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Alexandra E Livanos, Thomas U Greiner, Pajau Vangay, Wimal Pathmasiri, Delisha Stewart, Susan McRitchie, Huilin Li, Jennifer Chung, Jiho Sohn, Sara Kim, Zhan Gao, Cecily Barber, Joanne Kim, Sandy Ng, Arlin B Rogers, Susan Sumner, Xue-Song Zhang, Ken Cadwell, Dan Knights, Alexander Alekseyenko, Fredrik Bäckhed, Martin J Blaser
The early life microbiome plays important roles in host immunological and metabolic development. Because the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been increasing substantially in recent decades, we hypothesized that early-life antibiotic use alters gut microbiota, which predisposes to disease. Using non-obese diabetic mice that are genetically susceptible to T1D, we examined the effects of exposure to either continuous low-dose antibiotics or pulsed therapeutic antibiotics (PAT) early in life, mimicking childhood exposures...
August 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
K J Coppell, J C Miller, A R Gray, M Schultz, J I Mann, W R Parnell
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as excessive fat accumulation in hepatocytes when no other pathologic causes are present, is an increasingly common obesity-related disorder. We sought to describe the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes, a marker of liver damage, among New Zealand adults, and high-risk subgroups including those with an elevated body mass index and those with pre-diabetes or diabetes, to gain a better understanding of the burden of liver disease...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
Jose R Bucheli, Ahmad Manshad, Mark D Ehrhart, Jenny Camacho, Mark R Burge
Smoking is the leading cause of avoidable death and is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Previous studies on the impact of passive smoking have not been applied to a Hispanic-majority population. We investigated the association between active smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and pre-diabetes risk in a New Mexico population. We hypothesized that pre-diabetes risk increases with increasing smoking status after adjustment for important covariates. We screened 219 adults from an ongoing study who were categorized according to their smoking status (never smoker, current smoker, previous smoker) and their exposure to ETS (exposed or unexposed)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Tanmay Mahapatra, Kaushik Chakraborty, Sanchita Mahapatra, Umakanta Mahapatra, Naren Pandey, Peter L Thomson, Arthur W Musk, Ramendra N Mitra
BACKGROUND: Progressive burden of diabetes mellitus is a major concern in India. Data on the predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetics are scanty. A population-based cross-sectional study nested in an urban cohort was thus conducted in West Bengal, India to determine the burden and correlates of total and uncontrolled abnormalities in glucose metabolism (AGM) in a representative population. METHODS: From 9046 adult cohort-members, 269 randomly selected consenting subjects (non-response = 7...
2016: PloS One
Jeffrey T Kullgren, Megan Knaus, Kristi Rahrig Jenkins, Michele Heisler
BACKGROUND: Many employers use screenings to identify and recommend modification of employees' risk factors for type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about how often employees then engage in recommended behaviors and what factors influence engagement. We examined the frequency of, facilitators of, and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors among employees found to have pre-diabetes during a workplace screening. METHODS: We surveyed 82 University of Michigan employees who were found to have pre-diabetes during a 2014 workplace screening and compared the characteristics of employees who 3 months later were and were not engaged in recommended behaviors...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
R Avasthi, M P Agarwal, Sachin Bansal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Núria Taltavull, Rosa Ras, Sílvia Mariné, Marta Romeu, Montserrat Giralt, Lucía Méndez, Isabel Medina, Sara Ramos-Romero, Josep L Torres, M Rosa Nogués
A high intake of fat and sucrose can dramatically increase bioactive lipids such as ceramides in tissues. Ceramides regulate several steps in the insulin signal pathway. The effects of n-3 PUFA on insulin resistance are inconsistent, especially in liver. We investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA (EPA/DHA 1 : 1) from fish oil on hepatic ceramides in a pre-diabetic animal model. Three groups of rats were fed standard feed, high fat high sucrose feed (HFHS) or HFHS enriched with n-3 PUFA. We investigated by lipidomic analysis how supplementation of a HFHS diet with n-3 PUFA modifies the hepatic ceramide profile triggered by a HFHS diet...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
S V Madhu, Abhishek Raj, Stuti Gupta, S Giri, Usha Rusia
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and to compare its levels before and after iron supplementations. METHODS: Age and sex matched subjects were enrolled and clustered in 2 groups: IDA (n=62) and healthy controls (HC; n=60). HbA1c levels were estimated by HPLC. Hemogram were estimated by hematology analyser. Serum ferritin (ELISA) and other parameters of iron profile were measured by standard guidelines of ICSH...
October 5, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Ce Tan, Yutaka Sasagawa, Ken-Ichi Kamo, Takehiro Kukitsu, Sayaka Noda, Kazuma Ishikawa, Natsumi Yamauchi, Takashi Saikawa, Takanori Noro, Hajime Nakamura, Fumihiko Takahashi, Fumihiro Sata, Mitsuhiro Tada, Yasuo Kokai
OBJECTIVES: To prevent the onset of lifestyle-related diseases associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Japan, research into the development of a useful screening method is strongly desired. We developed a new screening questionnaire (JAMRISC) utilizing a logistic regression model and evaluated its ability to predict the development of MetS, type 2 diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases in Japanese populace. METHODS: JAMRISC questionnaire was sent to 1,850 individuals in Rumoi, a small city in Hokkaido...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Rickard Claesson, Claes Ignell, Nael Shaat, Kerstin Berntorp
AIM: We wanted to investigate third-trimester HbA1c as a predictor of diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Women with GDM were followed up prospectively for five years from pregnancy to detect the development of diabetes. The ability of HbA1c to predict diabetes was evaluated with receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: By five years, 73 of 196 women had been diagnosed with diabetes...
September 28, 2016: Primary Care Diabetes
Deasy Irawati, John C L Mamo, Satvinder S Dhaliwal, Mario J Soares, Karin M Slivkoff-Clark, Anthony P James
BACKGROUND: Subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) exhibit impaired lipoprotein metabolism and have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although the risk is attributed primarily to the risk associated with individual components, it is also likely affected by other associated metabolic defects. Remnants of postprandial lipoproteins show potent atherogenicity in cell and animal models of insulin resistance and in pre-diabetic subjects with postprandial dyslipidemia. However, few studies have considered regulation of chylomicron remnant homeostasis in MetS per se...
September 29, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Viqar Showkat Banday, Kristina Lejon
Although Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is T cell mediated disease in the effector stage, the mechanism behind the initial β cell assault less understood. Metabolomic differences, including elevated levels of glutamic acid, have been observed in T1D patients prior to disease onset, as well as in pre-diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Increased levels of glutamic acid damage both neurons and beta cells, implying that this could contribute to the initial events of T1D pathogenesis. We investigated the underlying genetic factors and consequences of the increased levels of glutamic acid in NOD...
September 21, 2016: Immunology
Anne E Bantle, Lisa S Chow, Lyn M Steffen, Qi Wang, John Hughes, Nefertiti H Durant, Katherine H Ingram, Jared P Reis, Pamela J Schreiner
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the association between a modified Mediterranean diet pattern in young adulthood, cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood, and the odds of developing pre-diabetes or diabetes by middle age. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who did not have pre-diabetes or diabetes at baseline (year 0 (Y0), ages 18-30) and who had data available at the Y0 and year 25 (Y25) visits were included in this analysis (n=3358)...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Shadi Rezai, Stephen LoBue, Cassandra E Henderson
In the United States, 29.1 million people are affected by diabetes, of which 95% have type 2 diabetes. There has been a fivefold increase in type 2 diabetes in the latter half of the 20th century, an increase strongly linked to the obesity epidemic in the United States. In addition, insulin resistance affects 86 million Americans, or more than one-third of the adult population, as manifested by impaired fasting glucose tolerance with random glucose values ranging from ⩾100 to <126 mg/dL. In all, 90% of those affected by impaired fasting glucose tolerance or pre-diabetes are unaware of their metabolic derangement...
July 2016: Women's Health
Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna, Arnaud D Kaze, Jean Jacques N Noubiap
INTRODUCTION: With the new 'test and treat' policy of the WHO, it is obvious that the number of HIV-infected patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) will grow exponentially, with consequential increase in the burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). Our aim is to summarise existing data on the incidence of pre-diabetes and DM, and associated risk factors among HIV-infected adults. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review will include cohort studies reporting the incidence of pre-diabetes and/or DM, and associated risk factors among HIV-infected adults on ART, with these patients being free of any impaired glucose metabolism at study baseline...
September 15, 2016: BMJ Open
Renu A Kowluru, Manish Mishra, Anjaneyulu Kowluru, Binit Kumar
AIM: In the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are elevated in the retina and the mitochondria are damaged, resulting in accelerated apoptosis. Dyslipidemia is also considered as one of the major factors in its development, and our aim is to investigate the compounding effect of hyperlipidemia in retinopathy. METHODS: Retinal ROS, mitochondrial damage and vascular pathology were investigated in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF, type 2 diabetes model), during the age that spans from hyperlipidemia/pre-hyperglycemia (6weeks), to severe hyperglycemia/moderate hyperlipidemia (~12weeks), and ultimately to severe hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia (20-40weeks)...
October 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Yuling Zhou, David Simmons, Brett D Hambly, Craig S McLachlan
Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) can affect oxidative stress levels. UCP2 polymorphisms are associated with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in Type 2 Diabetes, which also induces considerable background oxidative stress. The effects of UCP2 polymorphisms on LTL in populations without diabetes have not been well described. Our aims are to evaluate the interaction between LTL and UCP2 polymorphisms in 950 subjects without diabetes. The monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method was used to measure relative LTL...
2016: Scientific Reports
Aarthi V Maganti, Sarah A Tersey, Farooq Syed, Jennifer B Nelson, Stephanie C Colvin, Bernhard Maier, Raghavendra G Mirmira
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that is characterized by a failure of the unfolded protein response in islet β cells with subsequent endoplasmic reticulum stress and cellular death. Thiazolidinediones are insulin sensitizers that activate the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ and have been shown to partially ameliorate autoimmune type 1 diabetes in humans and non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We hypothesized that thiazolidinediones reduce β cell stress and death independently of insulin sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, female NOD mice were administered pioglitazone during the pre-diabetic phase and assessed for insulin sensitivity and β cell function relative to controls...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kathrin Wolf, Anita Popp, Alexandra Schneider, Susanne Breitner, Regina Hampel, Wolfgang Rathmann, Christian Herder, Michael Roden, Wolfgang Koenig, Christa Meisinger, Annette Peters
Insulin resistance (IR) is present long before the onset of type 2 diabetes and results not only from inherited and lifestyle factors but likely also from environmental conditions. We investigated the association between modelled long-term exposure to air pollution at residence and biomarkers related to IR, subclinical inflammation and adipokines.Data was based on 2,944 participants of the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region Augsburg) F4 study conducted in southern Germany (2006-2008). We analysed associations between individual air pollution concentration estimated by land use regression and HOMA-IR, glucose, insulin, HbA1c, leptin, and hs-CRP from fasting samples using multivariable linear regression models...
September 7, 2016: Diabetes
Jordan Kuiper, Michelle Moran, Marina Cetkovic-Cvrlje
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence has been steadily rising across the globe. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) has been implied as one potential cause of increased T1D occurrence. Since data regarding the role of POP polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153) in autoimmune T1D development in experimental animal models are lacking, this study sought to evaluate the effect of PCB-153 exposure on T1D development in a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. As T1D is an autoimmune, T-cell-dependent disease, PCB-153 effects on T-cells were studied as well...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
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