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Prosocial motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350419/an-integrated-framework-for-the-role-of-oxytocin-in-multistage-social-decision-making
#1
REVIEW
Matthew Piva, Steve W C Chang
Interest in the effects of oxytocin on social behavior has persisted even as an overarching theory describing these effects has remained largely elusive. Some of the earliest studies on the effects of oxytocin on social decision-making indicated that oxytocin might enhance prosocial actions directed toward others. This led to development of the prosocial hypothesis, which stipulates that oxytocin specifically enhances prosocial choices. However, further work indicated that oxytocin administration could elicit antisocial behaviors as well in certain social situations, highlighting the importance of context-dependent effects...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330608/environmental-performance-information-use-by-conservation-agency-staff
#2
Chloe Bradley Wardropper
Performance-based conservation has long been recognized as crucial to improving program effectiveness, particularly when environmental conditions are dynamic. Yet few studies have investigated the use of environmental performance information by staff of conservation organizations. This article identifies attitudinal, policy and organizational factors influencing the use of a type of performance information-water quality information-by Soil and Water Conservation District staff in the Upper Mississippi River Basin region...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276482/viewing-another-act-as-you-would-creates-altruistic-desires-towards-that-other
#3
Paul Bogdan
There has been growing evidence for the existence of distributed, frequently updating social "indices", which are related to the reputation of others and predict altruism towards them. However, the means by which the brain modifies an index based on experiences is still unknown. This work utilizes recent insights on the role of the anterior cingulate cortex during perspective taking, dorsolateral prefrontal representations of context, the temporoparietal junctions relationship with understanding another's background, and dorsomedial prefrontal activation patterns tracking reputation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227851/the-specificity-of-reciprocity-young-children-reciprocate-more-generously-to-those-who-intentionally-benefit-them
#4
Amrisha Vaish, Robert Hepach, Michael Tomasello
Young children engage in direct reciprocity, but the mechanisms underlying such reciprocity remain unclear. In particular, prior work leaves unclear whether children's reciprocity is simply a response to receiving benefits (regardless of whether the benefits were intended) or driven by a mechanism of rewarding or preferring all benefactors (regardless of whom they benefited). Alternatively, perhaps children engage in genuine reciprocity such that they are particularly prosocial toward benefactors who intentionally provided them with benefits...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221512/social-class-and-prosocial-behavior-current-evidence-caveats-and-questions
#5
REVIEW
Paul K Piff, Angela R Robinson
This review synthesizes research on social class and prosocial behavior. Individuals of lower social class display increased attention to others and greater sensitivity to others' welfare compared to individuals of higher social class, who exhibit more self-oriented patterns of social cognition. As a result, lower-class individuals are more likely to engage in other-beneficial prosocial behavior, whereas higher-class individuals are more prone to engage in self-beneficial behavior. Although the extant evidence indicates that higher social class standing may tend to undermine prosocial impulses, we propose that the effects of social class on prosocial behavior may also depend on three crucial factors: motivation, identity, and inequality...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187094/organ-donation-registration-and-decision-making-among-current-blood-donors-in-the-netherlands
#6
Eva-Maria Merz, Katja van den Hurk, Wim L A M de Kort
INTRODUCTION: In the Netherlands, there is a constant shortage in donor organs, resulting in long waiting lists. The decision to register as organ donor is associated with several demographic, cultural, and personal factors. Previous research on attitudes and motivations toward blood and organ donations provided similar results. RESEARCH QUESTION: The current study investigated demographic, cultural, and personal determinants of organ donation registration among current Dutch blood donors...
September 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185870/retaliation-or-selfishness-an-rtms-investigation-of-the-role-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-prosocial-motives
#7
Jan-Martin Müller-Leinß, Björn Enzi, Vera Flasbeck, Martin Brüne
Equity, fairness and cooperative behavior are crucial for everyday social interactions. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in the evaluation of violations of fairness rules, though difficulties remain to determine its role in implementing retaliating or forgiving responses to unfairness. Accordingly, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left and right DLPFC and investigated the impact of the DLPFC on retaliation and selfishness using a sequential neuroeconomic task establishing a role reversal...
November 29, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180074/sweet-taste-of-prosocial-status-signaling-when-eating-organic-foods-makes-you-happy-and-hopeful
#8
Petteri Puska, Sami Kurki, Merja Lähdesmäki, Marjo Siltaoja, Harri Luomala
As the current research suggests that there are links between prosocial acts and status signaling (including sustainable consumer choices), we empirically study (with three experiments) whether food consumers go green to be seen. First, we examine how activating a motive for status influences prosocial organic food preferences. Then, we examine how the social visibility of the choice (private vs. public) affects these preferences. We found that when consumers' desire for status was elicited, they preferred organic food products significantly over their nonorganic counterparts; making the choice situation visible created the same effect...
November 26, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178984/moral-imagination-facilitating-prosocial-decision-making-through-scene-imagery-and-theory-of-mind
#9
Brendan Gaesser, Kerri Keeler, Liane Young
How we imagine and subjectively experience the future can inform how we make decisions in the present. Here, we examined a prosocial effect of imagining future episodes in motivating moral decisions about helping others in need, as well as the underlying cognitive mechanisms. Across three experiments we found that people are more willing to help others in specific situations after imagining helping them in those situations. Manipulating the spatial representation of imagined future episodes in particular was effective at increasing intentions to help others, suggesting that scene imagery plays an important role in the prosocial effect of episodic simulation...
November 24, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170383/neural-bases-of-ingroup-altruistic-motivation-in-soccer-fans
#10
Tiago Bortolini, Patrícia Bado, Sebastian Hoefle, Annerose Engel, Roland Zahn, Ricardo de Oliveira Souza, Jean-Claude Dreher, Jorge Moll
Humans have a strong need to belong to social groups and a natural inclination to benefit ingroup members. Although the psychological mechanisms behind human prosociality have extensively been studied, the specific neural systems bridging group belongingness and altruistic motivation remain to be identified. Here, we used soccer fandom as an ecological framing of group membership to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying ingroup altruistic behaviour in male fans using event-related functional magnetic resonance...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154635/you-have-to-hear-this-using-tone-of-voice-to-motivate-others
#11
Netta Weinstein, Konstantina Zougkou, Silke Paulmann
The present studies explored the role of prosody in motivating others, and applied self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) to do so. Initial studies describe patterns of prosody that discriminate motivational speech. Autonomy support was expressed with lower intensity, slower speech rate and less voice energy in both motivationally laden and neutral (but motivationally primed) sentences. In a follow-up study, participants were able to recognize motivational prosody in semantically neutral sentences, suggesting prosody alone may carry motivational content...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154584/digital-altruists-resolving-key-questions-about-the-empathy-altruism-hypothesis-in-an-internet-sample
#12
William H B McAuliffe, Daniel E Forster, Joachner Philippe, Michael E McCullough
Researchers have identified the capacity to take the perspective of others as a precursor to empathy-induced altruistic motivation. Consequently, investigators frequently use so-called perspective-taking instructions to manipulate empathic concern. However, most experiments using perspective-taking instructions have had modest sample sizes, undermining confidence in the replicability of results. In addition, it is unknown whether perspective-taking instructions work because they increase empathic concern or because comparison conditions reduce empathic concern (or both)...
November 20, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102786/social-interaction-with-a-cagemate-in-pain-increases-allogrooming-and-induces-pain-hypersensitivity-in-the-observer-rats
#13
Yun-Fei Lu, Bo Ren, Bin-Fang Ling, Jing Zhang, Chen Xu, Zhen Li
Empathy, which is a highly cognitive and emotional process, is the ability to share the emotional states of others. Empathy has also been observed in rodents. The empathic sharing of the distressful experience of a conspecific can even motivate altruistic behaviors, which are critical for survival. However, previous studies investigating empathy or prosocial behaviors in rodents mainly employed fearful or other stressful stimuli to elicit emotional changes; whether pain empathy can also motivate prosocial behaviors has yet to be investigated...
January 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101728/understanding-social-decision-making-from-another-species-perspective
#14
Sarah F Brosnan
One challenge of studying cognition and behavior in other species is designing studies that are intuitive and motivating to the subjects; studies that lack these features may result in false negatives and other outcomes that bias our understanding of animals' abilities and choices. Here, Schmelz, Grueneisen, Kabalak, Jost, and Tomasello (PNAS, 114(28), 7462-7467, 2017) investigated prosocial behavior, in which animals may make decisions that benefit a conspecific, and found that, contrary to much earlier work, when chimpanzees are given a reason to do so, they do make prosocial choices...
November 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095665/concern-for-group-reputation-increases-prosociality-in-young-children
#15
Jan M Engelmann, Esther Herrmann, Michael Tomasello
The motivation to build and maintain a positive personal reputation promotes prosocial behavior. But individuals also identify with their groups, and so it is possible that the desire to maintain or enhance group reputation may have similar effects. Here, we show that 5-year-old children actively invest in the reputation of their group by acting more generously when their group's reputation is at stake. Children shared significantly more resources with fictitious other children not only when their individual donations were public rather than private but also when their group's donations (effacing individual donations) were public rather than private...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075567/prosocial-deficits-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-relate-to-reward-network-atrophy
#16
Virginia E Sturm, David C Perry, Kristie Wood, Alice Y Hua, Oscar Alcantar, Samir Datta, Katherine P Rankin, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer
INTRODUCTION: Empathy and shared feelings of reward motivate individuals to share resources with others when material gain is not at stake. Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects emotion- and reward-relevant neural systems. Although there is diminished empathy and altered reward processing in bvFTD, how the disease impacts prosocial behavior is less well understood. METHODS: A total of 74 participants (20 bvFTD, 15 Alzheimer's disease [AD], and 39 healthy controls) participated in this study...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030228/the-relation-between-young-children-s-physiological-arousal-and-their-motivation-to-help-others
#17
Robert Hepach, Amrisha Vaish, Katharina Müller, Michael Tomasello
Children are motivated to help others from an early age. However, little is known about the internal biological mechanisms underlying their motivation to help. Here, we compiled data from five separate studies in which children, ranging in age from 18 months to 5.5 years, witnessed an adult needing help. In all studies, we assessed both (1) children's internal physiological arousal via changes in their pupil dilation, and (2) the latency and likelihood of their providing help. The results showed that the greater the baseline-corrected change in children's internal arousal in response to witnessing the need situation, the faster and more likely children were to help the adult...
October 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988024/the-multidimensional-nature-of-early-prosocial-behavior-a-motivational-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Markus Paulus
A majority of current work indicates that the different types of prosocial behavior in young children (helping, sharing, comforting) are not related to each other. Here, I review recent studies that examined the relations between prosocial actions as well as the antecedents and correlates of the particular domains of prosociality. I argue that in addition to different social-cognitive demands also different motivations are involved in early prosocial action, and that prosociality is thus a concept that encompasses-at least early in development-heterogeneous behaviors and motivations...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983507/structural-plasticity-of-the-social-brain-differential-change-after-socio-affective-and-cognitive-mental-training
#19
Sofie L Valk, Boris C Bernhardt, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Anne Böckler, Philipp Kanske, Nicolas Guizard, D Louis Collins, Tania Singer
Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959221/how-upward-moral-comparison-influences-prosocial-behavioral-intention-examining-the-mediating-role-of-guilt-and-the-moderating-role-of-moral-identity
#20
Heyun Zhang, Sisi Chen, Rong Wang, Jiang Jiang, Yan Xu, Huanhuan Zhao
Although it has been shown that exceptional good deeds exert influences on people's prosocial behavior and intention, we have known little about how common moral actions in our daily life. The present study aimed to examine how upward moral comparison influenced prosocial behavioral intention as well as to explore the mediating role of guilt and the moderating role of moral identity in the focal relationship. An experimental study was conducted with 162 Chinese undergraduates (103 women, 59 men) randomly assigned to an upward moral comparison condition, an upward competence comparison condition or a control condition...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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