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Trachoma prevalence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141720/prevalence-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-specific-antibodies-before-and-after-mass-drug-administration-for-trachoma-in-community-wide-surveys-of-four-communities-in-nepal
#1
Sarah E Gwyn, Lingwei Xiang, Ram Prasad Kandel, Deborah Dean, Manoj Gambhir, Diana L Martin
The target end date for the global elimination of trachoma as a public health problem is 2020. As countries begin the process for submitting their dossier for the validation of elimination of trachoma as a public health problem, strategies for post-validation surveillance must be considered. Seroprevalence of antibodies against antigens from the causative bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in young children has been shown to reflect trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) rates in both endemic and previously endemic settings...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140407/targeted-treatment-of-yaws-with-household-contact-tracing-how-much-do-we-miss
#2
Louise Dyson, Michael Marks, Oliver M Crook, Oliver Sokana, Anthony W Solomon, Alex Bishop, David C W Mabey, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Yaws is a disabling bacterial infection primarily found in warm and humid tropical areas. The World Health Organisation strategy mandates an initial round of total community treatment (TCT) with single-dose azithromycin followed either by further TCT or active case finding and treatment of cases and their contacts (the Morges strategy). We wish to investigate the effectiveness of the Morges strategy. We employ a stochastic household model to study the transmission of infection using data collected from a pre-TCT survey conducted in the Solomon Islands...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125849/effect-of-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-on-active-trachoma-in-north-and-south-wollo-zones-of-amhara-region-ethiopia-a-quasi-experimental-study
#3
Beselam Tadesse, Alemayehu Worku, Abera Kumie, Solomon Abebe Yimer
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is chronic kerato conjunctivitis, which is caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium. It is hyper endemic in many rural areas of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in selected woredas of North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A community based quasi-experimental study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 among children aged 1-8 years at baseline and among one year older same children after intervention...
November 10, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118442/serology-reflects-a-decline-in-the-prevalence-of-trachoma-in-two-regions-of-the-gambia
#4
Stephanie J Migchelsen, Nuno Sepúlveda, Diana L Martin, Gretchen Cooley, Sarah Gwyn, Harry Pickering, Hassan Joof, Pateh Makalo, Robin Bailey, Sarah E Burr, David C W Mabey, Anthony W Solomon, Chrissy H Roberts
Trachoma is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). It is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem. In 2014, a population-based cross-sectional study was performed in two previously trachoma-endemic areas of The Gambia. Participants of all ages from Lower River Region (LRR) (N = 1028) and Upper River Region (URR) (N = 840) underwent examination for trachoma and had blood collected for detection of antibodies against the Ct antigen Pgp3, by ELISA. Overall, 30 (1.6%) individuals had active trachoma; the prevalence in children aged 1-9 years was 3...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053275/thiazolino-2-pyridone-amide-isosteres-as-inhibitors-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-infectivity
#5
James A D Good, Martina Kulén, Jim Silver, K Syam Krishnan, Wael Bahnan, Carlos Núñez-Otero, Ingela Nilsson, Emma Wede, Esmee de Groot, Åsa Gylfe, Sven Bergström, Fredrik Almqvist
Chlamydia trachomatis is a global health burden due to its prevalence as a sexually transmitted disease and as the causative agent of the eye infection trachoma. We recently discovered 3-amido thiazolino 2-pyridones which attenuated C. trachomatis infectivity without affecting host cell or commensal bacteria viability. We present here the synthesis and evaluation of nonhydrolyzable amide isosteres based on this class, leading to highly potent 1,2,3-triazole based infectivity inhibitors (EC50 ≤ 20 nM).
November 3, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045419/the-cost-of-mapping-trachoma-data-from-the-global-trachoma-mapping-project
#6
Guillaume Trotignon, Ellen Jones, Thomas Engels, Elena Schmidt, Deborah A McFarland, Colin K Macleod, Khaled Amer, Amadou A Bio, Ana Bakhtiari, Sarah Bovill, Amy H Doherty, Asad Aslam Khan, Mariamo Mbofana, Siobhain McCullagh, Tom Millar, Consity Mwale, Lisa A Rotondo, Angela Weaver, Rebecca Willis, Anthony W Solomon
BACKGROUND: The Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) was implemented with the aim of completing the baseline map of trachoma globally. Over 2.6 million people were examined in 1,546 districts across 29 countries between December 2012 and January 2016. The aim of the analysis was to estimate the unit cost and to identify the key cost drivers of trachoma prevalence surveys conducted as part of GTMP. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-country and global support costs were obtained using GTMP financial records...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016320/comparison-of-platforms-for-testing-antibody-responses-against-the-chlamydia-trachomatis-antigen-pgp3
#7
Sarah Gwyn, Gretchen Cooley, Brook Goodhew, Stephan Kohloff, Natalie Banniettis, Ryan Wiegand, Diana L Martin
Antibody responses to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) antigens may be useful tools for surveillance of trachoma by estimating cumulative prevalence of infection within a population. Data were compared from three different platforms-multiplex bead array (MBA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and lateral flow assay (LFA)-measuring antibody responses against the CT antigen protein plasmid gene product 3 (Pgp3). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of specimens testing antibody positive from a set of dried blood spots from Tanzanian 1-9-year olds who were positive for CT nucleic acid of all nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive individuals (N = 103)...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988540/the-burden-of-and-risk-factors-for-active-trachoma-in-the-north-and-south-wollo-zones-of-amhara-region-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Beselam Tadesse, Alemayehu Worku, Abera Kumie, Solomon Abebe Yimer
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is a disease of the eye, caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, which can lead to blindness if left untreated. Ethiopia is one of the most trachoma-affected countries in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for active trachoma among children in selected woredas of North and South Wollo Zones in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. METHODS: This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study, which was conducted from October to December 2014 among children aged 1-8...
October 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988539/prevalence-and-determinants-of-active-trachoma-among-preschool-aged-children-in-dembia-district-northwest-ethiopia
#9
Ayanaw Tsega Ferede, Abel Fekadu Dadi, Amare Tariku, Akilew Awoke Adane
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is an infectious eye disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, which is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. In areas where trachoma is endemic, active trachoma is common among preschool-aged children, with varying magnitude. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of active trachoma and associated risk factors among preschool-aged children in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among preschool-aged children of northwest Ethiopia...
October 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973295/surveillance-surveys-for-reemergent-trachoma-in-formerly-endemic-districts-in-nepal-from-2-to-10-years-after-mass-drug-administration-cessation
#10
Sheila K West, Andrea I Zambrano, Shekhar Sharma, Sailesh K Mishra, Beatriz E Muñoz, Laura Dize, Kathryn Crowley, Charlotte A Gaydos, Lisa A Rotondo
Importance: To verify districts for elimination of blinding trachoma, the World Health Organization requires a population-based surveillance survey for follicular trachoma (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) 2 years after mass drug administration (MDA) activities have ceased. However, it is unknown if 2 years provides enough time to discover reemergence. Objective: To determine the prevalence of trachoma from surveys among 4 districts in Nepal (Dailekh, Dang, Surkhet, and Kanchanpur) that had surveillance intervals of 2, 4, 8, and 10 years, respectively, after cessation of MDA...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966918/immunofibrogenic-gene-expression-patterns-in-tanzanian-children-with-ocular-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-active-trachoma-and-scarring-baseline-results-of-a-4-year-longitudinal-study
#11
Athumani M Ramadhani, Tamsyn Derrick, David Macleod, Patrick Massae, Tara Mtuy, David Jeffries, Chrissy H Roberts, Robin L Bailey, David C W Mabey, Martin J Holland, Matthew J Burton
Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness and remains a significant public health problem. Much of trachomatous disease pathology is thought to be caused indirectly by host cellular and immune responses, however the immune response during active trachoma and how this initiates progressive scarring is not clearly understood. Defining protective vs. pathogenic immune response to C. trachomatis is important for vaccine design and evaluation. This study reports the baseline results of a longitudinal cohort of Tanzanian children, who were monitored for 4 years in order to determine the immunofibrogenic and infectious correlates of progressive scarring trachoma...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936049/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-dry-eye-symptoms-in-a-saudi-arabian-population
#12
Abdulaziz A Alshamrani, Abdulwahab S Almousa, Abdulrahman A Almulhim, Abdullah A Alafaleq, Mohammed B Alosaimi, Abdulrahman M Alqahtani, Ammar M Almulhem, Mohammed A Alshamrani, Ahmad H Alhallafi, Ismail Z Alqahtani, Abdullah A Alshehri
BACKGROUND: The information about dry eye epidemiology in Saudi Arabia is few in literature. PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of dry eye symptoms (DES) in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Using a multi-stage proportionate sampling technique, Saudis of both genders from 6 urban and 4 rural Primary Health Care centers in Al-Ahsa were enrolled. They were interviewed to gather data on sociodemography, symptoms of dry eye, factors potentially related to dry eye, and chronic comorbidities...
April 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932256/hamiltonian-analysis-of-subcritical-stochastic-epidemic-dynamics
#13
Lee Worden, Ira B Schwartz, Simone Bianco, Sarah F Ackley, Thomas M Lietman, Travis C Porco
We extend a technique of approximation of the long-term behavior of a supercritical stochastic epidemic model, using the WKB approximation and a Hamiltonian phase space, to the subcritical case. The limiting behavior of the model and approximation are qualitatively different in the subcritical case, requiring a novel analysis of the limiting behavior of the Hamiltonian system away from its deterministic subsystem. This yields a novel, general technique of approximation of the quasistationary distribution of stochastic epidemic and birth-death models and may lead to techniques for analysis of these models beyond the quasistationary distribution...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910562/the-epidemiology-of-trachoma-in-mozambique-results-of-96-population-based-prevalence-surveys
#14
Mariamo Abdala, Carlos C Singano, Rebecca Willis, Colin K Macleod, Sharone Backers, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Anselmo Vilanculos, Dantew Terefe, Moises Houane, Fitsum Bikele, Amir Bedri Kello, Philip Downs, Zulquifla Bay, Laura Senyonjo, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: Surveys are needed to guide trachoma control efforts in Mozambique, with WHO guidelines for intervention based on the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years and the prevalence of trichiasis in adults aged 15 years and above. We conducted surveys to complete the map of trachoma prevalence in Mozambique. METHODS: Between July 2012 and May 2015, we carried out cross-sectional surveys in 96 evaluation units (EUs) covering 137 districts...
September 14, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898240/prevalence-of-signs-of-trachoma-ocular-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-and-antibodies-to-pgp3-in-residents-of-kiritimati-island-kiribati
#15
Anaseini Cama, Andreas Müller, Raebwebwe Taoaba, Robert M R Butcher, Iakoba Itibita, Stephanie J Migchelsen, Tokoriri Kiauea, Harry Pickering, Rebecca Willis, Chrissy H Roberts, Ana Bakhtiari, Richard T Le Mesurier, Neal D E Alexander, Diana L Martin, Rabebe Tekeraoi, Anthony W Solomon
OBJECTIVE: In some Pacific Island countries, such as Solomon Islands and Fiji, active trachoma is common, but ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) are rare. On Tarawa, the most populous Kiribati island, both the active trachoma sign "trachomatous inflammation-follicular" (TF) and TT are present at prevalences warranting intervention. We sought to estimate prevalences of TF, TT, ocular Ct infection, and anti-Ct antibodies on Kiritimati Island, Kiribati, to assess local relationships between these parameters, and to help determine the need for interventions against trachoma on Kiribati islands other than Tarawa...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893761/effectiveness-of-expanding-annual-mass-azithromycin-distribution-treatment-coverage-for-trachoma-in-niger-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#16
Abdou Amza, Boubacar Kadri, Beido Nassirou, Sun Y Cotter, Nicole E Stoller, Sheila K West, Robin L Bailey, Travis C Porco, Bruce D Gaynor, Jeremy D Keenan, Thomas M Lietman, Catherine E Oldenburg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The WHO recommends 3-5 years of annual mass azithromycin distribution with at least 80% treatment coverage to districts with active trachoma prevalence over 10% among children. Here, we assess the efficacy of expanding the coverage target to at least 90% for trachoma control in a mesoendemic region of Niger. METHODS: Twenty-four communities were randomised to a single day of azithromycin distribution with a coverage target of 80% of the community or up to 4 days of treatment, aiming for greater than 90% coverage...
September 11, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819505/use-of-validated-community-based-trachoma-trichiasis-tt-case-finders-to-measure-the-total-backlog-and-detect-when-elimination-threshold-is-achieved-a-tt-methodology-paper
#17
Jefitha Karimurio, Hillary Rono, Doris Njomo, John Sironka, Catherine Kareko, Michael Gichangi, Ernest Barasa, Alice Mwangi, Kefa Ronald, Francis Kiio
INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization recommends TT surveys to be conducted in adults aged 15+ years (TT 15 survey) and certifies elimination of TT as a public health problem when there is less than 1 unknown case per 1,000 people of all ages. There is no standard survey method to accurately confirm this elimination prevalence threshold of 0.1% because rare conditions require large and expensive prevalence survey samples. The aim of this study was to develop an accurate operational research method to measure the total backlog of TT in people of all ages and detect when the elimination threshold is achieved...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818547/contracting-infectious-diseases-in-sub-saharan-african-wetlands-a-question-of-use-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Carmen Anthonj, Andrea Rechenburg, Christoph Höser, Thomas Kistemann
Worldwide the pressure on water is increasing. In parts of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), natural wetlands constitute the only accessible water resources, providing water free of charge, agricultural potential and livelihoods in otherwise uninhabitable landscapes, which is why they are being used extensively. The degradation and contamination of water which result from the use of wetlands has the potential to spread disease-causing microorganisms and provide increased breeding habitats for disease vectors, Despite this importance, case studies are lacking and knowledge gaps remain about whether and how different kinds of wetland use influence the exposure to health risks and transmission of infectious diseases...
October 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791059/risk-factors-for-pterygium-in-ilam-province-iran
#19
Parviz Malekifar, Hamed Esfandiari, Nazanin Behnaz, Fatemeh Javadi, Sima Azish, Mohammad Ali Javadi, Masumeh Kalantarion
PURPOSE: To evaluate the risk factors for pterygium in the dry, high altitude province of Ilam, Iran. METHODS: The study included patients who presented to ophthalmology clinic. The patients were divided into two groups: 210 diagnosed with pterygium or pinguecula (unilateral or bilateral), and 210 healthy controls. Demographic variables, living environment, disease type, disease laterality, family history of pterygium as well as history of smoking, working outdoors, baking, welding, ocular conditions (trachoma keratopathy, glaucoma, refractive error, and dry eye), use of glasses, ultraviolet light exposure, and systemic conditions were collected from both groups and compared for risk assessment...
July 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747198/population-based-prevalence-survey-of-follicular-trachoma-and-trachomatous-trichiasis-in-the-casamance-region-of-senegal
#20
Emma M Harding-Esch, Julbert Kadimpeul, Boubacar Sarr, Awa Sane, Souleymane Badji, Mass Laye, Ansumana Sillah, Sarah E Burr, David MacLeod, Anna R Last, Martin J Holland, David C Mabey, Robin L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP) to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0...
July 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
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