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tick born infections

Qingli Niu, Zhijie Liu, Jifei Yang, Peifa Yu, Yuping Pan, Bintao Zhai, Jianxun Luo, Guiquan Guan, Hong Yin
Ovine babesiosis is one of the most important tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases of small ruminants. The ovine parasite Babesia sp. Xinjiang is widespread in China. In this study, recombinant full-length XJrRAP-1aα2 (rhoptry-associated protein 1aα2) and C-terminal XJrRAP-1aα2 CT of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were expressed and used to evaluate their diagnostic potential for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infections by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purified XJrRAP-1aα2 was tested for reactivity with sera from animals experimentally infected with Babesia sp...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
Nicole Lukovsky-Akhsanov, M Kelly Keating, Pamela Spivey, George W Lathrop, Nathaniel Powell, Michael L Levin
Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
Diane G Edmondson, Sabitha Prabhakaran, Steven J Norris, Amy J Ullmann, Joe Piesman, Marc Dolan, Christian Probst, Christiane Radzimski, Winfried Stöcker, Lars Komorowski
Lyme borreliosis is caused by tick-transmitted spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a 23 kDa outer surface lipoprotein expressed during spirochete transmission from the tick to the vertebrate host. In a previous study, we found that immunization with a recombinant disulfide-bridged dimeric form of OspC (D-OspC) stimulates increased antibody responses relative to immunization with commonly employed monomeric OspC...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
David H Kingsley
Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Transmission pathways by which foodborne viruses may enter human populations and evolutionary mechanisms by which viruses can become virulent are discussed in this chapter. A majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as domestic animals and livestock. Viruses that are known foodborne threats include hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and astroviruses, among others...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Mario Alvarado-Rybak, Laia Solano-Gallego, Javier Millán
Piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. They cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. Piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. There are currently nine recognized species of Babesia, two of Theileria, two of Cytauxzoon and one of Rangelia infecting captive and wild carnivores, including members of Canidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Ursidae, Viverridae, Hyaenidae and Herpestidae in the Americas, Eurasia and Africa...
October 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
David S Younger
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness and the fifth most common disease in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. If left untreated, infection disseminates to the nervous system. The nonhuman primate model of Lyme disease of the nervous system, or Lyme neuroborreliosis, accurately mimics the aspects of the human illness...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Anna S Ershova, Olga A Gra, Alexander M Lyaschuk, Tatyana M Grunina, Artem P Tkachuk, Mikhail S Bartov, Darya M Savina, Olga V Sergienko, Zoya M Galushkina, Vladimir P Gudov, Liubov I Kozlovskaya, Ivan S Kholodilov, Larissa V Gmyl, Galina G Karganova, Vladimir G Lunin, Anna S Karyagina, Alexander L Gintsburg
BACKGROUND: E protein of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other flaviviruses is located on the surface of the viral particle. Domain III of this protein seems to be a promising component of subunit vaccines for prophylaxis of TBE and kits for diagnostics of TBEV. METHODS: Three variants of recombinant TBEV E protein domain III of European, Siberian and Far Eastern subtypes fused with dextran-binding domain of Leuconostoc citreum KM20 were expressed in E...
October 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Adrian P Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee D Ybañez, MaxFrancis G Talle, Mingming Liu, Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Xuenan Xuan
Babesia vogeli is a tick-borne protozoal pathogen that infects erythrocytes. In Southeast Asia, this pathogen has only been reported in Thailand. In this study, nine dogs presented at three different veterinary clinics in Cebu City, Philippines were found positive for B. vogeli. DNA was extracted from blood samples and tested using a PCR for genus Babesia and a PCR specific for B. vogeli (both based on the 18S rRNA gene). Blood smears (triplicate) from each sample were found negative. All positive amplicons were sequenced and were found to be 99...
October 3, 2016: Parasitology International
R Hofmann-Lehmann, N Wagmann, M L Meli, B Riond, M Novacco, D Joekel, F Gentilini, F Marsilio, M G Pennisi, A Lloret, T Carrapiço, F S Boretti
'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic agent that primarily affects immunocompromised human patients. Dogs and foxes are frequently exposed to ticks, and both species are in close proximity to humans. This is the first study to systematically investigate the occurrence of 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' in Canidae in Europa. We analyzed 1'739 blood samples from dogs in Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Portugal and 162 blood samples from free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Switzerland...
October 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
T V Harvey, P E B Guedes, T N A Oliveira, M S Assunção, F S Carvalho, G R Albuquerque, F L Silva, R S A Carlos
In Brazil, canine hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne subclinical hemoparasitosis caused by a protozoa Hepatozoon canis and is highly prevalent in dogs in rural areas. An epizootiological study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of H. canis in the canine population of Ituberá, Bahia, and to analyze any associated risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 380 dogs and determined the presence of the protozoan by performing capillary blood smear and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Epizootiological data were collected by asking dog owners to answer a structured questionnaire...
August 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Setareh Jahfari, Agnetha Hofhuis, Manoj Fonville, Joke van der Giessen, Wilfrid van Pelt, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. METHODS: Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Juan-Carlos Saiz
Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, West Nile encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur Forest disease, tick-borne encephalitis, or Zika disease. This viral genus groups >50 viral species of small enveloped plus strand RNA virus that are phylogenetically closely related to hepatitis C virus. Importantly, the flavivirus life cycle is intimately associated to host cell lipids. Along this line, flaviviruses rearrange intracellular membranes from the endoplasmic-reticulum of the infected cells to develop adequate platforms for viral replication and particle biogenesis...
October 1, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Louise K Andersen, Mark D P Davis
Climate change refers to variation in the climate of a specific region or globally over time. A change has been reported in the epidemiology of tick- and mosquito-borne diseases in recent decades. Investigators have postulated that this effect may be associated with climate change. We reviewed the English-language literature describing changes in the epidemiology of specific tick- and mosquito-borne diseases, including the tick-borne diseases of Lyme disease, tularemia, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever and the mosquito-borne diseases of dengue, malaria, West Nile virus infection, Ross River virus disease, and Barmah Forest virus disease...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Vincenzo Lorusso, Michiel Wijnveld, Maria S Latrofa, Akinyemi Fajinmi, Ayodele O Majekodunmi, Abraham G Dogo, Augustine C Igweh, Domenico Otranto, Frans Jongejan, Susan C Welburn, Kim Picozzi
In April 2008, whole blood samples were collected from 36 dromedary camels in Sokoto, North-western Nigeria. Following PCR and reverse line blotting, twenty-two samples (61%) resulted positive for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and three (8%) for Theileria/Babesia spp., with three (8%) cases of co-infections being found. Both sequence and BLAST analyses identified Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Theileria/Babesia spp. positive cases as Anaplasma platys and Theileria ovis, respectively. This is the first report of the detection of A...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
M Daniel, N Rudenko, M Golovchenko, V Danielová, A Fialová, B Kříž, M Malý
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Three years long research study (2011-2013) on population density of Ixodes ricinus and the infection rate of the pathogens that they transmit was conducted in four topographically distant areas in the Czech Republic. In the previous decade (2001-2010) thirteen loci with increased incidence of tick borne encephalitis cases were defined, suggesting the permanent interaction of human population with ticks and indicating the landmarks for study of the presence of other tick borne pathogens...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Kati Hokynar, Jani J Sormunen, Eero J Vesterinen, Esa K Partio, Thomas Lilley, Veera Timonen, Jaana Panelius, Annamari Ranki, Mirja Puolakkainen
Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively...
August 18, 2016: Microorganisms
Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Houssam Attoui
While ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. Almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorporated into the ticks' genomes...
2016: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
Esra Tanyel, Mustafa Sunbul, Tom E Fletcher, Hakan Leblebicioglu
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal tick-borne viral infection that is widely distributed worldwide. The diagnosis is frequently missed due to the non-specific initial symptoms and the differential diagnosis included many infectious and non-infectious causes. This retrospective study describes the clinical features and final diagnoses of 116 suspect CCHF cases that were admitted to a tertiary CCHF center in Turkey, and were CCHF IgM and PCR negative.
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Scott R Loss, Bruce H Noden, Gabriel L Hamer, Sarah A Hamer
Birds play a central role in the ecology of tick-borne pathogens. They expand tick populations and pathogens across vast distances and serve as reservoirs that maintain and amplify transmission locally. Research into the role of birds for supporting ticks and tick-borne pathogens has largely been descriptive and focused in small areas. To expand inference beyond these studies, we conducted a quantitative review at the scale of North America to identify avian life history correlates of tick infestation and pathogen prevalence, calculate species-level indices of importance for carrying ticks, and identify research gaps limiting understanding of tick-borne pathogen transmission...
December 2016: Oecologia
Heba F Alzan, Audrey O T Lau, Donald P Knowles, David R Herndon, Massaro W Ueti, Glen A Scoles, Lowell S Kappmeyer, Carlos E Suarez
Babesia bovis, an intra-erythrocytic tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan, is one of the causative agents of bovine babesiosis. Its life cycle includes sexual reproduction within cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp. Six B. bovis 6-Cys gene superfamily members were previously identified (A, B, C, D, E, F) where their orthologues in Plasmodium parasite have been shown to encode for proteins required for the development of sexual stages. The current study identified four additional 6-Cys genes (G, H, I, J) in the B...
2016: PloS One
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