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Trachoma prevalence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546072/dendrimer-conjugated-peptide-vaccine-enhances-clearance-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infection
#1
Ingrid S Ganda, Qian Zhong, Mirabela Hali, Ricardo L C Albuquerque, Francine F Padilha, Sandro R P da Rocha, Judith A Whittum-Hudson
Peptide-based vaccines have emerged in recent years as promising candidates in the prevention of infectious diseases. However, there are many challenges to maintaining in vivo peptide stability and enhancement of peptide immunogenicity to generate protective immunity which enhances clearance of infections. Here, a dendrimer-based carrier system is proposed for peptide-based vaccine delivery, and shows its anti-microbial feasibility in a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydiae are the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacteria worldwide, and also the causal agent of trachoma, the leading cause of preventable infectious blindness...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535271/measuring-trachomatous-inflammation-intense-ti-when-prevalence-is-low-provides-data-on-infection-with-chlamydia-trachomatis
#2
Andrea I Zambrano, Beatriz E Muñoz, Harran Mkocha, Laura Dize, Charlotte A Gaydos, Thomas Quinn, Sheila K West
Purpose: Clinical trachoma is the current measure of effectiveness of antibiotic and environmental improvements in trachoma endemic communities. Impact assessments measure only trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF). Trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) is not used for decisions on stopping mass drug administration (MDA) or achieving intervention goals. We tested the supposition that TI was not associated with Chlamydia trachomatis when disease prevalence is low. Methods: In 35 communities undergoing MDA as part of a larger project, 110 children ages 1 to 9 years were randomly selected in each community for surveys at baseline, 6, and 12 months...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532208/the-burden-of-and-risk-factors-for-trachoma-in-selected-districts-of-zimbabwe-results-of-16-population-based-prevalence-surveys
#3
Isaac Phiri, Portia Manangazira, Colin K Macleod, Takafira Mduluza, Tinashe Dhobbie, Shorai Grace Chaora, Chriswell Chigwena, Joshua Katiyo, Rebecca Willis, Ana Bakhtiari, Peter Bare, Paul Courtright, Boniface Macheka, Nicholas Midzi, Anthony W Solomon
BACKGROUND: Trachoma, a leading cause of blindness, is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem by 2020. In order to contribute to this goal, countries should demonstrate reduction of disease prevalence below specified thresholds, after implementation of the SAFE strategy in areas with defined endemicity. Zimbabwe had not yet generated data on trachoma endemicity and no specific interventions against trachoma have yet been implemented. METHODS: Two trachoma mapping phases were successively implemented in Zimbabwe, with eight districts included in each phase, in September 2014 and October 2015...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479620/active-trachoma-and-community-use-of-sanitation-ethiopia
#4
William E Oswald, Aisha Ep Stewart, Michael R Kramer, Tekola Endeshaw, Mulat Zerihun, Berhanu Melak, Eshetu Sata, Demelash Gessese, Tesfaye Teferi, Zerihun Tadesse, Birhan Guadie, Jonathan D King, Paul M Emerson, Elizabeth K Callahan, Dana Flanders, Christine L Moe, Thomas F Clasen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate, in Amhara, Ethiopia, the association between prevalence of active trachoma among children aged 1-9 years and community sanitation usage. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2014, prevalence of trachoma and household pit latrine usage were measured in five population-based cross-sectional surveys. Data on observed indicators of latrine use were aggregated into a measure of community sanitation usage calculated as the proportion of households with a latrine in use...
April 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441120/prevalence-of-trachoma-in-northern-benin-results-from-11-population-based-prevalence-surveys-covering-26-districts
#5
Amadou Alfa Bio, Pelagie M Boko, Yannelle A Dossou, Jean-Jacques Tougoue, Achille Kabore, Ignace Sounouvou, Jean-Eudes Biaou, Lionel Nizigama, Paul Courtright, Anthony W Solomon, Lisa Rotondo, Wilfrid Batcho, Dorothée Kinde-Gazard
AIMS: We sought to evaluate trachoma prevalence in all suspected-endemic areas of Benin. METHODS: We conducted population-based surveys covering 26 districts grouped into 11 evaluation units (EUs), using a two-stage, systematic and random, cluster sampling design powered at EU level. In each EU, 23 villages were systematically selected with population proportional to size; 30 households were selected from each village using compact segment sampling. In selected households, we examined all consenting residents aged one year or above for trichiasis, trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF), and trachomatous inflammation - intense...
April 25, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357377/chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infections
#6
REVIEW
Catherine M O'Connell, Morgan E Ferone
Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years), likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity...
September 5, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351345/short-term-increase-in-prevalence-of-nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-macrolide-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-following-mass-drug-administration-with-azithromycin-for-trachoma-control
#7
Ebrima Bojang, James Jafali, Vincent Perreten, John Hart, Emma M Harding-Esch, Ansumana Sillah, David C W Mabey, Martin J Holland, Robin L Bailey, Anna Roca, Sarah E Burr
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin is a corner-stone of trachoma control however it may drive the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. In a cluster-randomized trial (Clinical trial gov NCT00792922), we compared the reduction in the prevalence of active trachoma in communities that received three annual rounds of MDA to that in communities that received a single treatment round. We used the framework of this trial to carry out an opportunistic study to investigate if the increased rounds of treatment resulted in increased prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
March 28, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345563/chlamydial-eye-infections-current-perspectives
#8
Gita Satpathy, Himanshu Sekhar Behera, Nishat Hussain Ahmed
Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intraocular bacteria causing trachoma, adult and neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, was the leading cause of blindness in the last century worldwide. Improvement in socioeconomic and living conditions, availability of antibiotics, and introduction of National Trachoma Control Programmes reduced the prevalence in developed countries, but it persisted in resource-poor settings of Africa and Asia, including India. In 2016, as per the WHO report, trachoma is restricted to 42 countries, causing blindness/visual impairment in ~1...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279456/probabilistic-forecasts-of-trachoma-transmission-at-the-district-level-a-statistical-model-comparison
#9
Amy Pinsent, Fengchen Liu, Michael Deiner, Paul Emerson, Ana Bhaktiari, Travis C Porco, Thomas Lietman, Manoj Gambhir
The World Health Organization and its partners are aiming to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem by 2020. In this study, we compare forecasts of TF prevalence in 2011 for 7 different statistical and mechanistic models across 9 de-identified trachoma endemic districts, representing 4 unique trachoma endemic countries. We forecast TF prevalence between 1-6 years ahead in time and compare the 7 different models to the observed 2011 data using a log-likelihood score. An SIS model, including a district-specific random effect for the district-specific transmission coefficient, had the highest log-likelihood score across all 9 districts and was therefore the best performing model...
March 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276755/prevalence-of-trachoma-in-kano-state-nigeria-results-of-44-local-government-area-level-surveys
#10
Caleb Mpyet, Nasiru Muhammad, Mohammed Dantani Adamu, Habila Muazu, Murtala Muhammad Umar, Musa Goyol, Hadi Bala Yahaya, Uwazoeke Onyebuchi, Chris Ogoshi, Tijjani Hussaini, Sunday Isiyaku, Adamani William, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Brian K Chu, Rebecca Willis, Alexandre L Pavluck, Nicholas Olobio, Sophie Phelan, Colin Macleod, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachoma in 44 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kano State, Nigeria. METHODS: A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each Kano LGA. We used a two-stage systematic and quasi-random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters in each LGA. All consenting household residents aged 1 year and above were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) and trichiasis...
June 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187129/podoconiosis-trachomatous-trichiasis-and-cataract-in-northern-ethiopia-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#11
Helen Burn, Sintayehu Aweke, Tariku Wondie, Esmael Habtamu, Kebede Deribe, Saul Rajak, Stephen Bremner, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Rural populations in low-income countries commonly suffer from the co-morbidity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis (both NTDs) and cataract are common causes of morbidity among subsistence farmers in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. We explored whether podoconiosis was associated with cataract or trachomatous trichiasis (TT) among this population. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in East Gojam region, Amhara, Ethiopia in May 2016...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182664/improving-our-forecasts-for-trachoma-elimination-what-else-do-we-need-to-know
#12
Amy Pinsent, Manoj Gambhir
The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted trachoma for elimination as a public health concern by 2020. Mathematical modelling is used for a range of infectious diseases to assess the impact of different intervention strategies on the prevalence of infection or disease. Here we evaluate the performance of four different mechanistic mathematical models that could all realistically represent trachoma transmission. We fit the four different mechanistic models of trachoma transmission to cross-sectional age-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF) prevalence data...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118354/integrated-mapping-of-yaws-and-trachoma-in-the-five-northern-most-provinces-of-vanuatu
#13
Fasihah Taleo, Colin K Macleod, Michael Marks, Oliver Sokana, Anna Last, Rebecca Willis, Mackline Garae, Annie Bong, Brian K Chu, Paul Courtright, Jacob Kool, George Taleo, Jean Jacque Rory, Anthony W Solomon
Yaws and trachoma are targeted for eradication and elimination as public health problems. In trachoma-endemic populations mass administration of azithromycin can simultaneously treat yaws. We conducted a population-based prevalence survey in the five northernmost provinces of Vanuatu, where trachoma and yaws are suspected to be co-endemic. Clinical signs of trachoma were evaluated using the WHO simplified grading system, and skin examination with a serological rapid diagnostic test used to identify yaws. We enrolled 1004 households in 59 villages over 16 islands, and examined 3650 individuals of all ages for trachoma...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114364/eyelash-epilation-in-the-absence-of-trichiasis-results-of-a-population-based-prevalence-survey-in-the-western-division-of-fiji
#14
Colin Macleod, Chelsea Yalen, Robert Butcher, Umesh Mudaliar, Kinisimere Natutusau, Mere Rainima-Qaniuci, Chris Haffenden, Conall Watson, Naomi Cocks, Luisa Cikamatana, Chrissy H Roberts, Michael Marks, Eric Rafai, David C W Mabey, Mike Kama, Anthony W Solomon
BACKGROUND: The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103243/the-socioeconomic-benefit-to-individuals-of-achieving-the-2020-targets-for-five-preventive-chemotherapy-neglected-tropical-diseases
#15
William K Redekop, Edeltraud J Lenk, Marianne Luyendijk, Christopher Fitzpatrick, Louis Niessen, Wilma A Stolk, Fabrizio Tediosi, Adriana J Rijnsburger, Roel Bakker, Jan A C Hontelez, Jan H Richardus, Julie Jacobson, Sake J de Vlas, Johan L Severens
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and trachoma represent the five most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). They can be controlled or eliminated by means of safe and cost-effective interventions delivered through programs of Mass Drug Administration (MDA)-also named Preventive Chemotherapy (PCT). The WHO defined targets for NTD control/elimination by 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration, which, if achieved, would result in dramatic health gains...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956455/a-cluster-randomized-trial-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-targeting-trachoma-treatment-to-children
#16
Abdou Amza, Boubacar Kadri, Beido Nassirou, Sun Y Cotter, Nicole E Stoller, Zhaoxia Zhou, Robin L Bailey, David C Mabey, Travis C Porco, Jeremy D Keenan, Bruce D Gaynor, Sheila K West, Thomas M Lietman
Background: The World Health Organization recommends annual treatment of entire trachoma-endemic communities, although children typically have a higher load, longer duration, and greater likelihood of infection. Methods: Forty-eight communities in Matameye, Niger, were randomized to annual oral azithromycin treatment of the entire community or biannual treatment of children aged 0-12 years only. Both children and adults were monitored for ocular chlamydial infection by polymerase chain reaction...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937043/mapping-trachoma-in-the-solomon-islands-results-of-three-baseline-population-based-prevalence-surveys-conducted-with-the-global-trachoma-mapping-project
#17
Oliver Sokana, Colin Macleod, Kelvin Jack, Robert Butcher, Michael Marks, Rebecca Willis, Brian K Chu, Claude Posala, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We sought to complete the baseline trachoma map of the Solomon Islands by establishing prevalences of active trachoma and trichiasis in the provinces of Choiseul, Western, Rennell-Bellona, and Temotu. METHODS: Using the standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we conducted cross-sectional community-based surveys from September to November 2013. Choiseul and Western provinces were each mapped as separate evaluation units (EUs); Rennell-Bellona and Temotu were combined to form a third EU...
2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918248/prevalence-of-trachoma-in-benishangul-gumuz-region-ethiopia-results-of-seven-population-based-surveys-from-the-global-trachoma-mapping-project
#18
Yilikal Adamu, Colin Macleod, Liknaw Adamu, Wirtu Fikru, Beyene Kidu, Aida Abashawl, Michael Dejene, Brian K Chu, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Rebecca Willis, Alexandre L Pavluck, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: Trachoma is a major cause of blindness in Ethiopia, and targeted for elimination as a public health problem by the year 2020. Prevalence data are needed to plan interventions. We set out to estimate the prevalence of trachoma in each evaluation unit of grouped districts ("woredas") in Benishangul Gumuz region, Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted seven cross-sectional community-based surveys, covering 20 woredas, between December 2013 and January 2014, as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP)...
2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918232/the-prevalence-of-trachoma-in-tigray-region-northern-ethiopia-results-of-11-population-based-prevalence-surveys-completed-as-part-of-the-global-trachoma-mapping-project
#19
Sadik Taju Sherief, Colin Macleod, Goitum Gigar, Hagos Godefay, Atakelit Abraha, Michael Dejene, Amir B Kello, Aberash Belete, Yitbarek Assefa, Rebecca Willis, Brian K Chu, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of trachoma in each district ("woreda") of Tigray Region, Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted 11 cross-sectional community-based surveys in evaluation units covering 34 rural woredas from January to March 2013 using the standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project. RESULTS: Teams visited 8034 households in 275 villages. A total of 28,581 consenting individuals were examined, 16,163 (56...
2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918229/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-trachoma-in-southern-nations-nationalities-and-peoples-region-ethiopia-results-of-40-population-based-prevalence-surveys-carried-out-with-the-global-trachoma-mapping-project
#20
Tesfaye Haileselassie Adera, Colin Macleod, Misganu Endriyas, Michael Dejene, Rebecca Willis, Brian K Chu, Yohannes Letamo, Tebeje Misganaw, Tamiru Mesele, Emebet Mekonnen, Alemayehu Sisay, Yeneneh Mulugeta, Wondu Alemayehu, Khumbo Kalua, Tezera Kifle Destu, Yilikal Adamu, Jennifer L Smith, Abu Beyene, Addisu Tadesse, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We sought to estimate the prevalence of trachoma at sufficiently fine resolution to allow elimination interventions to begin, where required, in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. METHODS: We carried out cross-sectional population-based surveys in 14 rural zones. A 2-stage cluster randomized sampling technique was used. A total of 40 evaluation units (EUs) covering 110 districts ("woredas") were surveyed from February 2013 to May 2014 as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP), using the standardized GTMP training package and methodology...
2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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