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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032773/the-dark-side-of-going-abroad-how-broad-foreign-experiences-increase-immoral-behavior
#1
Jackson G Lu, Jordi Quoidbach, Francesca Gino, Alek Chakroff, William W Maddux, Adam D Galinsky
Because of the unprecedented pace of globalization, foreign experiences are increasingly common and valued. Past research has focused on the benefits of foreign experiences, including enhanced creativity and reduced intergroup bias. In contrast, the present work uncovers a potential dark side of foreign experiences: increased immoral behavior. We propose that broad foreign experiences (i.e., experiences in multiple foreign countries) foster not only cognitive flexibility but also moral flexibility. Using multiple methods (longitudinal, correlational, and experimental), 8 studies (N > 2,200) establish that broad foreign experiences can lead to immoral behavior by increasing moral relativism-the belief that morality is relative rather than absolute...
January 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011981/nicotine-induced-enhancement-of-pavlovian-alcohol-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#2
Jean-Marie N Maddux, Nadia Chaudhri
RATIONALE: Nicotine enhances responding elicited by Pavlovian cues that predict positive outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that nicotine acting at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) would augment Pavlovian alcohol-seeking. METHODS: Male, Long-Evans rats with unrestricted access to food and water were acclimated to drinking 15% ethanol in their home cages and then given Pavlovian conditioning sessions in which each trial of a 15-s conditioned stimulus (CS, 12 trials/session) was paired with 0...
December 23, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000407/zygomaticomaxillary-morphology-and-maxillary-sinus-form-and-function-how-spatial-constraints-influence-pneumatization-patterns-among-modern-humans
#3
Scott D Maddux, Lauren N Butaric
Previous research has suggested that the maxillary sinuses may act as "zones of accommodation" for the nasal region, minimizing the impact of climatic-related changes in nasal cavity breadth on surrounding skeletal structures. However, a recent study among modern human crania has identified that, in addition to nasal cavity breadth, sinus morphology also tracks lateral facial form, especially anterior-posterior positioning of the zygomatics. Here, we expand upon this previous study to further investigate these covariation patterns by employing three samples with distinct combinations of nasal and zygomatic morphologies: Northern Asians (n = 28); sub-Saharan Africans (n = 30); and Europeans (n = 29)...
January 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930443/otolith-dysfunction-in-persons-with-both-diabetes-and-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#4
Linda J DʼSilva, Hinrich Staecker, James Lin, Christy Maddux, John Ferraro, Hongying Dai, Patricia M Kluding
OBJECTIVE: Vestibular dysfunction is a well-recognized complication of type 2 diabetes (DM) that may contribute to increased fall risk. The prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is higher in people with DM. The impact of DM on the otolith organs of the vestibular system in people with BPPV is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze otolith function using vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) tests in people with DM and concurrent BPPV (BPPV + DM), and to examine the relationships between VEMP variables and diabetes-related variables...
December 7, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866964/dialysate-potassium-serum-potassium-mortality-and-arrhythmia-events-in-hemodialysis-results-from-the-dialysis-outcomes-and-practice-patterns-study-dopps
#5
Angelo Karaboyas, Jarcy Zee, Steven M Brunelli, Len A Usvyat, Daniel E Weiner, Franklin W Maddux, Allen R Nissenson, Michel Jadoul, Francesco Locatelli, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer, Friedrich K Port, Bruce M Robinson, Francesca Tentori
BACKGROUND: Sudden death is a leading cause of death in patients on maintenance hemodialysis therapy. During hemodialysis sessions, the gradient between serum and dialysate levels results in rapid electrolyte shifts, which may contribute to arrhythmias and sudden death. Controversies exist about the optimal electrolyte concentration in the dialysate; specifically, it is unclear whether patient outcomes differ among those treated with a dialysate potassium concentration of 3 mEq/L compared to 2 mEq/L...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834390/varenicline-reduces-context-induced-relapse-to-alcohol-seeking-through-actions-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#6
Franca Lacroix, Annie Pettorelli, Jean-Marie N Maddux, Atyeh Heidari-Jam, Nadia Chaudhri
Varenicline, a pharmacotherapy for tobacco addiction, reduces alcohol consumption in humans and rodents. The therapeutic potential of varenicline would escalate if it also diminished conditioned responses elicited by alcohol-predictive cues, which can precipitate relapse in abstinent individuals. We investigated this application, along with the underlying neural substrates, using a robust preclinical assay in which relapse to alcohol-seeking was triggered by re-exposure to an alcohol-associated environmental context...
December 14, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830436/improved-compliance-with-reporting-standards-a-retrospective-analysis-of-intersocietal-accreditation-commission-nuclear-cardiology-laboratories
#7
P Tim Maddux, Mary Beth Farrell, Joseph A Ewing, Peter L Tilkemeier
BACKGROUND: In 2011, Tilkemeier et al reported significant nuclear cardiology laboratory noncompliance with reporting standards. The aim of this study was to identify and examine noncompliant reporting elements with the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission Nuclear/PET (IAC) Reporting Standards and to compare compliance between 2008 and 2014. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of compliance with 18 reporting elements utilizing accreditation findings from all laboratories applying for accreditation in 2008 and 2014...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789006/improving-outcomes-of-dialysis-patients-by-population-health-management-the-global-chief-medical-officer-initiative
#8
Bernard Canaud, Jörgen Hegbrant, Allen R Nissenson, Claudia Barth, Franklin Maddux, Michael Etter, Mahesh Krishnan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670377/ecogeographic-variation-across-morphofunctional-units-of-the-human-nose
#9
Scott D Maddux, Lauren N Butaric, Todd R Yokley, Robert G Franciscus
OBJECTIVES: Although the internal nose is overwhelmingly responsible for heat and moisture exchange during respiration, external nasal morphology is more commonly cited as evincing climatic adaptation in humans. Here, we assess variation across all four morphofunctional units of the complete nasorespiratory tract (external pyramid, nasal aperture, internal nasal fossa, and nasopharynx) to determine which units provide the strongest evidence of climatic adaptation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employ 20 linear measurements collected on 837 modern human crania from major geographic (Arctic Circle, Asia, Australia, Europe, Africa) and climatic (polar, temperate, hot-arid, tropical) zones...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433957/cardiac-structure-and-function-in-elite-para-cyclists-with-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Jonathan H Kim, Jennifer L Trilk, Ryan Smith, Irfan Asif, Paul Tim Maddux, Yi-An Ko, Michael S Emery
PURPOSE: We sought to explore the association between the spinal cord injury (SCI) level on the cardiac structure and the function observed in elite para-cyclists. METHODS: Cross-sectional echocardiographic data from 44 elite SCI hand cyclists (39.8 ± 9 yr, 68% male/32% female) stratified by the level of SCI (cervical, N = 9; T1-T5, N = 10; below T5, N = 25) and 19 non-SCI blind/visually impaired (BVI) tandem cyclists (32.4 ± 7 yr, 58% male/42% female) were analyzed before the initiation of international competition...
August 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374937/absolute-humidity-and-the-human-nose-a-reanalysis-of-climate-zones-and-their-influence-on-nasal-form-and-function
#11
Scott D Maddux, Todd R Yokley, Bohumil M Svoma, Robert G Franciscus
OBJECTIVES: Investigations into the selective role of climate on human nasal variation commonly divide climates into four broad adaptive zones (hot-dry, hot-wet, cold-dry, and cold-wet) based on temperature and relative humidity. Yet, absolute humidity-not relative humidity-is physiologically more important during respiration. Here, we investigate the global distribution of absolute humidity to better clarify ecogeographic demands on nasal physiology. METHODS: We use monthly observations from the Climatic Research Unit Timeseries 3 (CRU TS3) database to construct global maps of average annual temperature, relative humidity and absolute humidity...
October 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311528/nonvitamin-k-anticoagulant-agents-in%C3%A2-patients-with-advanced-chronic-kidney%C3%A2-disease-or-on-dialysis-with-af
#12
REVIEW
Kevin E Chan, Robert P Giugliano, Manesh R Patel, Stuart Abramson, Meg Jardine, Sophia Zhao, Vlado Perkovic, Franklin W Maddux, Jonathan P Piccini
Nonvitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulant agents (NOACs) are currently recommended for patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke. As a group, NOACs significantly reduce stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mortality, with lower to similar major bleeding rates compared with warfarin. All NOACs are dependent on the kidney for elimination, such that patients with creatinine clearance <25 ml/min were excluded from all the pivotal phase 3 NOAC trials. It therefore remains unclear how or if NOACs should be prescribed to patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and those on dialysis...
June 21, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178828/patient-and-caregiver-perspectives-on-transition-and-transfer
#13
Michele Herzer Maddux, Shawna Ricks, Julie Bass
Little is known about the needs of adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with regard to transition, and how well those needs align with guidelines put forth by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). This study examines perspectives on transition among young IBD patients and their caregivers. Surveys were mailed to 370 adolescent IBD patients, aged 12 years and older, and their caregivers. Most respondents endorsed ages 16 to 17 years as the best age to initiate discussions about transition, and age 18 years or older as the best age to transfer care...
May 13, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080977/a-nationally-representative-study-of-calcific-uremic-arteriolopathy-risk-factors
#14
Sagar U Nigwekar, Sophia Zhao, Julia Wenger, Jeffrey L Hymes, Franklin W Maddux, Ravi I Thadhani, Kevin E Chan
Accurate identification of risk factors for calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is necessary to develop preventive strategies for this morbid disease. We investigated whether baseline factors recorded at hemodialysis initiation would identify patients at risk for future CUA in a matched case-control study using data from a large dialysis organization. Hemodialysis patients with newly diagnosed CUA (n=1030) between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014, were matched by age, sex, and race in a 1:2 ratio to hemodialysis patients without CUA (n=2060)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009746/morphological-covariation-between-the-maxillary-sinus-and-midfacial-skeleton-among-sub-saharan-and-circumpolar-modern-humans
#15
Lauren N Butaric, Scott D Maddux
OBJECTIVES: Maxillary sinus volume tracks ecogeographic differences in nasal form and may serve as a zone of accommodation for ontogenetic and evolutionary changes in nasal cavity breadth. However, little is known regarding how sinus volume is distributed within the midface. This study investigates morphological covariation between midfacial and sinus shape to better understand structural and functional relationships between the sinus, midface, and nasal cavity. METHODS: Cranial and sinus models were rendered from CT scans of modern human samples from two disparate climates: sub-Saharan (South Africans [n = 15], West Africans [n = 17]), and circumpolar (Siberian Buriats [n = 18], Alaskan Inuit [n = 20])...
July 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26958348/implementation-of-routine-foot-check-in-patients-with-diabetes-on-hemodialysis-associations-with-outcomes
#16
Andreja Marn Pernat, Vanja Peršič, Len Usvyat, Lynn Saunders, John Rogus, Franklin W Maddux, Eduardo Lacson, Peter Kotanko
OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of foot ulcers, which may result in limb amputations. While regular foot care prevents ulcerations and amputation in those patients with diabetes not on dialysis, evidence is limited in diabetic hemodialysis patients. We investigated the association between the implementation of a routine foot check program in diabetic incident hemodialysis patients, and major lower limb amputations. METHODS: In 1/2008, monthly intradialytic foot checks were implemented as part of standard clinic care in all Fresenius Medical Care North America hemodialysis facilities...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913541/effects-of-sucrose-concentration-and-water-deprivation-on-pavlovian-conditioning-and-responding-for-conditioned-reinforcement
#17
Rayane I Tabbara, Jean-Marie N Maddux, Priscilla F Beharry, Jessica Iannuzzi, Nadia Chaudhri
An appetitive Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can predict an unconditioned stimulus (US) and acquire incentive salience. We tested the hypothesis that US intensity and motivational state of the subject would influence Pavlovian learning and impact the attribution of incentive salience to an appetitive Pavlovian CS. To this end, we examined the effects of sucrose concentration and water deprivation on the acquisition of Pavlovian conditioning and responding for a conditioned reinforcer. Male Long-Evans rats (Harlan; 220-240 g) receiving 3% (3S) or 20% (20S) sucrose were either non-water deprived or given water for 1 hr per day...
April 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858140/doing-more-than-caring-about-quality
#18
Franklin W Maddux
The treatment of chronically ill patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving dialysis therapies has advanced greatly over the years and accomplished many successes in prolonging the life of patients with ESRD, yet has had considerable failures due to the inability to compensate for all functions of the kidneys. In addition, the focus to achieve quality goals for laboratories and vascular access measures may indicate a good quality of care from providers, but meeting these clinical and physiological goals may not fully maximize individual benefit to a patient, may not be aligned with the patient's care goals, and could conceivably impact negatively the patient's experience of care and quality of life...
March 2016: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26833299/effects-of-renal-care-coordinator-case-management-on-outcomes-in-incident-dialysis-patients
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Dugan W Maddux, Len A Usvyat, Daniel DeFalco, Peter Kotanko, Jeroen P Kooman, Frank M van der Sande, Franklin W Maddux
BACKGROUND: Pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) care impacts dialysis start and incident dialysis outcomes. We describe the use of late stage CKD population data coupled with CKD case management to improve dialysis start. METHODS: The Renal Care Coordinator (RCC) program is a nephrology practice and Fresenius Medical Care North America (FMCNA) partnership involving a case manager resource and data analytics. We studied patients starting dialysis between August 1, 2009 and February 28, 2013 in 9 nephrology practices partnering in the RCC program...
March 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26828939/graded-proteasome-dysfunction-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-activates-an-adaptive-response-involving-the-conserved-skn-1-and-elt-2-transcription-factors-and-the-autophagy-lysosome-pathway
#20
Scott A Keith, Sarah K Maddux, Yayu Zhong, Meghna N Chinchankar, Annabel A Ferguson, Arjumand Ghazi, Alfred L Fisher
The maintenance of cellular proteins in a biologically active and structurally stable state is a vital endeavor involving multiple cellular pathways. One such pathway is the ubiquitin-proteasome system that represents a major route for protein degradation, and reductions in this pathway usually have adverse effects on the health of cells and tissues. Here, we demonstrate that loss-of-function mutants of the Caenorhabditis elegans proteasome subunit, RPN-10, exhibit moderate proteasome dysfunction and unexpectedly develop both increased longevity and enhanced resistance to multiple threats to the proteome, including heat, oxidative stress, and the presence of aggregation prone proteins...
February 2016: PLoS Genetics
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