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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730326/infectious-diseases-causing-autonomic-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Francisco Javier Carod Artal
OBJECTIVES: To review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Review of published papers indexed in medline/embase. RESULTS: Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus), herpes viruses, flavivirus, enterovirus 71 and lyssavirus infections. Autonomic dysfunction is relatively common in HIV-infected patients and heart rate variability is reduced even in early stages of infection...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728938/didelphis-albiventris-naturally-infected-with-hepatozoon-canis-in-southeastern-brazil
#2
Maria Regina Lucas da Silva, Felipe Fornazari, Larissa de Castro Demoner, Carlos Roberto Teixeira, Helio Langoni, Lucia Helena O'Dwyer
Hepatozoon species are vector-borne pathogens that infect domestic and wild animals. Marsupials of the species Didelphis albiventris are adapted to urban and peri-urban areas and act as reservoir hosts for several parasites. The present study evaluated the occurrence of infection by Hepatozoon species in synantropic D. albiventris from Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Blood samples and ectoparasites from 19 D. albiventris were collected from urban and peri-urban areas. Hepatozoon spp. detection was performed by microscopy and molecular analysis...
July 14, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728557/the-impact-of-illegal-waste-sites-on-a-transmission-of-zoonotic-viruses
#3
Darja Duh, Sandra Hasic, Elena Buzan
BACKGROUND: Illegal waste disposal impacts public health and causes aesthetic and environmental pollution. Waste disposed in places without permitted and controlled facilities can provide a ready source of nutrition and shelter for rodents and thus promote the spread of their ecto- and endoparasites. The presence of two distinct zoonotic viruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), was searched at illegal waste sites. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection with both viruses in rodents and to discuss the virus-rodent relations in such environments...
July 20, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724731/cascading-effects-of-predator-activity-on-tick-borne-disease-risk
#4
Tim R Hofmeester, Patrick A Jansen, Hendrikus J Wijnen, Elena C Coipan, Manoj Fonville, Herbert H T Prins, Hein Sprong, Sipke E van Wieren
Predators and competitors of vertebrates can in theory reduce the density of infected nymphs (DIN)-an often-used measure of tick-borne disease risk-by lowering the density of reservoir-competent hosts and/or the tick burden on reservoir-competent hosts. We investigated this possible indirect effect of predators by comparing data from 20 forest plots across the Netherlands that varied in predator abundance. In each plot, we measured the density of questing Ixodes ricinus nymphs (DON), DIN for three pathogens, rodent density, the tick burden on rodents and the activity of mammalian predators...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722598/risk-factors-for-severe-infection-hospitalization-and-prolonged-antimicrobial-therapy-in-patients-with-babesiosis
#5
Neeharik Mareedu, Anna M Schotthoefer, Jason Tompkins, Matthew C Hall, Thomas R Fritsche, Holly M Frost
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes scapularis, which also transmits Lyme disease. Better gradation of prognostic indicators are needed to determine which patients may develop serious complications requiring hospitalization, and to provide early guidance on appropriate therapy. In this study, we evaluated 128 patients with smear or real time polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Babesia microti infections over a period of 16 years. Patients with asplenia or immunocompromising conditions were more likely to have severe infection (P < 0...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714929/synchronous-langat-virus-infection-of-haemaphysalis-longicornis-using-anal-pore-microinjection
#6
Melbourne Rio Talactac, Kentaro Yoshii, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Kodai Kusakisako, Remil Linggatong Galay, Kozo Fujisaki, Masami Mochizuki, Tetsuya Tanaka
The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) serocomplex of flaviviruses consists of arboviruses that cause important diseases in animals and humans. The transmission of this group of viruses is commonly associated with tick species such as Ixodes spp., Dermacentor spp., and Hyalomma spp. In the case of Haemaphysalis longicornis, the detection and isolation of flaviviruses have been previously reported. However, studies showing survival dynamics of any tick-borne flavivirus in H. longicornis are still lacking. In this study, an anal pore microinjection method was used to infect adult H...
July 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714333/-borrelia-miyamotoi-a-recently-identified-human-pathogenic-tick-borne-relapsing-fever-spirochete
#7
Sándor Szekeres, András Lakos, Gábor Földvári
Borrelia miyamotoi is a recently described relapsing fever spirochete transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. This pathogen is different from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the Lyme borreliosis spirochetes) in its epidemiology, ecology and also genetics. Over 50 patients have been described worldwide with Borrelia miyamotoi disease, and three immunocompromised patients were reported with neurological symptoms. Our knowledge about Borrelia miyamotoi infection in ticks and its distribution in different habitats and also the mechanism of the infection is limited...
July 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713778/tick-virus-interactions-toll-sensing
#8
Nicholas Johnson
Ticks are important vectors of viruses that infect and cause disease in man, livestock, and companion animals. The major focus of investigation of tick-borne viruses has been the interaction with the mammalian host, particularly the mechanisms underlying disease and the development of vaccines to prevent infection. Only recently has research begun to investigate the interaction of the virus with the tick host. This is striking when considering that the virus spends far more time infecting the tick vector relative to the vertebrate host...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710265/francisella-like-endosymbionts-and-rickettsia-species-in-local-and-imported-hyalomma-ticks
#9
Tal Azagi, Eyal Klement, Gidon Perlman, Yaniv Lustig, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Dmitry Apanaskevich, Yuval Gottlieb
Hyalomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are hosts for Francisella like endosymbionts (FLE) and may serve as vectors of zoonotic disease agents. This study was aimed to provide initial characterization of the interaction between Hyalomma and FLE and to determine the prevalence of pathogenic Rickettsia in these ticks. Hyalomma marginatum, H. rufipes, H. dromedarii, H. aegyptium and H. excavatum ticks, identified morphologically and molecularly, were collected from different hosts and locations, representing the genus distribution in Israel, as well as from migratory birds...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707219/a-stochastic-tick-borne-disease-model-exploring-the-probability-of-pathogen-persistence
#10
Milliward Maliyoni, Faraimunashe Chirove, Holly D Gaff, Keshlan S Govinder
We formulate and analyse a stochastic epidemic model for the transmission dynamics of a tick-borne disease in a single population using a continuous-time Markov chain approach. The stochastic model is based on an existing deterministic metapopulation tick-borne disease model. We compare the disease dynamics of the deterministic and stochastic models in order to determine the effect of randomness in tick-borne disease dynamics. The probability of disease extinction and that of a major outbreak are computed and approximated using the multitype Galton-Watson branching process and numerical simulations, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705248/prevention-of-feline-leishmaniosis-with-an-imidacloprid-10-flumethrin-4-5-polymer-matrix-collar
#11
Emanuele Brianti, Luigi Falsone, Ettore Napoli, Gabriella Gaglio, Salvatore Giannetto, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Vito Priolo, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Viviana Domenica Tarallo, Fabrizio Solari Basano, Roberto Nazzari, Katrin Deuster, Matthias Pollmeier, Laura Gulotta, Vito Colella, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Gioia Capelli, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is one of the most important vector-borne diseases affecting animals and humans worldwide. Dogs are considered main reservoirs of the zoonotic forms, though in the last years the role of cats as reservoirs has been increasingly investigated. Feline leishmaniosis (FeL) occurs in endemic areas and no specific preventive measures have been investigated so far. In this study the efficacy of a 10% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin polymer matrix collar, licensed for tick and flea prevention, has been assessed against FeL in a longitudinal study on 204 privately owned cats from the Aeolian islands (Sicily), an area highly endemic for the disease...
July 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705183/generic-amplification-and-next-generation-sequencing-reveal-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-ap92-like-strain-and-distinct-tick-phleboviruses-in-anatolia-turkey
#12
Ender Dinçer, Annika Brinkmann, Olcay Hekimoğlu, Sabri Hacıoğlu, Katalin Földes, Zeynep Karapınar, Pelin Fatoş Polat, Bekir Oğuz, Özlem Orunç Kılınç, Peter Hagedorn, Nurdan Özer, Aykut Özkul, Andreas Nitsche, Koray Ergünay
BACKGROUND: Ticks are involved with the transmission of several viruses with significant health impact. As incidences of tick-borne viral infections are rising, several novel and divergent tick- associated viruses have recently been documented to exist and circulate worldwide. This study was performed as a cross-sectional screening for all major tick-borne viruses in several regions in Turkey. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was employed for virus genome characterization. Ticks were collected at 43 locations in 14 provinces across the Aegean, Thrace, Mediterranean, Black Sea, central, southern and eastern regions of Anatolia during 2014-2016...
July 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703098/surveillance-perspective-on-lyme-borreliosis-across-the-european-union-and-european-economic-area
#13
Cees C van den Wijngaard, Agnetha Hofhuis, Mariana Simões, Ente Rood, Wilfrid van Pelt, Herve Zeller, Wim Van Bortel
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts...
July 6, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699575/proposal-to-reclassify-ehrlichia-muris-as-ehrlichia-muris-subsp-muris-subsp-nov-and-description-of-ehrlichia-muris-subsp-eauclairensis-subsp-nov-a-newly-recognized-tick-borne-pathogen-of-humans
#14
Bobbi S Pritt, Michelle E J Allerdice, Lynne M Sloan, Christopher D Paddock, Ulrike G Munderloh, Yasuko Rikihisa, Tomoko Tajima, Susan M Paskewitz, David F Neitzel, Diep K Hoang Johnson, Elizabeth Schiffman, Jeffrey P Davis, Cynthia S Goldsmith, Curtis M Nelson, Sandor E Karpathy
We have previously described a novel taxon of the genus Ehrlichia (type strain WisconsinT), closely related to Ehrlichia muris, that causes human ehrlichiosis among patients with exposures to ticks in the upper midwestern USA. DNA from this bacterium was also detected in Ixodes scapularis and Peromyscus leucopus collected in Minnesota and Wisconsin. To determine the relationship between the E. muris-like agent (EMLA) and other species of the genus Ehrlichia phenotypic, genotypic and epidemiologic comparisons were undertaken, including sequence analysis of eight gene loci (3906 nucleotides) for 39 EMLA DNA samples and the type strain of E...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694446/ticks-infected-via-co-feeding-transmission-can-transmit-lyme-borreliosis-to-vertebrate-hosts
#15
Alessandro Belli, Anouk Sarr, Olivier Rais, Ryan O M Rego, Maarten J Voordouw
Vector-borne pathogens establish systemic infections in host tissues to maximize transmission to arthropod vectors. Co-feeding transmission occurs when the pathogen is transferred between infected and naive vectors that feed in close spatiotemporal proximity on a host that has not yet developed a systemic infection. Borrelia afzelii is a tick-borne spirochete bacterium that causes Lyme borreliosis (LB) and is capable of co-feeding transmission. Whether ticks that acquire LB pathogens via co-feeding are actually infectious to vertebrate hosts has never been tested...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690983/the-essential-role-of-tick-salivary-glands-and-saliva-in-tick-feeding-and-pathogen-transmission
#16
REVIEW
Ladislav Šimo, Maria Kazimirova, Jennifer Richardson, Sarah I Bonnet
As long-term pool feeders, ticks have developed myriad strategies to remain discreetly but solidly attached to their hosts for the duration of their blood meal. The critical biological material that dampens host defenses and facilitates the flow of blood-thus assuring adequate feeding-is tick saliva. Saliva exhibits cytolytic, vasodilator, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppressive activity. This essential fluid is secreted by the salivary glands, which also mediate several other biological functions, including secretion of cement and hygroscopic components, as well as the watery component of blood as regards hard ticks...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687403/development-of-vaccines-against-crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever-virus
#17
Stuart D Dowall, Miles W Carroll, Roger Hewson
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a deadly human pathogen of the utmost seriousness being highly lethal causing devastating disease symptoms that result in intense and prolonged suffering to those infected. During the past 40years, this virus has repeatedly caused sporadic outbreaks responsible for relatively low numbers of human casualties, but with an alarming fatality rate of up to 80% in clinically infected patients. CCHFV is transmitted to humans by Hyalomma ticks and contact with the blood of viremic livestock, additionally cases of human-to-human transmission are not uncommon in nosocomial settings...
July 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684041/five-cases-of-vector-borne-francisella-tularensis-holarctica-infections-in-south-western-germany-and-genetic-diversity
#18
Johannes P Borde, Sabine Zange, Markus H Antwerpen, Enrico Georgi, Heiner von Buttlar, Winfried V Kern, Siegbert Rieg
Tularemia is a rare zoonotic disease in Germany. Francisella tularensis has been isolated previously from ticks in southern Germany underscoring the importance of ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in tularemia transmission, but there have been only few reports from this region with single cases or small case series of tick-borne transmissions of tularemia. We report five cases of non-game animal associated tularemia diagnosed from 2010 to 2016 in southwestern Germany - Baden-Wuerttemberg. Our case series and molecular typing (MLVA) results add published clinical experience to this underdiagnosed disease and consolidate previous findings regarding tick-borne transmission of tularemia and phylogenetic diversity in Germany...
August 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673460/a-survey-of-canine-haemoprotozoan-parasites-from-turkey-including-molecular-evidence-of-an-unnamed-babesia
#19
Munir Aktas, Sezayi Ozubek
Canine tick-borne apicomplexan parasites have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. A reverse line blot assay was performed on 219 blood samples collected from domestic dogs for simultaneous detection of all named canine piroplasm species as well as Hepatozoon canis. Ten samples hybridized to the Theileria/Babesia and Babesia catch all probes but did not hybridize to any species-specific probe tested, suggesting the presence of an unrecognized Babesia species or genotype...
June 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670641/tick-infestation-a-200-patients-series
#20
Oya Guven, Dilay Satilmis, Feruza Turan Sonmez, Bilgehan Demir, Özgür Erdogan
BACKGROUND: A great number of zoonotic diseases with high mortality rate are transmitted by ticks. We performed this study in order to investigate patients admitted to emergency department following a tick bite. We examined the patients and get knowledge about the infestation and we followed up them for possible tick-conducted disease symptoms and laboratory findings both clinically and serologically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study presented was hold for one year, between 01...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
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