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Vancomycin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652968/-therapeutic-monitoring-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-pediatrics-review-based-on-latin-american-experiences
#1
Brenda Zylbersztajn, Marlon Barraza, Juan P Torres, Jorge Morales
This review summarizes recommendations of therapeutic monitoring of three antimicrobials based in regional data: vancomycin, amikacin and voriconazole in pediatric population. Regional evidence agrees with international literature regarding the requirement of higher daily doses than 40 mg/kg/day of vancomycin, as well as with the possibility of use one daily doses of amikacin and to recommend higher doses of voriconazole compared to the initially recommended doses of 8 mg/kg/day. Local data on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic behavior of various antimicrobials in pediatrics are of great value for dosing adjustment in our pediatric population...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651827/influence-of-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-ratio-on-vancomycin-treatment-response-in-paediatric-patients-with-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#2
Jesus Ruiz, Ana García-Robles, María R Marqués, Maria J Company, Antonio Solana, Jose L Poveda
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of hospital-acquired bacteremia in paediatrics patients. Vancomycin is the drug of choice for the treatment of methicillin-resistant strains, although treatment failure is frequently observed. Area under the curve (AUC) of plasma concentrations over the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) has been proposed as the best index to predict treatment response, although information about its clinical impact on paediatric patients is scarce...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605146/principles-and-applications-of-pharmacometrics-in-drug-evaluation-in-children
#3
Stéphanie Leroux, Valéry Elie, Wei Zhao, Sophie Magreault, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain
Drug evaluation in children is difficult for many well-identified reasons and many drugs are still used off-label. Innovative approaches are particularly adapted to the paediatric and neonatal populations, as clinical trials are difficult to conduct, need adapted designs in order to define the optimal dosage regimen in many diseases and therapeutic areas. Population approaches to define pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics are now more currently used to define dosing regimens, adapted to the different paediatric and neonatal age groups, that allow to increase efficacy and reduce toxicity, by taking into account factors explaining variability in drug response...
February 16, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561305/exploring-the-use-of-c-reactive-protein-to-estimate-the-pharmacodynamics-of-vancomycin
#4
Timothy M Rawson, Esmita Charani, Luke Sp Moore, Mark Gilchrist, Pantelis Georgiou, William Hope, Alison H Holmes
BackgroundC-reactive protein (CRP) pharmacodynamic (PD) models have the potential to provide adjunctive methods for predicting the individual exposure-response to antimicrobial therapy. We investigated CRP PD linked to a vancomycin pharmacokinetics (PK) model using routinely collected data from non-critical care adults in secondary care.MethodsPatients receiving intermittent intravenous vancomycin therapy in secondary care were identified. A two-compartment vancomycin PK model was linked to a previously described PD model describing CRP response...
March 20, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358297/cellular-pharmacokinetics-and-intracellular-activity-of-gepotidacin-against-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-with-different-resistance-phenotypes-in-models-of-cultured-phagocytic-cells
#5
Frédéric Peyrusson, Paul M Tulkens, Françoise Van Bambeke
Gepotidacin (GSK2140944), a novel triazaacenaphthylene bacterial topoisomerase inhibitor, is currently in clinical development for the treatment of bacterial infections. This study examined in vitro its activity against intracellular Staphylococcus aureus (involved in the persistent character of skin and skin structure infections) by use of a pharmacodynamic model and in relation to cellular pharmacokinetics in phagocytic cells. Compared to oxacillin, vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, azithromycin, and moxifloxacin, gepotidacin was (i) more potent intracellularly (the apparent bacteriostatic concentration [ Cs ] was reached at an extracellular concentration about 0...
April 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332251/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-telavancin-compared-with-the-other-glycopeptides
#6
REVIEW
Valentin Al Jalali, Markus Zeitlinger
Telavancin was discovered by modifying the chemical structure of vancomycin and belongs to the group of lipoglycopeptides. It employs its antimicrobial potential through two distinct mechanisms of action: inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis and induction of bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization. In this article we review the clinically relevant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of telavancin. For comparison, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of the other glycopeptides are presented...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290237/antibiotic-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-parameters-in-pediatric-clinical-practice
#7
R Cohen, E Grimprel
Progress in the knowledge of antibiotic mechanisms of action allows to determine the pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) parameters predictive of antibiotic efficacy in bacterial infections. According to the antibiotic compound, the bacterial species implicated, the location of the infection, and the severity of the disease, these parameters may vary. The PK/PD parameters described in this paper, focus only on blood compartments. These PK/PD parameters best predict efficacy in the most frequent infections (e...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284156/vancomycin-dosing-in-chronic-high-flux-haemodialysis-a-systematic-review
#8
Katrina Hui, Lydia Upjohn, Michelle Nalder, Kirsty Buising, Eugenie Pedagogos, Craig Nelson, Carl M J Kirkpatrick, David C M Kong
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to systematically evaluate if non-weight-based (non-WBD) or weight-based dosing (WBD) of vancomycin led to a higher proportion of patients achieving the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target. METHODS: Studies from January 1985 to February 2017 were identified through Cochrane, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Those conducted in adults with end-stage renal disease receiving high-flux haemodialysis and intravenous vancomycin were included...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283952/is-there-still-a-role-for-vancomycin-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#9
Alessia Savoldi, Anna M Azzini, David Baur, Evelina Tacconelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSIs) are among the commonest infections encountered in clinical practice. Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SSIs continues to increase in both health care and community settings and presents a challenge for the best treatment choice. Vancomycin has been the mainstay of SSIs treatment, but recently its use has been questioned because of concerns about its efficacy, tolerability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260505/vancomycin-dosing-and-monitoring-critical-evaluation-of-the-current-practice
#10
Fawzy Elbarbry
After more than six decades of its use as the mainstay antibiotic for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, dosing and monitoring of vancomycin therapy have not been optimized. The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend empiric doses of 15-20 mg/kg administered by intermittent infusion every 8-12 h in patients with normal kidney function. Additionally, the guidelines recommend trough concentration of 15-20 mg/L as a therapeutic goal for adult patients with severe infections...
December 19, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222405/multiple-weekly-dalbavancin-dosing-for-the-treatment-of-native-vertebral-osteomyelitis-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-case-report
#11
Thamer A Almangour, Valerie Fletcher, Mohammed Alessa, Abdullah A Alhifany, Deanne Tabb
BACKGROUND Native vertebral osteomyelitis (NVO) is a common form of hematogenous osteomyelitis, with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) being the most commonly isolated organism. Dalbavancin is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and has a sufficiently promising pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile to be considered for the treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis. We describe here what is probably the first reported case of using multiple weekly dalbavancin to treat a complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and vertebral osteomyelitis...
December 9, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109163/evaluation-of-oritavancin-dosing-strategies-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-with-or-without-reduced-susceptibility-to-daptomycin-in-an-in-vitro-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model
#12
Adam Belley, Francis F Arhin, Greg Moeck
The clinical development of nonsusceptibility to the lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin remains a serious concern during therapy for infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). The long-acting lipoglycopeptide oritavancin exhibits potent in vitro activity against VREfm, although its safety and efficacy for treating clinical VREfm infections have not been established. In this study, novel dosing regimens of daptomycin and oritavancin were assessed against both VREfm and daptomycin-nonsusceptible VREfm isolates in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model...
January 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063877/optimisation-of-antimicrobial-dosing-based-on-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-principles
#13
REVIEW
Grace Si Ru Hoo, Yi Xin Liew, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
While suboptimal dosing of antimicrobials has been attributed to poorer clinical outcomes, clinical cure and mortality advantages have been demonstrated when target pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) indices for various classes of antimicrobials were achieved to maximise antibiotic activity. Dosing optimisation requires a good knowledge of PK/PD principles. This review serves to provide a foundation in PK/PD principles for the commonly prescribed antibiotics (β-lactams, vancomycin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides), as well as dosing considerations in special populations (critically ill and obese patients)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063519/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-oxazolidinones
#14
REVIEW
Claire Roger, Jason A Roberts, Laurent Muller
Oxazolidinones are a class of synthetic antimicrobial agents with potent activity against a wide range of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Oxazolidinones exhibit their antibacterial effects by inhibiting protein synthesis acting on the ribosomal 50S subunit of the bacteria and thus preventing formation of a functional 70S initiation complex. Currently, two oxazolidinones have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration: linezolid and more recently tedizolid...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056665/review-on-usage-of-vancomycin-in-livestock-and-humans-maintaining-its-efficacy-prevention-of-resistance-and-alternative-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Panditharathnalage Nishantha Kumara Wijesekara, Wikum Widuranga Kumbukgolla, Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera, Diwan Rawat
Vancomycin is one of the "last-line" classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in the 1950s, it was widely used after the 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci , as the prevalence of these strains were increased. However, it is currently evident that vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci have developed for various reasons, including the use of avaparcin-an analog of vancomycin-as a feed additive in livestock...
January 26, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027654/pharmacokinetic-drug-drug-interactions-in-the-intensive-care-unit-single-centre-experience-and-literature-review
#16
Piotr Łój, Aleksanda Olender, Weronika Ślęzak, Łukasz J Krzych
BACKGROUND: Drug-drug interactions constitute a serious health hazard in everyday clinical practice in critically ill patients. Drug-drug interactions may be pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic in their nature. We aimed to investigate the quantity and quality of possible drug-drug interactions, and their possible side effects in intensive care unit patients in a 12-month period. METHODS: This retrospective study covered data on pharmacological treatment of 43 consecutive patients (11 females, 32 males) aged 62 ± 15 years, hospitalized between January 2015 and February 2016...
2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936957/-pk-pd-of-vancomycin-in-patients-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis-combined-with-augmented-renal-clearance
#17
Juan He, Enqiang Mao, Feng Jing, Huiting Jiang, Wenyun Xu, Wanhua Yang, Erzhen Chen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum trough concentration and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of vancomycin in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and analyze the effect of vancomycin continuous infusion for optimizing the characteristics of its PK/PD. METHODS: The inhospital patients with SAP received vancomycin treatment and admitted to emergency intensive care unit (EICU) of Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from January 2011 to December 2016 were enrolled...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905331/antibiotic-distribution-into-cerebrospinal-fluid-can-dosing-safely-account-for-drug-and-disease-factors-in-the-treatment-of-ventriculostomy-associated-infections
#18
Nilesh Kumta, Jason A Roberts, Jeffrey Lipman, Menino Osbert Cotta
Ventriculostomy-associated infections, or ventriculitis, in critically ill patients are associated with considerable morbidity. Efficacious antibiotic dosing for the treatment of these infections may be complicated by altered antibiotic concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid due to variable meningeal inflammation and antibiotic properties. Therefore, doses used to treat infections with a higher degree of meningeal inflammation (such as meningitis) may often fail to achieve equivalent exposures in patients with ventriculostomy-associated infections such as ventriculitis...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807910/24-hour-pharmacokinetic-relationships-for-vancomycin-and-novel-urinary-biomarkers-of-acute-kidney-injury
#19
J Nicholas O'Donnell, Nathaniel J Rhodes, Thomas P Lodise, Walter C Prozialeck, Cristina M Miglis, Medha D Joshi, Natarajan Venkatesan, Gwendolyn Pais, Cameron Cluff, Peter C Lamar, Seema Briyal, John Z Day, Anil Gulati, Marc H Scheetz
Vancomycin has been associated with acute kidney injury in preclinical and clinical settings; however, the precise exposure profiles associated with vancomycin-induced acute kidney injury have not been defined. We sought to determine pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics indices associated with the development of acute kidney injury using sensitive urinary biomarkers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received clinical-grade vancomycin or normal saline as an intraperitoneal injection. Total daily doses between 0 and 400 mg/kg of body weight were administered as a single dose or 2 divided doses over a 24-h period...
November 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776198/determining-the-optimal-vancomycin-daily-dose-for-pediatrics-a-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Geisa Cristina da Silva Alves, Samuel Dutra da Silva, Virginia Paula Frade, Danielle Rodrigues, André de Oliveira Baldoni, Whocely Victor de Castro, Cristina Sanches
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to check which initial dose of vancomycin is needed to achieve the therapeutic target that is currently used in pediatrics. METHODS: The search was conducted in the following data sources: Pubmed (1980-2017), the Cochrane Library, and Embase (1986-2017) and the references of the published studies; searches were performed using the key terms: child, children, pediatrics, infants and adolescents, vancomycin, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics...
November 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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