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Nan Che, Yijie Ma, Yinhu Xin
Fucoidan has been reported to exhibit various beneficial activities ranging from to antivirus and anticancer properties. However, little information is available about the effects of fucoidan on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Our study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan on cerebral IRI, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly subjected to four groups: Sham, IRI+saline (IRI+S), IRI+80 mg/kg fucoidan (IRI+F80), and IRI+160 mg/kg fucoidan (IRI+F160). Fucoidan (80 mg/kg or 160 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected from 7 days before the rats were induced to cerebral IRI model with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method...
November 25, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Qiong Fang, Lang Chen, Qiaobin Chen, Zhi Lin, Fang Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics and etiology of mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) in Chinese children. METHODS: We collected ten pediatric MERS patients from local hospital and enrolled another nineteen patients by reviewing the available literatures. The information of enrolled patients about clinical features, laboratory data, treatment strategies and prognoses were collected for further analysis. RESULTS: A total of 29 children, the median age of twenty-nine patients was (4...
November 4, 2016: Brain & Development
Rajat Sandhir, Avishek Halder, Aditya Sunkaria
Mitochondria are vital organelles involved in numerous cellular functions ranging from energy metabolism to cell survival. Emerging evidence suggests that mitochondria provide a platform for signaling pathways involved in innate immune response. Mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) release, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) are key triggers in the activation of innate immune response following variety of stress signals that include infection, tissue damage and metabolic dysregulation...
October 26, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xiao-Bo Yu, Xiao-Hui Chen, Li-Peng Shan, Kai Hao, Gao-Xue Wang
Moroxydine hydrochloride (Mor) and ribavirin (Rib) have been reported to exhibit multi-antiviral activities against DNA and RNA viruses, but their antiviral activities and pharmacologies have seldom been studied in aquaculture. This paper has selected 3 aquatic viruses including a double-stranded RNA virus (grass carp reovirus, GCRV), a single-stranded RNA virus (spring viraemia of carp virus, SVCV) and a DNA virus (giant salamander iridovirus, GSIV) for antiviral testing. The results showed that Mor and Rib can effectively control the infection of GCRV and GSIV in respective host cells...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Y Wang, L Yang, Z L Zhang
Here we reported two patients who presented with panuveitis and were transferred from ophthalmologists to rheumatologists, for both the patients had oral and genital ulcers. They were misdiagnosed with Behcet's disease at first glance. Two young males presented with acute uveitis with history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers. They initially presented with symptoms and signs resembling Behcet's disease and were treated with systemic steroids with suboptimal responses. Routine laboratory test revealed syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Hossein Zolfagharian, Mohammad Mohajeri, Mahdi Babaie
OBJECTIVES: Mellitine, a major component of bee venom (BV, Apis mellifera), is more active against gram positive than gram negative bacteria. Moreover, BV has been reported to have multiple effects, including antibacterial, antivirus, and anti-inflammation effects, in various types of cells. In addition, wasp venom has been reported to have antibacterial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of BV against selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains of medical importance...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Qu-Tong Zheng, Ze-Hua Yang, Liu-Ying Yu, Yu-Yan Ren, Qiu-Xia Huang, Qiu Liu, Xiang-Yu Ma, Zi-Kang Chen, Zong-Bao Wang, Xing Zheng
Numerous biological activities including antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammation, and antivirus of the natural product curcumin were reported. However, the clinical application of it was significantly limited by its instability, poor solubility, less body absorbing, and low bioavailability. This review focuses on the structure modification and antioxidant activity evaluation of curcumin. To study the structure-activity relationship (SAR), five series of curcumin analogs were synthesized and their antioxidant activity were evaluated in vitro...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Q Zhang, X L Fu, F H Qian, Q Cao, Z D Mao, J L Bai, Q Du, Y Shi
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 mediates antivirus immunity and is involved in asthma exacerbation and development. However, the genetic association between TLR3 and asthma remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of polymorphisms within TLR3 on asthma risk and asthma-related phenotypes in the Chinese Han population. A total number of 462 unrelated adult patients with asthma and 398 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The genotypes of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR3 gene were determined using multiplex SNaPshot SNP genotyping assays...
December 2016: International Journal of Immunogenetics
Ruling Shen, Jun Li, Danrong Ye, Qingcheng Wang, Jian Fei
Onconase (Onc) is a cytotoxic ribonuclease derived from leopard frog oocytes or early embryos, and has been applied to the treatment of malignant mesothelioma in clinics. Onc also exhibits effective growth suppression of human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Artemisinin (Art) and its derivatives are novel antimalarial drugs that exhibit antitumor and antivirus activities. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of combinations of Onc and an Art derivative, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), both in vitro and in vivo Isobologram analyses showed synergistic effects on the proliferation of NSCLC cells under the treatment with Onc and DHA...
October 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Jorge Cruz-Reyes, Blaine H M Mooers, Zakaria Abu-Adas, Vikas Kumar, Shelly Gulati
Multi-zinc finger proteins are an emerging class of cofactors in DEAH-RHA RNA helicases across highly divergent eukaryotic lineages. DEAH-RHA helicase•zinc finger cofactor partnerships predate the split of kinetoplastid protozoa, which include several human pathogens, from other eukaryotic lineages 100-400 Ma. Despite a long evolutionary history, the prototypical DEAH-RHA domains remain highly conserved. This short review focuses on a recently identified DEAH-RHA helicase•zinc finger cofactor system in kinetoplastid RNA editing, and its potential functional parallels with analogous systems in embryogenesis control in nematodes and antivirus protection in humans...
2016: RNA & Disease
San-Qing Lin, Zhong-Liu Zhou, Wen-Qing Yin
Six polyphenolic acids (1-6), including the three new compounds citriodolic acids A, B and C (1-3), were isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including one dimensional (1D)- and 2D-NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and circular dichroism (CD). The potential antivirus activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) of all the isolated compounds was evaluated.
August 13, 2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
S S Zhu, Y Dong, L M Wang, Z Q Xu, D W Chen, Y Gan, F C Wang, J G Yan, L L Cao, P Wang, M Zhang, H F Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the liver pathological characteristics and the clearance rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with antiviral treatment for 1 to 7 years old children with heptitis B e antigen(HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B. METHOD: A total of 49 cases with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B were treated with interferon (IFN) or IFN treatment for 6 months added with lamivudine, and were followed up for at least 6 months.Retrospective analysis was performed on the liver pathological characteristics, the efficacy of antivirus treatment and its influencing factors of the HBsAg clearance rate in the cases from June 2006 to December 2013 in the 302 Hospital of People's Liberation Army...
August 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Zhenzhen Xue, Bin Yang
Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) are widely distributed in traditional Chinese medicines as well as in other medicinal plants, and they were characterized by a phenethyl alcohol (C₆-C₂) moiety attached to a β-glucopyranose/β-allopyranose via a glycosidic bond. The outstanding activity of PhGs in diverse diseases proves their importance in medicinal chemistry research. This review summarizes new findings on PhGs over the past 10 years, concerning the new structures, their bioactivities, including neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antivirus, cytotoxic, immunomodulatory, and enzyme inhibitory effects, and pharmacokinetic properties...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mikihiro Yunoki, Takeshi Kurosu, Ritsuko Kubota Koketsu, Kazuo Takahashi, Yoshinobu Okuno, Kazuyoshi Ikuta
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and dengue virus (DenV) are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified...
2016: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
Masayoshi Hashimoto, Yutaro Neriya, Takuya Keima, Nozomu Iwabuchi, Hiroaki Koinuma, Yuka Hagiwara-Komoda, Kazuya Ishikawa, Misako Himeno, Kensaku Maejima, Yasuyuki Yamaji, Shigetou Namba
One of the plant host resistance machineries to viruses is attributed to recessive alleles of genes encoding critical host factors for virus infection. This type of resistance, also referred to as recessive resistance, is useful for revealing plant-virus interactions and for breeding antivirus resistance in crop plants. Therefore, it is important to identify a novel host factor responsible for robust recessive resistance to plant viruses. Here, we identified a mutant from an ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Arabidopsis population which confers resistance to plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV, genus Potexvirus)...
July 12, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Chenxia Yun, Jian Xiao, Di Kang, Qihui Wang, Lishan Peng, Xian Liu, Jing Leng
Objective To detect the level of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in CD8(+)T cells of chronic HBV infected patients without antiviral treatment. Methods Forty chronic HBV infected donors without antivirus treatment and 19 healthy donors were enrolled in our study. All donors were divided into three groups: a high viral load (HBV DNA>1×10(4) copies/mL) group, a low viral load (HBV DNA>1×10(4) copies/mL) group, and a healthy control group. After the isolation and staining of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the levels of TLR2, CD38, HLA-DR, CD95, programmed death-1 (PD-1) in CD8(+)T cells were detected by flow cytometry to further analyze the correlations between TLR2 and CD38, HLA-DR, CD95, PD-1...
June 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Mitsuhiro Machitani, Fuminori Sakurai, Keisaku Wakabayashi, Kyoko Tomita, Masashi Tachibana, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
In various organisms, including nematodes and plants, RNA interference (RNAi) is a defense system against virus infection; however, it is unclear whether RNAi functions as an antivirus system in mammalian cells. Rather, a number of DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, utilize post-transcriptional silencing systems for their survival. Here we show that Dicer efficiently suppresses the replication of adenovirus (Ad) via cleavage of Ad-encoding small RNAs (VA-RNAs), which efficiently promote Ad replication via the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, to viral microRNAs (mivaRNAs)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Zuqun Wu, Jianping Sha, Zhao Yu, Na Zhao, Wei Cheng, Ta-Chien Chan, Said Amer, Zhiruo Zhang, Shelan Liu
BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that avian influenza A H7N9 has a greater potential pandemic risk than influenza A H5N1. This research investigated the difference in human clustered and sporadic cases of H7N9 virus and estimated the relative risk of clustered infections. METHODS: Comparative epidemiology and virology studies were performed among 72 sporadic confirmed cases, 17 family clusters (FCs) caused by human-to-human transmission, and eight live bird market clusters (LCs) caused by co-exposure to the poultry environment...
August 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Shelan Liu, Jianping Sha, Zhao Yu, Yan Hu, Ta-Chien Chan, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hao Pan, Wei Cheng, Shenghua Mao, Run Ju Zhang, Enfu Chen
The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare...
July 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Qing Chen, Ying Guo
Ebola virus, the cause of severe and fatal hemorrahagic fever in humans, belongs to filovirus family. This study was designed to establish a cell-based screening and evaluation system in the pharmacological study of antivirus compounds. Three reporter systems were established with recombinant pseudoviral luciferase of HIV core (pNL4-3.Luc.R(-)E(-)) packed with filovirus glycoprotein (EBOV-Zaire GP/HIV-luc, EBOV-Sudan GP/HIV-luc and Marburg GP/HIV-luc), which are required for virus entry of cells. The level of filovirus entry was determined by the expression of luciferase reporter gene in the infected cells...
December 2015: Yao Xue Xue Bao, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica
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