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Scott D Maddux, Lauren N Butaric, Todd R Yokley, Robert G Franciscus
OBJECTIVES: Although the internal nose is overwhelmingly responsible for heat and moisture exchange during respiration, external nasal morphology is more commonly cited as evincing climatic adaptation in humans. Here, we assess variation across all four morphofunctional units of the complete nasorespiratory tract (external pyramid, nasal aperture, internal nasal fossa, and nasopharynx) to determine which units provide the strongest evidence of climatic adaptation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employ 20 linear measurements collected on 837 modern human crania from major geographic (Arctic Circle, Asia, Australia, Europe, Africa) and climatic (polar, temperate, hot-arid, tropical) zones...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Jonathan H Kim, Jennifer L Trilk, Ryan Smith, Irfan Asif, Paul Tim Maddux, Yi-An Ko, Michael S Emery
PURPOSE: We sought to explore the association between the spinal cord injury (SCI) level on the cardiac structure and the function observed in elite para-cyclists. METHODS: Cross-sectional echocardiographic data from 44 elite SCI hand cyclists (39.8 ± 9 yr, 68% male/32% female) stratified by the level of SCI (cervical, N = 9; T1-T5, N = 10; below T5, N = 25) and 19 non-SCI blind/visually impaired (BVI) tandem cyclists (32.4 ± 7 yr, 58% male/42% female) were analyzed before the initiation of international competition...
August 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Scott D Maddux, Todd R Yokley, Bohumil M Svoma, Robert G Franciscus
OBJECTIVES: Investigations into the selective role of climate on human nasal variation commonly divide climates into four broad adaptive zones (hot-dry, hot-wet, cold-dry, and cold-wet) based on temperature and relative humidity. Yet, absolute humidity-not relative humidity-is physiologically more important during respiration. Here, we investigate the global distribution of absolute humidity to better clarify ecogeographic demands on nasal physiology. METHODS: We use monthly observations from the Climatic Research Unit Timeseries 3 (CRU TS3) database to construct global maps of average annual temperature, relative humidity and absolute humidity...
October 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Kevin E Chan, Robert P Giugliano, Manesh R Patel, Stuart Abramson, Meg Jardine, Sophia Zhao, Vlado Perkovic, Franklin W Maddux, Jonathan P Piccini
Nonvitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulant agents (NOACs) are currently recommended for patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke. As a group, NOACs significantly reduce stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mortality, with lower to similar major bleeding rates compared with warfarin. All NOACs are dependent on the kidney for elimination, such that patients with creatinine clearance <25 ml/min were excluded from all the pivotal phase 3 NOAC trials. It therefore remains unclear how or if NOACs should be prescribed to patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and those on dialysis...
June 21, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Michele Herzer Maddux, Shawna Ricks, Julie Bass
Little is known about the needs of adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with regard to transition, and how well those needs align with guidelines put forth by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). This study examines perspectives on transition among young IBD patients and their caregivers. Surveys were mailed to 370 adolescent IBD patients, aged 12 years and older, and their caregivers. Most respondents endorsed ages 16 to 17 years as the best age to initiate discussions about transition, and age 18 years or older as the best age to transfer care...
May 13, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
Sagar U Nigwekar, Sophia Zhao, Julia Wenger, Jeffrey L Hymes, Franklin W Maddux, Ravi I Thadhani, Kevin E Chan
Accurate identification of risk factors for calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is necessary to develop preventive strategies for this morbid disease. We investigated whether baseline factors recorded at hemodialysis initiation would identify patients at risk for future CUA in a matched case-control study using data from a large dialysis organization. Hemodialysis patients with newly diagnosed CUA (n=1030) between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014, were matched by age, sex, and race in a 1:2 ratio to hemodialysis patients without CUA (n=2060)...
April 14, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Lauren N Butaric, Scott D Maddux
OBJECTIVES: Maxillary sinus volume tracks ecogeographic differences in nasal form and may serve as a zone of accommodation for ontogenetic and evolutionary changes in nasal cavity breadth. However, little is known regarding how sinus volume is distributed within the midface. This study investigates morphological covariation between midfacial and sinus shape to better understand structural and functional relationships between the sinus, midface, and nasal cavity. METHODS: Cranial and sinus models were rendered from CT scans of modern human samples from two disparate climates: sub-Saharan (South Africans [n = 15], West Africans [n = 17]), and circumpolar (Siberian Buriats [n = 18], Alaskan Inuit [n = 20])...
July 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Andreja Marn Pernat, Vanja Peršič, Len Usvyat, Lynn Saunders, John Rogus, Franklin W Maddux, Eduardo Lacson, Peter Kotanko
OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of foot ulcers, which may result in limb amputations. While regular foot care prevents ulcerations and amputation in those patients with diabetes not on dialysis, evidence is limited in diabetic hemodialysis patients. We investigated the association between the implementation of a routine foot check program in diabetic incident hemodialysis patients, and major lower limb amputations. METHODS: In 1/2008, monthly intradialytic foot checks were implemented as part of standard clinic care in all Fresenius Medical Care North America hemodialysis facilities...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Rayane I Tabbara, Jean-Marie N Maddux, Priscilla F Beharry, Jessica Iannuzzi, Nadia Chaudhri
An appetitive Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can predict an unconditioned stimulus (US) and acquire incentive salience. We tested the hypothesis that US intensity and motivational state of the subject would influence Pavlovian learning and impact the attribution of incentive salience to an appetitive Pavlovian CS. To this end, we examined the effects of sucrose concentration and water deprivation on the acquisition of Pavlovian conditioning and responding for a conditioned reinforcer. Male Long-Evans rats (Harlan; 220-240 g) receiving 3% (3S) or 20% (20S) sucrose were either non-water deprived or given water for 1 hr per day...
April 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
Franklin W Maddux
The treatment of chronically ill patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving dialysis therapies has advanced greatly over the years and accomplished many successes in prolonging the life of patients with ESRD, yet has had considerable failures due to the inability to compensate for all functions of the kidneys. In addition, the focus to achieve quality goals for laboratories and vascular access measures may indicate a good quality of care from providers, but meeting these clinical and physiological goals may not fully maximize individual benefit to a patient, may not be aligned with the patient's care goals, and could conceivably impact negatively the patient's experience of care and quality of life...
March 2016: Seminars in Dialysis
Dugan W Maddux, Len A Usvyat, Daniel DeFalco, Peter Kotanko, Jeroen P Kooman, Frank M van der Sande, Franklin W Maddux
BACKGROUND: Pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) care impacts dialysis start and incident dialysis outcomes. We describe the use of late stage CKD population data coupled with CKD case management to improve dialysis start. METHODS: The Renal Care Coordinator (RCC) program is a nephrology practice and Fresenius Medical Care North America (FMCNA) partnership involving a case manager resource and data analytics. We studied patients starting dialysis between August 1, 2009 and February 28, 2013 in 9 nephrology practices partnering in the RCC program...
March 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Scott A Keith, Sarah K Maddux, Yayu Zhong, Meghna N Chinchankar, Annabel A Ferguson, Arjumand Ghazi, Alfred L Fisher
The maintenance of cellular proteins in a biologically active and structurally stable state is a vital endeavor involving multiple cellular pathways. One such pathway is the ubiquitin-proteasome system that represents a major route for protein degradation, and reductions in this pathway usually have adverse effects on the health of cells and tissues. Here, we demonstrate that loss-of-function mutants of the Caenorhabditis elegans proteasome subunit, RPN-10, exhibit moderate proteasome dysfunction and unexpectedly develop both increased longevity and enhanced resistance to multiple threats to the proteome, including heat, oxidative stress, and the presence of aggregation prone proteins...
February 2016: PLoS Genetics
Joshua M Polanski, Hannah E Marsh, Scott D Maddux
The recent recovery of a hominin maxillary third premolar, PU-198, within the faunal collections from Punung Cave (East Java) has led to assertions that Homo sapiens appeared on Java between 143,000 and 115,000 years ago. The taxonomic assignment of PU-198 to H. sapiens was based predominantly on the small size of the specimen, following an analysis which found little to no overlap in premolar size between Homo erectus and terminal Pleistocene/Holocene H. sapiens. Here, we re-evaluate the use of size in the taxonomic assignment of PU-198 in light of 1) new buccolingual and mesiodistal measurements taken on the fossil, 2) comparisons to a larger sample of H...
January 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
John C Krauss, Jeremy L Warner, Suzanne E Maddux, Jeffrey R Brown, Richard Moldwin, Anna E Schorer, Kevin S Hughes, Edward P Ambinder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
Wendy N Gray, Michele H Maddux
BACKGROUND: Although practice guidelines have been published for transition to adult care among general chronic illness populations and specific to pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), little is known about current transition practices in IBD care. This study presents data characterizing current transition practices as reported by a national sample of pediatric providers in the United States. METHODS: One hundred forty-one pediatric providers completed an online survey designed to assess current transition practices, barriers and challenges to developing and maintaining transition programming, and desired resources to improve transition services...
February 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Yabin Guo, Barrett L Updegraff, Sunho Park, Deniz Durakoglugil, Victoria H Cruz, Sarah Maddux, Tae Hyun Hwang, Kathryn A O'Donnell
Aberrant signaling through cytokine receptors and their downstream signaling pathways is a major oncogenic mechanism underlying hematopoietic malignancies. To better understand how these pathways become pathologically activated and to potentially identify new drivers of hematopoietic cancers, we developed a high-throughput functional screening approach using ex vivo mutagenesis with the Sleeping Beauty transposon. We analyzed over 1,100 transposon-mutagenized pools of Ba/F3 cells, an IL3-dependent pro-B-cell line, which acquired cytokine independence and tumor-forming ability...
February 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Adam D Galinsky, Andrew R Todd, Astrid C Homan, Katherine W Phillips, Evan P Apfelbaum, Stacey J Sasaki, Jennifer A Richeson, Jennifer B Olayon, William W Maddux
Empirical evidence reveals that diversity-heterogeneity in race, culture, gender, etc.-has material benefits for organizations, communities, and nations. However, because diversity can also incite detrimental forms of conflict and resentment, its benefits are not always realized. Drawing on research from multiple disciplines, this article offers recommendations for how best to harness the benefits of diversity. First, we highlight how two forms of diversity-the diversity present in groups, communities, and nations, and the diversity acquired by individuals through their personal experiences (e...
November 2015: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Dugan Maddux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Nephrology News & Issues
Barbara Couden Hernandez, Ellen T Reibling, Charles Maddux, Michael Kahn
BACKGROUND: Physicians play a significant role in screening for domestic violence. However, little information is available about the prevalence of physicians who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) or the implications for their clinical practice. National surveys indicate a potential prevalence of 16% for sexual abuse and 32% for abuse by an intimate partner. This extrapolates to more than 395,000 potential physician victims, the majority of which are women. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of IPV and physician victims from 1990 to 2014 that included peer-reviewed journals, trade books, and dissertations that referenced physician victims...
March 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Stewart Coleman, Julia Hornig, Sarah Maddux, K Yeon Choi, Alistair McGregor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: PloS One
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