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Nucleolar pattern

Sebastian Maciak, Katarzyna Michalak, Shiv D Kale, Pawel Michalak
Nucleolar dominance is a dramatic disruption in the formation of nucleoli and the expression of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, characteristic of some plant and animal hybrids. Here, we report that F1 hybrids produced from reciprocal crosses between 2 sister species of Xenopus clawed frogs, X. muelleri and X. borealis, undergo nucleolar dominance somewhat distinct from a pattern previously reported in hybrids between phylogenetically more distant Xenopus species. Patterns of nucleolar development, 45S rRNA expression, and gene copy inheritance were investigated using a combination of immunostaining, pyrosequencing, droplet digital PCR, flow cytometry, and epigenetic inhibition...
October 12, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Jana Sochorová, Olivier Coriton, Alena Kuderová, Jana Lunerová, Anne-Marie Chèvre, Aleš Kovařík
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Brassica napus (AACC, 2n = 38, oilseed rape) is a relatively recent allotetraploid species derived from the putative progenitor diploid species Brassica rapa (AA, 2n = 20) and Brassica oleracea (CC, 2n = 18). To determine the influence of intensive breeding conditions on the evolution of its genome, we analysed structure and copy number of rDNA in 21 cultivars of B. napus, representative of genetic diversity. METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing genomic approaches, Southern blot hybridization, expression analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
October 5, 2016: Annals of Botany
Sarada L Nandiwada, Lisa K Peterson, Maureen D Mayes, Troy D Jaskowski, Elisabeth Malmberg, Shervin Assassi, Minoru Satoh, Anne E Tebo
OBJECTIVE: To determine the autoantibody repertoire and clinical associations in a multiethnic cohort of American patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: There were 1000 patients with SSc (196 Hispanic, 228 African American, 555 white, and 21 other) who were screened for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), including anticentromere antibodies (ACA) by indirect immunofluorescence assay, antitopoisomerase-1 (topo-1/Scl-70) by immunodiffusion, and anti-RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) by ELISA...
October 2016: Journal of Rheumatology
Yujiro Nishizawa, Naohiro Nishida, Masamitsu Konno, Koichi Kawamoto, Ayumu Asai, Jun Koseki, Hidekazu Takahashi, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Junichi Nishimura, Taishi Hata, Chu Matsuda, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Taroh Satoh, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Hideshi Ishii
BACKGROUND: Targeting epigenetic regulators is a promising therapeutic strategy against cancer. However, because of the broad spectrum of targets, selective inhibition of cancer-associated genes remains a major challenge. To address this issue, we focused on the oncogene-regulated histone demethylase, nucleolar protein 66 (NO66 [C14orf169/MAPJD]), which is known to work coordinately with the well-characterized oncogene, c-MYC. METHODS: To investigate expression patterns and clinical significance of NO66 in colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed immunohistochemical staining in 114 CRC cases...
July 29, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
C Bentow, R Rosenblum, P Correia, E Karayev, D Karayev, D Williams, J Kulczycka, M J Fritzler, M Mahler
OBJECTIVE: Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) represent a hallmark in the diagnosis of ANA-associated rheumatic diseases (AARD). However, anti-DFS70 antibodies are present in a higher portion of the healthy individuals (HI) than in patients with AARD. Consequently, we developed a novel, highly specific indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) method that blocks anti-DFS70 antibodies from binding to HEp-2 cells and to evaluate the method in a multi-center study. METHODS: A total of 18 samples from systemic lupus erythematosus patients (SLE, n = 7) and HI (n = 11) were used for the initial development of the immunoadsorption method...
July 2016: Lupus
Daphne S Cabianca, Susan M Gasser
Multiple layers of regulation are required to ensure appropriate patterns of gene expression for accurate cell differentiation. Interphase chromatin is non-randomly distributed within the nucleus, with highly compacted, transcriptionally silent heterochromatin enriched at the nuclear and nucleolar periphery. Whether this spatial organization serves a function in organismal physiology, rather than simply being a byproduct of chromatin metabolism, is a fundamental question. Recent work performed in C. elegans embryos characterized the molecular mechanisms that drive the perinuclear anchoring of heterochromatin...
May 3, 2016: Nucleus
Chanwit Prapinjumrune, Chalakorn Prucktrakul, Trakarn Sooktonglarng, Kobkan Thongprasom
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the presence of antinuclear antibody (ANA) in older Thais compared with middle-age and younger participants. BACKGROUND: Antinuclear antibody represents the first step in the diagnostic testing for lupus erythematosus (LE) and other autoimmune diseases. Due to the lack of reference ANA levels in older, middle-age and younger Thais healthy participants, this study will be useful for determining the proper diagnostic and treatment criteria...
May 12, 2016: Gerodontology
Pavel Flegontov, Anzhelika Butenko, Sergei Firsov, Natalya Kraeva, Marek Eliáš, Mark C Field, Dmitry Filatov, Olga Flegontova, Evgeny S Gerasimov, Jana Hlaváčová, Aygul Ishemgulova, Andrew P Jackson, Steve Kelly, Alexei Y Kostygov, Maria D Logacheva, Dmitri A Maslov, Fred R Opperdoes, Amanda O'Reilly, Jovana Sádlová, Tereza Ševčíková, Divya Venkatesh, Čestmír Vlček, Petr Volf, Jan Votýpka, Kristína Záhonová, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Julius Lukeš
Many high-quality genomes are available for dixenous (two hosts) trypanosomatid species of the genera Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and Phytomonas, but only fragmentary information is available for monoxenous (single-host) trypanosomatids. In trypanosomatids, monoxeny is ancestral to dixeny, thus it is anticipated that the genome sequences of the key monoxenous parasites will be instrumental for both understanding the origin of parasitism and the evolution of dixeny. Here, we present a high-quality genome for Leptomonas pyrrhocoris, which is closely related to the dixenous genus Leishmania...
2016: Scientific Reports
Juliana Ramos Martins, Márcia Maria Gentile Bitondi
Hexamerins are insect storage proteins abundantly secreted by the larval fat body into the haemolymph. The canonical role of hexamerins consists of serving as an amino acid reserve for development toward the adult stage. However, in Apis mellifera, immunofluorescence assays coupled to confocal laser-scanning microscopy, and high-throughput sequencing, have recently shown the presence of hexamerins in other organs than the fat body. These findings have led us to study these proteins with the expectation of uncovering additional functions in insect development...
2016: PloS One
Supriya Borah, Praveen Barrodia, Rajeeb K Swain
The nucleolar protein 4-like (NOL4L) gene is present on chromosome 20 (20q11.21) in humans. Parts of this gene have been shown to fuse with RUNX1 and PAX5 in acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, respectively. The normal function of NOL4L in humans and other organisms is not well understood. The expression patterns and functions of NOL4L homologs during vertebrate development have not been reported. We sought to address these questions by studying the expression pattern of zebrafish nol4l during embryogenesis...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
P B Nishiyama, M M R Vieira, F E Porto, L A Borin, A L B Portela-Castro, I C M Santos
The group Incertae sedis within the Characidae family currently includes 88 genera, previously included in the subfamily Tetragonopterinae. Among them is the genus Astyanax comprising a group of species with similar morphology and widely distributed in the Neotropics. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the karyotype diversity in Astyanax species from different watersheds by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH rDNA 18S) probe.specimens of Astyanax aff. paranae belonging to the "scabripinnis complex", Astyanax asunsionensis and Astyanax aff...
June 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Darren D Thomson, Judith Berman, Alexandra C Brand
The commensal yeast, Candida albicans, is an opportunistic pathogen in humans and forms filaments called hyphae and pseudohyphae, in which cell division requires precise temporal and spatial control to produce mononuclear cell compartments. High-frame-rate live-cell imaging (1 frame/min) revealed that nuclear division did not occur across the septal plane. We detected the presence of nucleolar fragments that may be extrachromosomal molecules carrying the ribosomal RNA genes. Cells occasionally maintained multiple nucleoli, suggesting either polyploidy, multiple nuclei and/or aneuploidy of ChrR...
March 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
C M Cabrera, E Fernández-Grande, J M Urra
Nucleolar staining of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) is not exclusive to patients suffering systemic sclerosis (SSc) since it can occur in other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The nucleolar ANA pattern presents a low incidence in patients with SLE, with less than 9% reported in some studies. The significance of nucleolar staining and antinucleolar antibodies (ANoA) in SLE is still unknown, as is its association with clinical manifestations. To address these issues, a case-control study was carried out...
August 2016: Lupus
Marina Souza da Cunha, Vinícius José Carvalho Reis, Jorge Abdala Dergam
Astyanax taeniatus occurs in coastal areas of southeastern Brazil, and it is very abundant in the Upper Doce River Basin. Our objective was to study C-, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (Ag-NOR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) banding patterns using 5S, 18S, CA(15), and GA(15) repetitive DNA probes on a population of A. taeniatus present in the Piranga River, in the Doce Basin. Two syntopic cytotypes were found, both with 2n = 50: cytotype A (14m + 12sm + 16st + 8t) and cytotype B (10m + 14sm + 18st + 8t)...
April 2016: Zebrafish
Victor N Ierusalimsky, Pavel M Balaban
RNA synthesis can be detected by means of the in vivo incorporation of 5-ethynyluridine (EU) in newly-synthesized RNA with the relatively simple Click-iT method. We used this method to study the RNA synthesis in the CNS tissue of adult and juvenile terrestrial snails Helix lucorum L. Temporally, first labeled neurons were detected in the adult CNS after 4-h of isolated CNS incubation in EU solution, while 12-h of incubation led to extensive labeling of most CNS neurons. The EU labeling was present as the nuclear and nucleolar staining...
February 15, 2016: Brain Research
Marcia M Miller, Robert L Taylor
Nearly all genes presently mapped to chicken chromosome 16 (GGA 16) have either a demonstrated role in immune responses or are considered to serve in immunity by reason of sequence homology with immune system genes defined in other species. The genes are best described in regional units. Among these, the best known is the polymorphic major histocompatibility complex-B (MHC-B) region containing genes for classical peptide antigen presentation. Nearby MHC-B is a small region containing two CD1 genes, which encode molecules known to bind lipid antigens and which will likely be found in chickens to present lipids to specialized T cells, as occurs with CD1 molecules in other species...
February 2016: Poultry Science
Roman Matyášek, Eva Dobešová, Dalibor Húska, Ivana Ježková, Pamela S Soltis, Douglas E Soltis, Aleš Kovařík
Uniparental silencing of 35S rRNA genes (rDNA), known as nucleolar dominance (ND), is common in interspecific hybrids. Allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus composed of Tragopogon dubius (d) and Tragopogon porrifolius (p) genomes shows highly variable ND. To examine the molecular basis of such variation, we studied the genetic and epigenetic features of rDNA homeologs in several lines derived from recently and independently formed natural populations. Inbred lines derived from T. mirus with a dominant d-rDNA homeolog transmitted this expression pattern over generations, which may explain why it is prevalent among natural populations...
February 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Katarzyna Michalak, Sebastian Maciak, Young Bun Kim, Graciela Santopietro, Jung Hun Oh, Lin Kang, Harold R Garner, Pawel Michalak
Using a system of interspecies hybrids, trihybrids, and recombinants with varying proportions of genomes from three distinct Xenopus species, we provide evidence for de novo epigenetic silencing of paternal 45 S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes and their species-dependent expression dominance that escapes transcriptional inactivation after homologous recombination. The same pattern of imprinting is maintained in the offspring from mothers being genetic males (ZZ) sex-reversed to females, indicating that maternal control of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) expression is not sex-chromosome linked...
December 7, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Wei Cui, Jason Pizzollo, Zhengbin Han, Chelsea Marcho, Kun Zhang, Jesse Mager
Nucleolar protein 2 (NOP2) is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to human, and has been found to play an important role in accelerating cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and tumor aggressiveness. The expression pattern and function of Nop2 during early mammalian embryo development, however, has not been investigated. We identified Nop2 as an essential gene for development to the blastocyst stage while performing an RNA interference (RNAi)-based screen in mouse preimplantation embryos. Nop2 is expressed throughout preimplantation development, with highest mRNA and protein accumulation at the 8-cell and morula stages, respectively...
February 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Karina Hernández-Ortega, Anusha Koneti, Laura Gil, Raul Delgado-Morales, Ester Castaño, Margarita Carmona, Isidre Ferrer
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal α-synuclein in selected regions of the brain following a gradient of severity with disease progression. Whether this is accompanied by globally altered protein synthesis is poorly documented. The present study was carried out in PD stages 1-6 of Braak and middle-aged (MA) individuals without alterations in brain in the substantia nigra, frontal cortex area 8, angular gyrus, precuneus and putamen. RESULTS: Reduced mRNA expression of nucleolar proteins nucleolin (NCL), nucleophosmin (NPM1), nucleoplasmin 3 (NPM3) and upstream binding transcription factor (UBF), decreased NPM1 but not NPM3 nucleolar protein immunostaining in remaining neurons; diminished 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA; reduced expression of several mRNAs encoding ribosomal protein (RP) subunits; and altered protein levels of initiation factor eIF3 and elongation factor eEF2 of protein synthesis was found in the substantia nigra in PD along with disease progression...
2015: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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