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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096976/effect-of-handrubbing-using-locally-manufactured-alcohol-based-handrubs-in-paediatric-wards-in-harare-zimbabwe
#1
Muchaneta Gudza-Mugabe, Marcelyn T Magwenzi, Hilda A Mujuru, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Valerie Robertson, Alexander M Aiken
We assessed bacterial contamination of hands of adults present in paediatric wards in two tertiary-care hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe and the microbiologic efficacy of locally-manufactured alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR). During unannounced visits, samples were collected using hand-print and hand-rinse methods. Samples were collected from 152 individuals (16 nurses, 10 doctors, 28 students, 86 parents/guardians, 12 others). Contamination of hands with Gram-negative bacteria was found in 91% of adults tested with a mean of 14...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942365/isolation-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profile-and-detection-of-sul1-blatem-and-blashv-in-amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant-bacteria-isolated-from-retail-sausages-in-kampar-malaysia
#2
Lih-Shin Tew, Li-Yen She, Choy-Hoong Chew
BACKGROUND: Due to the overuse of antibiotics in livestock as a growth-promoting agent, the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming a concern. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to detect the presence and discover the molecular determinants of foodborne bacteria in retail sausages resistant towards the antibacterial agent amoxicillin-clavulanate. METHODS: Two grams of sausages were chopped into small pieces and transferred into sterile Luria-Bertani (LB) enrichment broths overnight before they were plated on MacConkey agar petri dishes...
October 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939093/susceptibility-to-cephalosporin-combinations-and-aztreonam-avibactam-among-third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-recovered-on-hospital-admission
#3
Alexander Mischnik, Philipp Baumert, Axel Hamprecht, Anna Rohde, Silke Peter, Susanne Feihl, Johannes Knobloch, Hanna Gölz, Axel Kola, Birgit Obermann, Christiane Querbach, Matthias Willmann, Friedemann Gebhardt, Evelina Tacconelli, Petra Gastmeier, Harald Seifert, Winfried V Kern
As part of the multicentre Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study (ATHOS), minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for cephalosporins alone and in combination with the β-lactamase inhibitors tazobactam, clavulanic acid and avibactam against third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. isolates collected in German hospitals. MIC50/90 values were 0.25-4 mg/L for cefepime/tazobactam, 0.25-2 mg/L for ceftazidime/avibactam, 0.125-0.5 mg/L for ceftaroline/avibactam, 0...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904747/comparing-the-disk-diffusion-and-agar-dilution-tests-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#4
Hsi Liu, Thomas H Taylor, Kevin Pettus, Steve Johnson, John R Papp, David Trees
BACKGROUND: We assessed the validity of testing for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and mutant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolates by disk diffusion in comparison to agar dilution, and Etest® (bioMerieux, France), respectively, for three third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC): ceftriaxone (CRO), cefixime (CFX), and cefpodoxime (CPD). METHODS: One hundred and five clinical isolates and ten laboratory-mutants were tested following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's standards for each of the three methods...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694724/prevalence-and-multidrug-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-from-community-acquired-infections-in-lagos-nigeria
#5
Eyitayo O Adenipekun, Charlene R Jackson, Hazem Ramadan, Bamidele A Iwalokun, Kolawole S Oyedeji, Jonathan G Frye, John B Barrett, Lari M Hiott, Tiffanie A Woodley, Afolabi Oluwadun
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR; resistance to ≥ 2 more antimicrobials) in Escherichia coli is of concern due to complications encountered in treatment. METHODOLOGY: In this study, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic characteristics of MDR community isolates of E. coli from Lagos, Nigeria were determined. Urine and stool samples were obtained from outpatients attending Lagos State hospitals and from animal handlers in abattoirs, poultries, and open markets, from December 2012 to July 2013...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598630/first-report-of-tem-104-shv-99-shv-108-and-shv-110-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-iran
#6
Shahram Shahraki-Zahedani, Shahnaz Rigi, Mohammad Bokaeian, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Mehdi Moghadampour
INTRODUCTION: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing beta-lactams. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of TEM- and SHV-type ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. METHODS: A total of 170 non-repetitive K. pneumoniae strains were collected from patients referred to three teaching hospitals of Zahedan. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined for 17 antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method...
July 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494134/esbl-detection-comparison-of-a-commercially-available-chromogenic-test-for-third-generation-cephalosporine-resistance-and-automated-susceptibility-testing-in-enterobactericeae
#7
Mohamed Ramadan El-Jade, Marijo Parcina, Ricarda Maria Schmithausen, Christoph Stein, Alina Meilaender, Achim Hoerauf, Ernst Molitor, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R) and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442885/investigation-of-molecular-interaction-between-cefpodoxime-acid-and-human-mixtard-insulin-by-ultrasonic-and-spectral-methods
#8
T Ganesh, V Kannappan, M G Mohamed Kamil, R Kumar
This paper deals with the extensive investigation of molecular interaction between third generation cephalosporin antibiotic, Cefpodoxime Acid (CA) and Human Mixtard Insulin (HMI) in an aqueous medium through ultrasonic, dilute solution viscometric (DSV) and spectral [UV-vis, Attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FT IR] methods at various blend compositions of the drug and insulin at three different (303K, 310K and 313K) temperatures. This is an attempt to unravel the possibility of drug induced hypoglycemic effect...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436461/emergence-of-ciprofloxacin-resistant-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enteric-bacteria-in-hospital-wastewater-and-clinical-sources
#9
Meenu Maheshwari, Nawar Hadi Yaser, Suraiya Naz, Mansha Fatima, Iqbal Ahmad
This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ciprofloxacin-resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enteric bacteria in hospital wastewater and clinical sources. Enteric bacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, were isolated from clinical sources (urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract infections; 80 isolates) and hospital wastewater (103 isolates). The antibiotic resistance profile and ESBL production of the isolates were investigated by disc diffusion assay and combined disc diffusion test, respectively...
June 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412057/in-vitro-efficacy-of-six-alternative-antibiotics-against-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-urinary-tract-infections
#10
Yu Ting Chen, Katzrin Ahmad Murad, Lily Sy Ng, Jonathan Th Seah, Joon Jae Park, Thean Yen Tan
INTRODUCTION: Increasing resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to firstline antibiotics makes therapeutic options for urinary tract infections (UTIs) challenging. This study investigated the in vitro efficacies of 6 antibiotics against multidrug resistant (MDR) uropathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations to ceftibuten, cefpodoxime, fosfomycin, mecillinam, temocillin, and trimethoprim were determined against 155 MDR-isolates of E...
June 2016: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333718/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistance-and-fosfomycin-susceptibility-rates-in-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections-time-to-change-the-antimicrobial-preferences
#11
Ozlem Guneysel, Enes Suman, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in adult population. They are prevalent in all age groups both in women and men. Also, UTIs are the most frequent indication for empirical antibiotic treatment in emergency department. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance rates in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs. Adult patients admitted to emergency department with uncomplicated UTIs were included in this cross-sectional study. Mid-stream urine samples were obtained under sterile conditions and cultured quantitatively...
March 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27155235/in-vitro-in-vivo-evaluation-of-hpmc-alginate-based-extended-release-matrix-tablets-of-cefpodoxime-proxetil
#12
Ali Mujtaba, Kanchan Kohli
The purpose of this research was to assessment of antimicrobial activity and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of cefpodoxime proxetil extended-release (ER) tablet for once daily administration. The tablets were prepared using combination of biodegradable polysaccharides including hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and sodium alginate as matrix material to achieve pH-independent ER release. The tablets were found within the permissible limits for various physicochemical parameters. The in vitro drug release showed that the drug was released over a period of 24h in a sustained release manner...
August 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145868/genetic-characterization-of-tem-type-esbl-associated-antibacterial-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ghana
#13
Daniel Oduro-Mensah, Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Evelyn Yayra Bonney, Ebenezer Oduro-Mensah, Kingsley Twum-Danso, Yaa Difie Osei, Sammy Tawiah Sackey
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance due to the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide problem. Data from Ghana regarding this resistance mechanism is limited. This study was designed to investigate the presence of TEM-type ESBL genes, their locations and their conjugabilities in clinical isolates of enterobacteria collected from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. METHODS: Study isolates were characterized with respect to ESBL phenotype, TEM-type ESBL gene detection, location of the ESBL gene(s) and conjugability of the ESBL phenotype using nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K-12 as recipient...
May 4, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097699/in-vitro-effect-of-new-antibiotics-against-clinical-isolates-of-salmonella-typhi
#14
Nasrullah Malik, Mamoon Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vitrodisk diffusion and MIC patterns of the therapeutic alternatives for Salmonella Typhi. STUDY DESIGN: Across-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from June 2011 to May 2013. METHODOLOGY: Clinical samples were collected from suspected cases of Salmonella infections. Culture was obtained on standard media. Suspected Salmonella colonies were tested by API 20E and confirmed by serology...
April 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071981/phenotypic-tests-for-the-detection-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-different-environments
#15
Daniele V de Oliveira, Sueli T Van Der Sand
Some bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family are showing a significant capability to disseminate β-lactams resistance mechanisms among them, and these same mechanisms can be carried out from the hospital environment to superficial water. The aim of this study was to evaluate different phenotypic methods for the detection β-lactamases production by enterobacteria isolated from the anthropogenic environment: hospital wastewater and from a stream that cross the city of Porto Alegre. The applied tests were the modified Hodge test (MHT) and phenotypic tests with the following inhibitors: carbapenemase-phenylboronic acid (APB), metallo-β-lactamase-EDTA, AmpC β-lactamase-cloxacillin, and the confirmatory test for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-clavulanic acid...
July 2016: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26894064/enhancing-phenotypic-detection-of-esbl-in-ampc-co-producers-by-using-cefepime-and-tazobactam
#16
Jaspal Kaur, Gomty Mahajan, Kailash Chand, Sheevani, Shashi Chopra
INTRODUCTION: Routine phenotypic methods employing clavulanate and third generation cephalosporins to detect ESBL are not promising for isolates that co-produce an inhibitor-resistant beta lactamase like AmpC. AIM: Enhancing phenotypic detection of ESBL in AmpC co-producers by using cefepime and tazobactam. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 245 isolates of Escherichia coli (123), Klebsiella spp. (87), Proteus spp.(20), Enterobacter spp. (9) and Citrobacter spp...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870307/prevalence-of-quinolone-resistance-genes-among-extended-spectrum-b-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-mashhad-iran
#17
Elnaz Harifi Mood, Zahra Meshkat, Nafiseh Izadi, Maryam Rezaei, Saeid Amel Jamehdar, Mahboubeh Naderi Nasab
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is an important bacterial species based on incidence and associated infection severity. Some E. coli strains produce extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) and are called ESBL-producing E. coli. These strains are resistant to most classes of cephalosporin and a number of other classes of antibiotics. Plasmids carrying qnr genes have been found to transmit quinolone resistance. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of qnr genes in ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E...
December 2015: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26742392/a-surveillance-bacteriological-study-of-acute-bacterial-rhinosinusitis-in-thailand-and-the-clinical-responses-to-the-culture-directed-antibiotics
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sanguansak Thanaviratananich, Supinda Chusakul, Greetha Moungthong, Thongchai Luxameechanporn, Pongsakorn Tantilipikorn, Supranee Fooanant, Songklot Aeumjaturapat, Pipat Sribenjalux, Nadtaya Makachen, Seksun Chainansamit, Saisawat Chaiyasate, Chaweewan Bunnag
OBJECTIVE: To examine: 1) types of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity of commonly used antibiotics for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) in Thailand, 2) the effectiveness of using antibiotics according to antimicrobial sensitivity, and 3) the effectiveness of using antibiotics according to the Thai clinical practice guidelines (CPG) of ABRS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Descriptive & experimental studies were conducted in seven tertiary hospitals in Thailand. The specimens from maxillary sinuses were taken for bacterial cultures either by maxillary sinus tap or endoscopically directed middle meatus swabs in patients with clinically diagnosed ABRS...
August 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26712266/comparison-of-2-chromogenic-media-for-the-detection-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-stool-carriage-in-nursing-home-residents
#19
Beth Blane, Hayley J Brodrick, Theodore Gouliouris, Kirsty E Ambridge, Angela D Kidney, Catherine M Ludden, Direk Limmathurotsakul, M Estée Török, Sharon J Peacock
ChromID ESBL agar and Brilliance ESBL agar were compared for the isolation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae from 298 stools. These had comparable sensitivity and selectivity for the 116 positive samples. Pre-enrichment with cefpodoxime and extending incubation to 48 hours after direct plating both significantly increased sensitivity but reduced selectivity of both agars.
March 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26579402/characterization-of-impurities-in-cefpodoxime-proxetil-using-lc-ms-n
#20
Jin Li, Dousheng Zhang, Changqin Hu
Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was used to characterize impurities in cefpodoxime proxetil, an ester-modified prodrug. Based on the mechanisms by which cephalosporins are degraded, stress tests were designed and performed. The bulk material and capsule were eluted through a C18 column with formic acid-methanol-water as the mobile phase. In total, 15 impurities were characterized in commercial samples, including 7 known impurities and 8 new impurities...
August 2014: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
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