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Prosocial motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080126/know-thy-enemy-education-about-terrorism-improves-social-attitudes-toward-terrorists
#1
Jordan Theriault, Peter Krause, Liane Young
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070754/pow-boom-kablam-effects-of-viewing-superhero-programs-on-aggressive-prosocial-and-defending-behaviors-in-preschool-children
#2
Sarah M Coyne, Laura Stockdale, Jennifer Ruh Linder, David A Nelson, Kevin M Collier, Lee W Essig
Many schools and parents try to motivate children to become defenders of victimized peers. Defending behavior is common in the media (particularly in superhero programs); however, no study has examined the effect of media on defending behavior. The aim of the study was to examine longitudinal associations between superhero engagement and a variety of aggressive, prosocial, and defending behaviors in preschool children. Participants consisted of 240 preschoolers (49% male) and their parents who reported on child media use and outcomes at 2 different time points...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002432/task-differences-and-prosociality-investigating-pet-dogs-prosocial-preferences-in-a-token-choice-paradigm
#3
Rachel Dale, Mylène Quervel-Chaumette, Ludwig Huber, Friederike Range, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
Prosociality has received increasing interest by non-human animal researchers since the initial discoveries that suggested it is not a uniquely human trait. However, thus far studies, even within the same species, have not garnered conclusive results. A prominent suggestion for this disparity is the effect methodology can have on prosocial responses in animals. We recently found evidence of prosociality in domestic dogs towards familiar conspecifics using a bar-pulling paradigm, in which a subject could pull a rope to deliver food to its partner...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996969/the-nature-of-prosociality-in-chimpanzees
#4
Claudio Tennie, Keith Jensen, Josep Call
An important debate centres around the nature of prosociality in nonhuman primates. Chimpanzees help other individuals in some experimental settings, yet they do not readily share food. One solution to this paradox is that they are motivated to help others provided there are no competing interests. However, benefits to recipients could arise as by-products of testing. Here we report two studies that separate by-product from intended helping in chimpanzees using a GO/NO-GO paradigm. Actors in one group could help a recipient by releasing a food box, but the same action for another group prevented a recipient from being able to get food...
December 20, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991801/the-dark-side-of-transparency-how-and-when-pay-administration-practices-affect-employee-helping
#5
Peter Bamberger, Elena Belogolovsky
This study examines a long-standing contention of practitioners and scholars alike, namely that pay transparency may adversely affect employees' tendency to offer assistance to coworkers. Drawing from research on social comparison, information vividness, and envy, we develop and test a moderated-mediation model positing that transparency adversely affects the amount of help individuals afford to peers who, based on pay for performance, are paid more than them. Testing our hypotheses in the context of a multiround simulation-based laboratory experiment, we find that this adverse effect of pay transparency on helping is largely explained by transparency's positive association with episodic envy, but only when individual differences grounded in differential social value orientations, specifically those regarding individualism beliefs and prosocial motivation, are taken into consideration...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925157/toddlers-help-a-peer
#6
Robert Hepach, Nadine Kante, Michael Tomasello
Toddlers are remarkably prosocial toward adults, yet little is known about their helping behavior toward peers. In the present study with 18- and 30-month-old toddlers (n = 192, 48 dyads per age group), one child needed help reaching an object to continue a task that was engaging for both children. The object was within reach of the second child who helped significantly more often compared to a no-need control condition. The helper also fulfilled the peer's need when the task was engaging only for the child needing help...
December 7, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918978/you-and-me-investigating-the-role-of-self-evaluative-emotion-in-preschool-prosociality
#7
Josephine Ross
Self-evaluative emotions depend on internalized social standards and motivate social action. However, there is a lack of empirical research documenting the impact of self-evaluative emotion on 3- and 4-year-olds' prosociality. Extant research relates children's experiences of guilt to empathetic concern and making amends. However, the relationship between guilt and both concern and making amends is potentially reductive. Empathetic concern involves similar bodily expressions to guilt, and amend making is used to distinguish guilt from shame in children...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916513/empathy-and-its-discontents
#8
REVIEW
Paul Bloom
What role does the experience of feeling what you think others are feeling - often known as 'empathy' - have in moral deliberation and moral action? Empathy has many fans and there is abundant evidence that it can motivate prosocial behavior. However, empathy is narrow in its focus, rendering it innumerate and subject to bias. It can motivate cruelty and aggression and lead to burnout and exhaustion. Compassion is distinct from empathy in its neural instantiation and its behavioral consequences and is a better prod to moral action, particularly in the modern world we live in...
January 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837374/lending-a-helping-hand-at-work-a-multilevel-investigation-of-prosocial-motivation-inclusive-climate-and-inclusive-behavior
#9
Philippe T J H Nelissen, Ute R Hülsheger, Gemma M C van Ruitenbeek, Fred R H Zijlstra
Purpose People with disabilities often encounter difficulties at the workplace such as exclusion or unfair treatment. Researchers have therefore pointed to the need to focus on behavior that fosters inclusion as well as variables that are antecedents of such 'inclusive behavior'. Therefore the purpose of this study was to research the relationship between prosocial motivation, team inclusive climate and employee inclusive behavior. Method A survey was conducted among a sample of 282 paired employees and colleagues, which were nested in 84 teams...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800601/children-s-intrinsic-motivation-to-provide-help-themselves-after-accidentally-harming-others
#10
Robert Hepach, Amrisha Vaish, Michael Tomasello
Little is known about the flexibility of children's prosocial motivation. Here, 2- and 3-year-old children's (n = 128) internal arousal, as measured via changes in pupil dilation, was increased after they accidentally harmed a victim but were unable to repair the harm. If they were able to repair (or if they themselves did not cause the harm and the help was provided by someone else) their arousal subsided. This suggests that children are especially motivated to help those whom they have harmed, perhaps out of a sense of guilt and a desire to reconcile with them...
November 1, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773966/the-place-and-role-of-moral-anger-in-organizational-behavior-studies
#11
Dirk Lindebaum, Deanna Geddes
The aim of this article is to conceptually delineate moral anger from other related constructs. Drawing upon social functional accounts of anger, we contend that distilling the finer nuances of morally motivated anger and its expression can increase the precision with which we examine prosocial forms of anger (e.g., redressing injustice), in general, and moral anger, in particular. Without this differentiation, we assert that (i) moral anger remains theoretically elusive, (ii) that this thwarts our ability to methodologically capture the unique variance moral anger can explain in important work outcomes, and that (iii) this can promote ill-informed organizational policies and practice...
July 2016: Journal of Organizational Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733840/anticipated-guilt-for-not-helping-and-anticipated-warm-glow-for-helping-are-differently-impacted-by-personal-responsibility-to-help
#12
Arvid Erlandsson, Amanda Å Jungstrand, Daniel Västfjäll
One important motivation for people behaving prosocially is that they want to avoid negative and obtain positive emotions. In the prosocial behavior literature however, the motivations to avoid negative emotions (e.g., guilt) and to approach positive emotions (e.g., warm glow) are rarely separated, and sometimes even aggregated into a single mood-management construct. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anticipated guilt if not helping and anticipated warm glow if helping are influenced similarly or differently when varying situational factors related to personal responsibility to help...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725940/exploring-and-promoting-prosocial-vaccination-a-cross-cultural-experiment-on-vaccination-of-health-care-personnel
#13
Robert Böhm, Cornelia Betsch, Lars Korn, Cindy Holtmann
Influenza vaccination for health care personnel (HCP) is recommended particularly because it indirectly protects patients from contracting the disease. Vaccinating can therefore be interpreted as a prosocial act. However, HCP vaccination rates are often far too low to prevent nosocomial infections. Effective interventions are needed to increase HCP's influenza vaccine uptake. Here we devise a novel tool to experimentally test interventions that aim at increasing prosocially motivated vaccine uptake under controlled conditions...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690511/-a-general-benevolence-dimension-that-links-neural-psychological-economic-and-life-span-data-on-altruistic-tendencies-correction-to-hubbard-et-al-2016
#14
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "A general benevolence dimension that links neural, psychological, economic, and life-span data on altruistic tendencies" by Jason Hubbard, William T. Harbaugh, Sanjay Srivastava, David Degras and Ulrich Mayr (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 11, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Task, Stimuli, and Procedures section. In the 1st sentence in the 6th paragraph, “Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires meant to reflected the Prosocial Disposition construct: the agreeableness scale from the Big F, which includes empathic concern and perspective-taking, and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668802/are-empathy-and-concern-psychologically-distinct
#15
Matthew R Jordan, Dorsa Amir, Paul Bloom
Researchers have long been interested in the relationship between feeling what you believe others feel-often described as empathy-and caring about the welfare of others-often described as compassion or concern. Many propose that empathy is a prerequisite for concern and is therefore the ultimate motivator of prosocial actions. To assess this hypothesis, the authors developed the Empathy Index, which consists of 2 novel scales, and explored their relationship to a measure of concern as well as to measures of cooperative and altruistic behavior...
December 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660617/why-does-the-sinner-act-prosocially-the-mediating-role-of-guilt-and-the-moderating-role-of-moral-identity-in-motivating-moral-cleansing
#16
Wan Ding, Ruibo Xie, Binghai Sun, Weijian Li, Duo Wang, Rui Zhen
Numerous studies have found that people tend to commit prosocial acts subsequent to previous immoral acts, as a response to the latter. This phenomenon is called moral cleansing or moral compensation. However, the specific mechanism how previous immoral acts motivate moral compensatory behaviors is still not fully understood. This study aimed to examine the roles of guilt and moral identity in the relation between previous immoral acts and subsequent prosocial behaviors to clarify the mechanism. Based on the extant research, the current study proposed a moderated mediation model to illustrate the process of moral cleansing...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639446/social-manipulation-in-nonhuman-primates-cognitive-and-motivational-determinants
#17
C J Völter, F Rossano, J Call
Social interactions are the result of individuals' cooperative and competitive tendencies expressed over an extended period of time. Although social manipulation, i.e., using another individual to achieve one's own goals, is a crucial aspect of social interactions, there has been no comprehensive attempt to differentiate its various types and to map its cognitive and motivational determinants. For this purpose, we survey in this article the experimental literature on social interactions in nonhuman primates...
September 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629104/helping-and-hurting-others-person-and-situation-effects-on-aggressive-and-prosocial-behavior-as-assessed-by-the-tangram-task
#18
Muniba Saleem, Christopher P Barlett, Craig A Anderson, Ian Hawkins
The Tangram Help/Hurt Task is a laboratory-based measure designed to simultaneously assess helpful and hurtful behavior. Across five studies we provide evidence that further establishes the convergent and discriminant validity of the Tangram Help/Hurt Task. Cross-sectional and meta-analytic evidence finds consistently significant associations between helpful and hurtful scores on the Tangram Task and prosocial and aggressive personality traits. Experimental evidence reveals that situational primes known to induce aggressive and prosocial behavior significantly influence helpful and hurtful scores on the Tangram Help/Hurt Task...
September 14, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619753/motivation-in-caring-labor-implications-for-the-well-being-and-employment-outcomes-of-nurses
#19
Janette Dill, Rebecca J Erickson, James M Diefendorff
For nurses and other caregivers there is a strong emphasis on prosocial forms of motivation, or doing the job because you want to help others, even in formal, institutionalized care settings. This emphasis is based in gendered assumptions that altruistic motivations are the "right" reasons for being a nurse and lead to the best outcomes for workers and patients. Other motivations for pursuing care work, particularly extrinsic motivation, depart from the prosocial model of care and may be indicative of substandard outcomes, but little research has examined variation in care workers' motivations for doing their jobs...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608649/when-payment-undermines-the-pitch-on-the-persuasiveness-of-pure-motives-in-fund-raising
#20
Alixandra Barasch, Jonathan Z Berman, Deborah A Small
Studies on crowding out document that incentives sometimes backfire-decreasing motivation in prosocial tasks. In the present research, we demonstrated an additional channel through which incentives can be harmful. Incentivized advocates for a cause are perceived as less sincere than nonincentivized advocates and are ultimately less effective in persuading other people to donate. Further, the negative effects of incentives hold only when the incentives imply a selfish motive; advocates who are offered a matching incentive (i...
September 8, 2016: Psychological Science
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