and transmission occurs transstadially; larval and nymphal ticks acquire infection while feeding and transmit to cattle when they feed after molting to the next stage...
March 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Snorre Stuen, Wenche Okstad, Anne Mette Sagen
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF), is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5-6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A...
February 28, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Stephen Tembo, Nicola E Collins, Kgomotso P Sibeko-Matjila, Milana Troskie, Ilse Vorster, Charles Byaruhanga, Marinda C Oosthuizen
Little is known about the occurrence of haemoparasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Mungwi District of Northern Province, Zambia. Clinical signs and post mortem lesions are pathognomonic of mixed tick-borne infections especially babesiosis, anaplasmosis and East Coast fever. The main objective of this study was to screen selected communal herds of cattle for tick-borne haemoparasites, and identify the tick vectors associated with the high cattle mortalities due to suspected tick-borne diseases in the local breeds of cattle grazing along the banks of the Chambeshi River in Mungwi District, Northern Province, Zambia...
February 16, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Álvaro A Faccini-Martínez, María L Félix, María T Armua-Fernandez, José M Venzal
Rickettsia parkeri, a member of the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, was first confirmed as an etiological agent of human rickettsiosis in 2004. Nearly all cases are characterized by an inoculation eschar, and no fatalities have been reported. In Uruguay, probable human cases of R. parkeri infection (confused initially with R. conorii infection) have been described since 1990 using the clinical name "cutaneous-ganglionar" rickettsiosis. This is the only tick-borne rickettsiosis reported in the country...
February 21, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Ana Cláudia Norte, David Costantini, Pedro Miguel Araújo, Marcel Eens, Jaime Albino Ramos, Dieter Heylen
By draining resources, microparasites can negatively affect the host fitness, which in turn can result in reduced transmission when virulence leads to reductions in host population size. Therefore, for a microparasite to persist in nature, the level of harm it can do to its host is expected to be limited. We tested this hypothesis for tick-borne Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infections in the blackbird Turdus merula, one of the most important avian reservoir hosts in Europe. Experimental and observational data were combined to examine the physiological effects caused by B...
February 16, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Lucía Varela-Castro, Carla Zuddas, Nieves Ortega, Emmanuel Serrano, Jesús Salinas, Joaquim Castellà, Raquel Castillo-Contreras, João Carvalho, Santiago Lavín, Gregorio Mentaberre
Ruminant livestock is the main reservoir of Coxiella burnetii (Cb), but little is known about the role of wildlife and ticks in its epidemiology. The Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica, Schinz 1838) population of "Ports de Tortosa i Beseit" (NE Spain) suffers intense tick infestations and low reproduction rates. This study aims to (1) assess the relationship between infection in ibexes (detection of serum antibodies and/or of Cb DNA in tissues) and Cb DNA presence in ticks hosted by the same ibexes; and (2) identify Cb associated risk factors...
February 21, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Valentina Chisu, Cipriano Foxi, Roberto Mannu, Giuseppe Satta, Giovanna Masala
Sardinia is a hotspot for studying tick-borne diseases in the Mediterranean region, where cases of notifiable tick-borne diseases are increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of tick-borne bacteria of medical and veterinary importance in ixodid ticks collected from domestic and wild animals, humans, and vegetation from different collection sites in Sardinia. Using standard PCR and sequencing techniques, the presence of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella species, as well as Coxiella burnetii was evaluated...
February 17, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Aikaterini Alexandra Daskalaki, Angela Monica Ionică, Georgiana Deak, Călin Mircea Gherman, Gianluca D'Amico, Ioana Raluca Păstrav, Ioana Adriana Matei, Cristian Domșa, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
Red foxes, Vulpes vulpes are among the most widely spread carnivores in the world, invading also urban areas and are often parasitized by various ticks and directly exposed to several vector-borne pathogens, including the commonly present "Theileria annae". Considering the paucity of data on the possible vectors of this pathogen and the presence of the infection in various locations across the globe, the aim of our study was to understand the potential role of various environmental factors on the distribution of "T...
February 3, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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