keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Vancomycin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906310/a-randomized-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-every-8-hour-and-12-hour-dosing-strategies-of-vancomycin-and-cefepime-in-neurocritically-ill-patients
#1
Lynn E Kassel, Edward T Van Matre, Charles J Foster, Douglas N Fish, Scott W Mueller, Deb S Sherman, Michael F Wempe, Robert MacLaren, Robert T Neumann, Tyree H Kiser
PURPOSE: Neurocritically-ill patients have clinically significant alterations in pharmacokinetic parameters of renally-eliminated medications, which may result in subtherapeutic plasma and cerebrospinal fluid antibiotic concentrations. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, open-label study of adult neurocritically-ill patients treated with vancomycin and cefepime. Vancomycin 15 mg/kg and cefepime 2 g were dosed at every 8 or 12-hour intervals. The primary outcomes were the achievement of pharmacodynamic targets related to time of unbound drug above minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for 60% or more of the dosing interval (fT>MIC ≥60%) for β-lactams and ratio of 24-hour area under the curve (AUC):MIC of 400 or greater for vancomycin...
June 15, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877755/combatting-resistant-enterococcal-infections-a-pharmacotherapy-review
#2
Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Marcus J Zervos, Erica S Herc
The role of enterococci in infectious diseases has evolved from a gut and urinary commensal to a major pathogen of concern. Few options exist for resistant enterococci, and appropriate use of the available agents is crucial. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss antibiotics with clinically useful activity against Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. The article specifically discusses: antibiotics active against enterococci and their mechanism of resistance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles, in vitro combinations, and clinical studies which focus on urinary tract, intra-abdominal, central nervous system, and bloodstream infections due to enterococci...
June 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876773/comparative-activity-of-ceftobiprole-against-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-from-the-bsac-bacteraemia-surveillance-programme-2013-2015
#3
Anne Santerre Henriksen, Jennifer Smart, Kamal Hamed
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a significant cause of bacteraemia, the treatment of which is becoming increasingly complex due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftobiprole, an advanced-generation cephalosporin, as compared with other antimicrobial agents against CoNS from patients with bacteraemia. As part of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) Bacteraemia Surveillance Programme, 650 blood isolates of CoNS were obtained from patients with bacteraemia at 74 centres throughout the UK and Ireland for the years 2013-2015...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807674/impact-of-cefazolin-co-administration-with-vancomycin-to-reduce-development-of-vancomycin-intermediate-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Nivedita B Singh, Juwon Yim, Seyedehameneh Jahanbakhsh, George Sakoulas, Michael J Rybak
OBJECTIVE: Development of antimicrobial resistance during monotherapy of complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is problematic due to cross-resistance between vancomycin (VAN) and daptomycin, the only approved agents for this condition. Our objective was to demonstrate that development of resistance under conditions of suboptimal VAN (200 mg q 12 h) exposure in S. aureus can be attenuated by addition of cefazolin (CFZ). METHODS: Two strains of S...
April 7, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780587/development-of-a-vancomycin-dosing-approach-for-critically-ill-patients-receiving-hybrid-hemodialysis-using-monte-carlo-simulation
#5
Susan J Lewis, Bruce A Mueller
Objectives: Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy is an increasingly popular treatment for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients that runs at different flow rates and durations than conventional hemodialysis or continuous renal replacement therapies. Pharmacokinetic studies conducted in patients receiving prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy are scarce; consequently, clinicians are challenged to dose antibiotics effectively. The purpose of this study was to develop vancomycin dosing recommendations for patients receiving prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770901/factors-impacting-unbound-vancomycin-concentrations-in-neonates-and-young-infants
#6
Anne Smits, Steven Pauwels, Matthijs Oyaert, Nele Peersman, Isabel Spriet, Veroniek Saegeman, Karel Allegaert
Vancomycin pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data in neonates are based on total concentrations. However, only unbound vancomycin is pharmacologically active. The objective was to determine vancomycin protein binding and the covariates impacting unbound vancomycin concentration in neonates and young infants. In neonates and young infants to whom vancomycin was administered intermittently for medical indications, total and unbound vancomycin plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Sampling occurred randomly during vancomycin exposure, covering a broad range of concentrations...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764190/delafloxacin-an-improved-fluoroquinolone-developed-through-advanced-molecular-engineering
#7
Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi, Davide Pecori, Glenn Tillotson
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens current clinical practice across a range of infection types. Delafloxacin, a non-zwitterionic fluoroquinolone recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, has been developed to address some of these challenges. Uniquely delafloxacin has increased intracellular penetration and enhanced antibacterial activity under acidic conditions, an environment seen in many infection sites including abscesses. Delafloxacin is active against a wide range of Gram-positive and -negative species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and many fluoroquinolone-resistant strains...
May 16, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686154/population-pharmacokinetic-model-for-vancomycin-used-in-open-heart-surgery-model-based-evaluation-of-standard-dosing-regimens
#8
Saeed A Alqahtani, Abdullah S Alsultan, Hussain M Alqattan, Ahmed Eldemerdash, Turki B Albacker
The purpose of this study was to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients undergoing open heart surgery. In this observational pharmacokinetic study, multiple blood samples were drawn over a 48-h period of intravenous vancomycin in patients who were undergoing open heart surgery. Blood samples were analysed using the Architect i4000SR Immunoassay Analyzer. Population pharmacokinetic models were developed using Monolix 4.4 software. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) simulations were performed to explore the ability of different dosage regimens to achieve the pharmacodynamic targets...
April 23, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652968/-therapeutic-monitoring-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-pediatrics-review-based-on-latin-american-experiences
#9
REVIEW
Brenda Zylbersztajn, Marlon Barraza, Juan P Torres, Jorge Morales
This review summarizes recommendations of therapeutic monitoring of three antimicrobials based in regional data: vancomycin, amikacin and voriconazole in pediatric population. Regional evidence agrees with international literature regarding the requirement of higher daily doses than 40 mg/kg/day of vancomycin, as well as with the possibility of use one daily doses of amikacin and to recommend higher doses of voriconazole compared to the initially recommended doses of 8 mg/kg/day. Local data on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic behavior of various antimicrobials in pediatrics are of great value for dosing adjustment in our pediatric population...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651827/influence-of-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-ratio-on-vancomycin-treatment-response-in-paediatric-patients-with-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#10
Jesus Ruiz, Ana García-Robles, María R Marqués, Maria J Company, Antonio Solana, Jose L Poveda
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of hospital-acquired bacteremia in paediatrics patients. Vancomycin is the drug of choice for the treatment of methicillin-resistant strains, although treatment failure is frequently observed. Area under the curve (AUC) of plasma concentrations over the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) has been proposed as the best index to predict treatment response, although information about its clinical impact on paediatric patients is scarce...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605146/principles-and-applications-of-pharmacometrics-in-drug-evaluation-in-children
#11
Stéphanie Leroux, Valéry Elie, Wei Zhao, Sophie Magreault, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain
Drug evaluation in children is difficult for many well-identified reasons and many drugs are still used off-label. Innovative approaches are particularly adapted to the paediatric and neonatal populations, as clinical trials are difficult to conduct, need adapted designs in order to define the optimal dosage regimen in many diseases and therapeutic areas. Population approaches to define pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics are now more currently used to define dosing regimens, adapted to the different paediatric and neonatal age groups, that allow to increase efficacy and reduce toxicity, by taking into account factors explaining variability in drug response...
April 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561305/exploring-the-use-of-c-reactive-protein-to-estimate-the-pharmacodynamics-of-vancomycin
#12
Timothy M Rawson, Esmita Charani, Luke S P Moore, Mark Gilchrist, Pantelis Georgiou, William Hope, Alison H Holmes
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) pharmacodynamic (PD) models have the potential to provide adjunctive methods for predicting the individual exposure response to antimicrobial therapy. We investigated CRP PD linked to a vancomycin pharmacokinetic (PK) model using routinely collected data from noncritical care adults in secondary care. METHODS: Patients receiving intermittent intravenous vancomycin therapy in secondary care were identified. A 2-compartment vancomycin PK model was linked to a previously described PD model describing CRP response...
June 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358297/cellular-pharmacokinetics-and-intracellular-activity-of-gepotidacin-against-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-with-different-resistance-phenotypes-in-models-of-cultured-phagocytic-cells
#13
Frédéric Peyrusson, Paul M Tulkens, Françoise Van Bambeke
Gepotidacin (GSK2140944), a novel triazaacenaphthylene bacterial topoisomerase inhibitor, is currently in clinical development for the treatment of bacterial infections. This study examined in vitro its activity against intracellular Staphylococcus aureus (involved in the persistent character of skin and skin structure infections) by use of a pharmacodynamic model and in relation to cellular pharmacokinetics in phagocytic cells. Compared to oxacillin, vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, azithromycin, and moxifloxacin, gepotidacin was (i) more potent intracellularly (the apparent bacteriostatic concentration [ Cs ] was reached at an extracellular concentration about 0...
April 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332251/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-telavancin-compared-with-the-other-glycopeptides
#14
REVIEW
Valentin Al Jalali, Markus Zeitlinger
Telavancin was discovered by modifying the chemical structure of vancomycin and belongs to the group of lipoglycopeptides. It employs its antimicrobial potential through two distinct mechanisms of action: inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis and induction of bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization. In this article we review the clinically relevant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of telavancin. For comparison, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of the other glycopeptides are presented...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290237/antibiotic-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-parameters-in-pediatric-clinical-practice
#15
R Cohen, E Grimprel
Progress in the knowledge of antibiotic mechanisms of action allows to determine the pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) parameters predictive of antibiotic efficacy in bacterial infections. According to the antibiotic compound, the bacterial species implicated, the location of the infection, and the severity of the disease, these parameters may vary. The PK/PD parameters described in this paper, focus only on blood compartments. These PK/PD parameters best predict efficacy in the most frequent infections (e...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284156/vancomycin-dosing-in-chronic-high-flux-haemodialysis-a-systematic-review
#16
Katrina Hui, Lydia Upjohn, Michelle Nalder, Kirsty Buising, Eugenie Pedagogos, Craig Nelson, Carl M J Kirkpatrick, David C M Kong
The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate whether non-weight-based dosing (non-WBD) or weight-based dosing (WBD) of vancomycin leads to a higher proportion of patients achieving the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target. Studies from January 1985 to February 2017 were identified through Cochrane, MEDLINE and Embase databases. Those conducted in adults with end-stage renal disease receiving high-flux haemodialysis (HD) and intravenous vancomycin were included. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a pre-HD vancomycin concentration of 15-20 mg/L and/or an area under the concentration-time curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) ratio ≥400...
May 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283952/is-there-still-a-role-for-vancomycin-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#17
Alessia Savoldi, Anna M Azzini, David Baur, Evelina Tacconelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSIs) are among the commonest infections encountered in clinical practice. Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SSIs continues to increase in both health care and community settings and presents a challenge for the best treatment choice. Vancomycin has been the mainstay of SSIs treatment, but recently its use has been questioned because of concerns about its efficacy, tolerability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260505/vancomycin-dosing-and-monitoring-critical-evaluation-of-the-current-practice
#18
Fawzy Elbarbry
After more than six decades of its use as the mainstay antibiotic for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, dosing and monitoring of vancomycin therapy have not been optimized. The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend empiric doses of 15-20 mg/kg administered by intermittent infusion every 8-12 h in patients with normal kidney function. Additionally, the guidelines recommend trough concentration of 15-20 mg/L as a therapeutic goal for adult patients with severe infections...
December 19, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222405/multiple-weekly-dalbavancin-dosing-for-the-treatment-of-native-vertebral-osteomyelitis-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-case-report
#19
Thamer A Almangour, Valerie Fletcher, Mohammed Alessa, Abdullah A Alhifany, Deanne Tabb
BACKGROUND Native vertebral osteomyelitis (NVO) is a common form of hematogenous osteomyelitis, with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) being the most commonly isolated organism. Dalbavancin is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and has a sufficiently promising pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile to be considered for the treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis. We describe here what is probably the first reported case of using multiple weekly dalbavancin to treat a complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and vertebral osteomyelitis...
December 9, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109163/evaluation-of-oritavancin-dosing-strategies-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-with-or-without-reduced-susceptibility-to-daptomycin-in-an-in-vitro-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model
#20
Adam Belley, Francis F Arhin, Greg Moeck
The clinical development of nonsusceptibility to the lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin remains a serious concern during therapy for infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). The long-acting lipoglycopeptide oritavancin exhibits potent in vitro activity against VREfm, although its safety and efficacy for treating clinical VREfm infections have not been established. In this study, novel dosing regimens of daptomycin and oritavancin were assessed against both VREfm and daptomycin-nonsusceptible VREfm isolates in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model...
January 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
keyword
keyword
114815
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"