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Prosocial motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154635/you-have-to-hear-this-using-tone-of-voice-to-motivate-others
#1
Netta Weinstein, Konstantina Zougkou, Silke Paulmann
The present studies explored the role of prosody in motivating others, and applied self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) to do so. Initial studies describe patterns of prosody that discriminate motivational speech. Autonomy support was expressed with lower intensity, slower speech rate and less voice energy in both motivationally laden and neutral (but motivationally primed) sentences. In a follow-up study, participants were able to recognize motivational prosody in semantically neutral sentences, suggesting prosody alone may carry motivational content...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154584/digital-altruists-resolving-key-questions-about-the-empathy-altruism-hypothesis-in-an-internet-sample
#2
William H B McAuliffe, Daniel E Forster, Joachner Philippe, Michael E McCullough
Researchers have identified the capacity to take the perspective of others as a precursor to empathy-induced altruistic motivation. Consequently, investigators frequently use so-called perspective-taking instructions to manipulate empathic concern. However, most experiments using perspective-taking instructions have had modest sample sizes, undermining confidence in the replicability of results. In addition, it is unknown whether perspective-taking instructions work because they increase empathic concern or because comparison conditions reduce empathic concern (or both)...
November 20, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102786/social-interaction-with-a-cagemate-in-pain-increases-allogrooming-and-induces-pain-hypersensitivity-in-the-observer-rats
#3
Yun-Fei Lu, Bo Ren, Bin-Fang Ling, Jing Zhang, Chen Xu, Zhen Li
Empathy, which is a highly cognitive and emotional process, is the ability to share the emotional states of others. Empathy has also been observed in rodents. The empathic sharing of the distressful experience of a conspecific can even motivate altruistic behaviors, which are critical for survival. However, previous studies investigating empathy or prosocial behaviors in rodents mainly employed fearful or other stressful stimuli to elicit emotional changes; whether pain empathy can also motivate prosocial behaviors has yet to be investigated...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101728/understanding-social-decision-making-from-another-species-perspective
#4
Sarah F Brosnan
One challenge of studying cognition and behavior in other species is designing studies that are intuitive and motivating to the subjects; studies that lack these features may result in false negatives and other outcomes that bias our understanding of animals' abilities and choices. Here, Schmelz, Grueneisen, Kabalak, Jost, and Tomasello (PNAS, 114(28), 7462-7467, 2017) investigated prosocial behavior, in which animals may make decisions that benefit a conspecific, and found that, contrary to much earlier work, when chimpanzees are given a reason to do so, they do make prosocial choices...
November 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095665/concern-for-group-reputation-increases-prosociality-in-young-children
#5
Jan M Engelmann, Esther Herrmann, Michael Tomasello
The motivation to build and maintain a positive personal reputation promotes prosocial behavior. But individuals also identify with their groups, and so it is possible that the desire to maintain or enhance group reputation may have similar effects. Here, we show that 5-year-old children actively invest in the reputation of their group by acting more generously when their group's reputation is at stake. Children shared significantly more resources with fictitious other children not only when their individual donations were public rather than private but also when their group's donations (effacing individual donations) were public rather than private...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075567/prosocial-deficits-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-relate-to-reward-network-atrophy
#6
Virginia E Sturm, David C Perry, Kristie Wood, Alice Y Hua, Oscar Alcantar, Samir Datta, Katherine P Rankin, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer
INTRODUCTION: Empathy and shared feelings of reward motivate individuals to share resources with others when material gain is not at stake. Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects emotion- and reward-relevant neural systems. Although there is diminished empathy and altered reward processing in bvFTD, how the disease impacts prosocial behavior is less well understood. METHODS: A total of 74 participants (20 bvFTD, 15 Alzheimer's disease [AD], and 39 healthy controls) participated in this study...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030228/the-relation-between-young-children-s-physiological-arousal-and-their-motivation-to-help-others
#7
Robert Hepach, Amrisha Vaish, Katharina Müller, Michael Tomasello
Children are motivated to help others from an early age. However, little is known about the internal biological mechanisms underlying their motivation to help. Here, we compiled data from five separate studies in which children, ranging in age from 18 months to 5.5 years, witnessed an adult needing help. In all studies, we assessed both (1) children's internal physiological arousal via changes in their pupil dilation, and (2) the latency and likelihood of their providing help. The results showed that the greater the baseline-corrected change in children's internal arousal in response to witnessing the need situation, the faster and more likely children were to help the adult...
October 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988024/the-multidimensional-nature-of-early-prosocial-behavior-a-motivational-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Markus Paulus
A majority of current work indicates that the different types of prosocial behavior in young children (helping, sharing, comforting) are not related to each other. Here, I review recent studies that examined the relations between prosocial actions as well as the antecedents and correlates of the particular domains of prosociality. I argue that in addition to different social-cognitive demands also different motivations are involved in early prosocial action, and that prosociality is thus a concept that encompasses-at least early in development-heterogeneous behaviors and motivations...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983507/structural-plasticity-of-the-social-brain-differential-change-after-socio-affective-and-cognitive-mental-training
#9
Sofie L Valk, Boris C Bernhardt, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Anne Böckler, Philipp Kanske, Nicolas Guizard, D Louis Collins, Tania Singer
Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959221/how-upward-moral-comparison-influences-prosocial-behavioral-intention-examining-the-mediating-role-of-guilt-and-the-moderating-role-of-moral-identity
#10
Heyun Zhang, Sisi Chen, Rong Wang, Jiang Jiang, Yan Xu, Huanhuan Zhao
Although it has been shown that exceptional good deeds exert influences on people's prosocial behavior and intention, we have known little about how common moral actions in our daily life. The present study aimed to examine how upward moral comparison influenced prosocial behavioral intention as well as to explore the mediating role of guilt and the moderating role of moral identity in the focal relationship. An experimental study was conducted with 162 Chinese undergraduates (103 women, 59 men) randomly assigned to an upward moral comparison condition, an upward competence comparison condition or a control condition...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945979/social-mobilization
#11
Todd Rogers, Noah J Goldstein, Craig R Fox
This article reviews research from several behavioral disciplines to derive strategies for prompting people to perform behaviors that are individually costly and provide negligible individual or social benefits but are meaningful when performed by a large number of individuals. Whereas the term social influence encompasses all the ways in which people influence other people, social mobilization refers specifically to principles that can be used to influence a large number of individuals to participate in an activity...
September 25, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933910/ranking-low-feeling-high-how-hierarchical-position-and-experienced-power-promote-prosocial-behavior-in-response-to-procedural-justice
#12
Marius van Dijke, David De Cremer, Gerben Langendijk, Cameron Anderson
Research shows that power can lead to prosocial behavior by facilitating the behavioral expression of dispositional prosocial motivation. However, it is not clear how power may facilitate responses to contextual factors that promote prosocial motivation. Integrating fairness heuristic theory and the situated focus theory of power, we argue that in particular, organization members in lower (vs. higher) hierarchical positions who simultaneously experience a high (vs. low) sense of power respond with prosocial behavior to 1 important antecedent of prosocial motivation, that is, the enactment of procedural justice...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918716/the-existential-underpinnings-of-intergroup-helping-when-normative-and-defensive-motivations-collide
#13
Gilad Hirschberger, Jenna Hayes, Adi Shtrul, Tsachi Ein-Dor
Five studies examined defensive intergroup helping-when responsibility for an out-group victim's injury decreases helping, whereas lack of responsibility increases helping when death is salient. In Study 1 ( N = 350), implicit death primes increased petition signings to allow a Palestinian child to receive medical treatment in Israel, when the child was a victim of Palestinian fire. When the child was a victim of Israeli fire, however, death primes decreased petition signings. Study 2 ( N = 200) partially replicated these effects on commitment to donate blood to an injured Palestinian child...
October 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891402/you-do-what-a-qualitative-investigation-into-the-motivation-to-volunteer-with-circles-of-support-and-accountability
#14
Giulia Lowe, Gwenda Willis, Kerry Gibson
Most community members are not accepting of individuals convicted for sexual offenses living in their communities, let alone having regular contact with them. However, a select number of community members choose to give their time to assist these individuals reintegrate from prison into the community. Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA) was developed as a way to address the issues that many individuals convicted of sex offenses face, that is, little to no prosocial support in the community. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 CoSA volunteers in New Zealand to gain a more thorough understanding of volunteers' motivation to be involved with CoSA...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890738/moral-enhancement-should-target-self-interest-and-cognitive-capacity
#15
Rafael Ahlskog
Current suggestions for capacities that should be targeted for moral enhancement has centered on traits like empathy, fairness or aggression. The literature, however, lacks a proper model for understanding the interplay and complexity of moral capacities, which limits the practicability of proposed interventions. In this paper, I integrate some existing knowledge on the nature of human moral behavior and present a formal model of prosocial motivation. The model provides two important results regarding the most friction-free route to moral enhancement...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888948/the-influence-of-understanding-and-having-choice-on-children-s-prosocial-behavior
#16
REVIEW
Nadia Chernyak, Tamar Kushnir
Humans are remarkable moral evaluators. However, between infancy and the preschool-age, children move from merely evaluating the world in terms of moral ("good"/"bad") terms to acting upon it in meaningful (prosocial and antisocial) ways. We argue that children's developing understanding and experience of choice and agency has profound behavioral consequences for this development in prosocial behavior. During the preschool age, children begin to explicitly reflect on their own actions and alternative actions (i...
August 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888184/early-prosocial-development-across-cultures
#17
REVIEW
Tara Callaghan, John Corbit
Human prosociality is ubiquitous, even though it may be manifested differently across cultures. Low cost helping and sharing emerge early in development, and at similar levels, across cultures having vastly different sociocultural niches. Developmental trajectories for costly sharing diverge across cultures around middle childhood, in line with differences in the sociocultural niches that children experience. Cultural developmental research has focussed primarily on the emergence and development of prosocial behaviour, and would benefit from an examination of the interplay between psychological (cognitive, motivational) and sociocultural (norms, developmental niche) foundations over ontogeny...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878976/the-nature-and-distribution-of-affiliative-behaviour-during-exposure-to-mild-threat
#18
Guillaume Dezecache, Julie Grèzes, Christoph D Dahl
Individual reactions to danger in humans are often characterized as antisocial and self-preservative. Yet, more than 50 years of research have shown that humans often seek social partners and behave prosocially when confronted by danger. This research has relied on post hoc verbal reports, which fall short of capturing the more spontaneous reactions to danger and determine their social nature. Real-world responses to danger are difficult to observe, due to their evanescent nature. Here, we took advantage of a series of photographs freely accessible online and provided by a haunted house attraction, which enabled us to examine the more immediate reactions to mild threat...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845716/mediators-of-compassionate-goal-intervention-effects-on-human-neuroendocrine-responses-to-the-trier-social-stress-test
#19
Thane M Erickson, Stefanie E Mayer, Nestor L Lopez-Duran, Gina M Scarsella, Adam P McGuire, Jennifer Crocker, James L Abelson
OBJECTIVES: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions...
August 28, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842274/structural-changes-in-socio-affective-networks-multi-modal-mri-findings-in-long-term-meditation-practitioners
#20
Haakon G Engen, Boris C Bernhardt, Leon Skottnik, Matthieu Ricard, Tania Singer
Our goal was to assess the effects of long-term mental training in socio-affective skills on structural brain networks. We studied a group of long-term meditation practitioners (LTMs) who have focused on cultivating socio-affective skills using loving-kindness and compassion meditation for an average of 40k hours, comparing these to meditation-naïve controls. To maximize homogeneity of prior practice, LTMs were included only if they had undergone extensive full-time meditation retreats in the same center. MRI-based cortical thickness analysis revealed increased thickness in the LTM cohort relative to meditation-native controls in fronto-insular cortices...
August 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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