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Prosocial motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504364/mindfulness-meditation-regulates-anterior-insula-activity-during-empathy-for-social-pain
#1
Davide Laneri, Sören Krach, Frieder M Paulus, Philipp Kanske, Verena Schuster, Jens Sommer, Laura Müller-Pinzler
Mindfulness has been shown to reduce stress, promote health, and well-being, as well as to increase compassionate behavior toward others. It reduces distress to one's own painful experiences, going along with altered neural responses, by enhancing self-regulatory processes and decreasing emotional reactivity. In order to investigate if mindfulness similarly reduces distress and neural activations associated with empathy for others' socially painful experiences, which might in the following more strongly motivate prosocial behavior, the present study compared trait, and state effects of long-term mindfulness meditation (LTM) practice...
May 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493735/greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts-development-of-a-measure-of-collectivism-among-asians
#2
P Priscilla Lui, David Rollock
OBJECTIVES: Collectivism can contextualize subjective cultural experiences, yet operationalization and measurement approaches for understanding this construct among Asians and Asian Americans have been discrepant. Inconsistency has resulted from diverse levels of analyses, unidimensional versus multidimensional approaches to organizing related subconstructs, and different degrees of cultural specificity of existing instruments. The Brief Collectivism Questionnaire (BCQ) was developed to address these limitations in assessing general collectivism in Asian cultures, while capturing its diverse attitudinal and behavioral manifestations, using a bifactor framework...
May 11, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481583/stepping-forward-together-could-walking-facilitate-interpersonal-conflict-resolution
#3
Christine E Webb, Maya Rossignac-Milon, E Tory Higgins
Walking has myriad benefits for the mind, most of which have traditionally been explored and explained at the individual level of analysis. Much less empirical work has examined how walking with a partner might benefit social processes. One such process is conflict resolution-a field of psychology in which movement is inherent not only in recent theory and research, but also in colloquial language (e.g., "moving on"). In this article, we unify work from various fields pointing to the idea that walking together can facilitate both the intra- and interpersonal pathways to conflict resolution...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459648/research-microcultures-as-socialization-contexts-for-underrepresented-science-students
#4
Dustin B Thoman, Gregg A Muragishi, Jessi L Smith
How much does scientific research potentially help people? We tested whether prosocial-affordance beliefs (PABs) about science spread among group members and contribute to individual students' motivation for science. We tested this question within the context of research experience for undergraduates working in faculty-led laboratories, focusing on students who belong to underrepresented minority (URM) groups. Longitudinal survey data were collected from 522 research assistants in 41 labs at six institutions...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447613/guilty-repair-sustains-cooperation-angry-retaliation-destroys-it
#5
Anya Skatova, Alexa Spence, Caroline Leygue, Eamonn Ferguson
Sustained cooperative social interactions are key to successful outcomes in many real-world contexts (e.g., climate change and energy conservation). We explore the self-regulatory roles of anger and guilt, as well as prosocial or selfish social preferences in a repeated social dilemma game framed around shared electricity use at home. We explore the proposal that for sustained cooperation, guilty repair needs to override angry retaliation. We show that anger is damaging to cooperation as it leads to retaliation and an increase of defection, while, through guilt, cooperation is repaired resulting in higher levels of cooperation...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442138/the-role-of-personal-values-in-children-s-costly-sharing-and-non-costly-giving
#6
Lior Abramson, Ella Daniel, Ariel Knafo-Noam
This study examined whether children's values, global and abstract motivations serving as guiding principles, are organized similarly to those of adults, whether values can predict individual differences in children's sharing behaviors, and whether the normative nature of the situation influences the expression of these individual differences. Children (N=243, ages 5-12years) participated in a values ranking task as part of a visit to a science museum. The majority of children (n=150) also participated in a task examining costly sharing (i...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412511/difference-in-neural-response-to-social-exclusion-observation-and-subsequent-altruism-between-adolescents-and-adults
#7
Béatrice Tousignant, Fanny Eugène, Katia Sirois, Philip L Jackson
Empathy and prosocial behaviors toward peers promote successful social development and creation of significant long-term relationships, but surprisingly little is known about the maturation of these skills during the period of adolescence. As the majority of studies have used questionnaires or pain observation paradigms, it remains unknown whether the empathic response of adolescents differs from that of adults in a paradigm that is closer to everyday life. In the current study, fMRI was used to examine the neural correlates of social exclusion observation and subsequent prosocial behavior in 20 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) and 20 adults (aged 22-30 years) while playing a ball-tossing game with what they believed to be real individuals...
April 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402506/social-identity-shapes-social-valuation-evidence-from-prosocial-behavior-and-vicarious-reward
#8
Leor M Hackel, Jamil Zaki, Jay J Van Bavel
People frequently engage in more prosocial behavior toward members of their own groups, as compared to other groups. Such group-based prosociality may reflect either strategic considerations concerning one's own future outcomes or intrinsic value placed on the outcomes of in-group members. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, we examined vicarious reward responses to witnessing the monetary gains of in-group and out-group members, as well as prosocial behavior towards both types of individuals...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394427/opioid-system-and-human-emotions
#9
REVIEW
Lauri Nummenmaa, Lauri Tuominen
Emotions are states of vigilant readiness that guide human and animal behaviour during survival-salient situations. Categorical models of emotions posit neurally and physiologically distinct human basic emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise) that govern different survival functions. Opioid receptors are expressed abundantly in the mammalian emotion circuit and the opioid system modulates a multitude of functions related to arousal and motivation. Yet, its specific contribution to different basic emotions has remained poorly understood...
April 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337432/the-current-and-future-role-of-heart-rate-variability-for-assessing-and-training-compassion
#10
James N Kirby, James R Doty, Nicola Petrocchi, Paul Gilbert
The evolution of mammalian caregiving involving hormones, such as oxytocin, vasopressin, and the myelinated vagal nerve as part of the ventral parasympathetic system, enables humans to connect, co-regulate each other's emotions and create prosociality. Compassion-based interventions draw upon a number of specific exercises and strategies to stimulate these physiological processes and create conditions of "interpersonal safeness," thereby helping people engage with, alleviate, and prevent suffering. Hence, compassion-based approaches are connected with our evolved caring motivation and attachment and our general affiliative systems that help regulate distress...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327246/evolutionary-explanations-for-financial-and-prosocial-biases-beyond-mating-motivation
#11
Anthony C Little
Mating motivation likely plays a role in bias to attractive individuals, but there are other complementary theories drawn from the evolutionary literature related to competition, friendship, and leadership selection that also make relevant predictions concerning biases towards attractive individuals. The relative balance of these factors will be context dependent and so help explain why the pattern of bias is sometimes variable.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327232/attention-and-memory-benefits-for-physical-attractiveness-may-mediate-prosocial-biases
#12
David Vaughn Becker
Mating motivations can explain attractiveness benefits, but what proximate mechanisms might serve as efficient causes of these biases? There is growing evidence that visual cues of physical attractiveness capture attention and facilitate memory, enhancing salience in ways that could underlie, for example, preferring one job applicant over another. All of these effects beg deeper questions about the meaning of attractiveness.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301323/deciphering-the-modulatory-role-of-oxytocin-in-human-altruism
#13
René Hurlemann, Nina Marsh
Unlike any other species, humans frequently engage in altruistic behaviors by which they increase another individual's welfare even if this implies personal costs. The psychological motives underlying altruistic behaviors remain diverse, ranging from the ability to reciprocate trust and cooperation to bonding and empathizing with family members or even genetically unrelated others. This article explores the neuroendocrine architecture of altruism by emphasizing the crucial role of the evolutionarily highly conserved peptide hormone oxytocin as a modulator of cooperative behaviors including empathy-driven altruism...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262941/prosocial-motivation-inferences-from-an-opaque-body-of-work
#14
Nancy Eisenberg, Sarah K VanSchyndel, Tracy L Spinrad
Because motivations for prosocial actions typically are unclear, sometimes even to actors but especially for observers, it is difficult to study prosocial motivation. This article reviews research that provides evidence regarding children's motives for prosocial behaviors. First, we present a heuristic model to classify motives on the dimension of reflecting altruistic (with the ultimate goal of benefiting another) to egoism (the ultimate goal of benefiting the self) goals; in addition, we briefly discuss classifying motives based on a continuum of morality...
November 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262939/neural-reactivity-to-emotional-faces-may-mediate-the-relationship-between-childhood-empathy-and-adolescent-prosocial-behavior
#15
John C Flournoy, Jennifer H Pfeifer, William E Moore, Allison M Tackman, Carrie L Masten, John C Mazziotta, Marco Iacoboni, Mirella Dapretto
Reactivity to others' emotions not only can result in empathic concern (EC), an important motivator of prosocial behavior, but can also result in personal distress (PD), which may hinder prosocial behavior. Examining neural substrates of emotional reactivity may elucidate how EC and PD differentially influence prosocial behavior. Participants (N = 57) provided measures of EC, PD, prosocial behavior, and neural responses to emotional expressions at ages 10 and 13. Initial EC predicted subsequent prosocial behavior...
November 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262938/the-motivational-foundations-of-prosocial-behavior-from-a-developmental-perspective-evolutionary-roots-and-key-psychological-mechanisms-introduction-to-the-special-section
#16
Maayan Davidov, Amrisha Vaish, Ariel Knafo-Noam, Paul D Hastings
Prosocial behavior is versatile, multifaceted, and complex. This special section seeks to advance coherent, integrative understanding of prosocial development by addressing this topic through the prism of motivations. This conceptual Introduction presents key ideas that provide a framework for thinking about motivation for prosocial behavior and its development. It outlines the evolutionary roots of prosocial behavior, underscoring the interdependent roles of nature and nurture. This is followed by a discussion of several key psychological mechanisms reflecting different motivations for prosocial action (empathy for a distressed other, concern about another's goal, desire to act in accordance with internalized prosocial norms, and guilt)...
November 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262936/the-early-emergence-of-guilt-motivated-prosocial-behavior
#17
Amrisha Vaish, Malinda Carpenter, Michael Tomasello
Guilt serves vital prosocial functions: It motivates transgressors to make amends, thus restoring damaged relationships. Previous developmental research on guilt has not clearly distinguished it from sympathy for a victim or a tendency to repair damage in general. The authors tested 2- and 3-year-old children (N = 62 and 64, respectively) in a 2 × 2 design, varying whether or not a mishap caused harm to someone and whether children themselves caused that mishap. Three-year-olds showed greatest reparative behavior when they had caused the mishap and it caused harm, thus showing a specific effect of guilt...
November 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262933/individual-differences-in-toddlers-prosociality-experiences-in-early-relationships-explain-variability-in-prosocial-behavior
#18
Emily K Newton, Ross A Thompson, Miranda Goodman
Latent class logistic regression analysis was used to investigate sources of individual differences in profiles of prosocial behavior. Eighty-seven 18-month-olds were observed in tasks assessing sharing with a neutral adult, instrumentally helping a neutral adult, and instrumentally helping a sad adult. Maternal mental state language (MSL) and maternal sensitivity were also assessed. Despite differing motivational demands across tasks, we found consistency in children's prosocial behavior with three latent classes: no prosocial behavior, moderate prosocial behavior, and frequent instrumental helping across emotional situations...
November 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253000/too-far-to-help-the-effect-of-perceived-distance-on-the-expected-impact-and-likelihood-of-charitable-action
#19
Maferima Touré-Tillery, Ayelet Fishbach
Fact: Holding force constant, a snowball thrown from 10 feet away will hurt more than one thrown from 50 feet away; it will have more impact. We show that people expect charitable donations-much like snowballs-to have more impact on nearby (vs. faraway) targets. Therefore, because making an impact is a powerful motivator of prosocial behavior, people are more willing to take action to help nearby (vs. faraway) causes-independent of social distance. Six studies, including lab and field experiments, and secondary data from fundraising campaigns support this prediction...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241907/physicians-perceptions-of-volunteer-service-at-safety-net-clinics
#20
Laura Mcgeehan, Michael A Takehara, Ellen Daroszewski
BACKGROUND: Volunteer physicians are crucial for the operation of safety-net clinics, which provide medical care for uninsured and underinsured populations. Thus, identifying ways to maximize the number of physicians volunteering at such clinics is an important goal. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceptions, motivations, functions, and barriers associated with physician volunteering in four safety-net clinics in San Bernardino County, Southern California, a location of great medical need with many barriers to care...
2017: Permanente Journal
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