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Trachoma prevalence

A Pinsent, I M Blake, M G Basáñez, M Gambhir
The World Health Organization has targeted the elimination of blinding trachoma by the year 2020. To this end, the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma (GET, 2020) alliance relies on a four-pronged approach, known as the SAFE strategy (S for trichiasis surgery; A for antibiotic treatment; F for facial cleanliness and E for environmental improvement). Well-constructed and parameterized mathematical models provide useful tools that can be used in policy making and forecasting in order to help to control trachoma and understand the feasibility of this large-scale elimination effort...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Ngy Meng, Do Seiha, Pok Thorn, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Michael Dejene, Susan Lewallen, Paul Courtright, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: To determine whether trachoma is a public health problem requiring intervention in Cambodia. METHODS: Based on historical evidence and reports, 14 evaluation units (EUs) in Cambodia, judged to be most likely to harbor trachoma, were selected. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology was used to carry out rigorous surveys to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each EU. RESULTS: The EU-level prevalence of TF among 25,801 1-9-year-old children examined ranged from 0% to 0...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Khumbo Kalua, Alvin Chisambi, David Chinyanya, Zachariah Kamwendo, Michael Masika, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Alexandre L Pavluck, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: Following a first phase of trachoma mapping in Malawi with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we identified and mapped trachoma districts previously suspected to be non-endemic, although adjacent to districts with estimated trachoma prevalences indicating a public health problem. METHODS: We conducted population-based surveys in eight evaluation units (EUs) comprising eight districts in Malawi (total population 3,230,272). A 2-stage cluster random sampling design allowed us to select 30 households from each of 30 clusters per EU; all residents aged 1 year and older in selected households were examined for evidence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT)...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Anne E Heggen, Anthony W Solomon, Paul Courtright
PURPOSE: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect people living in the poorest regions of the world and their debilitating effects perpetuate the poverty cycle. Understanding the distribution of NTDs is crucial for effective intervention delivery. In 2012, the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) was initiated to map >1800 suspected trachoma endemic districts by March 2015. This research was carried out to better understand the implementation experience and identify lessons which might inform the GTMP and similar initiatives...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Caleb Mpyet, Nasiru Muhammad, Mohammed Dantani Adamu, Habila Muazu, Murtala Muhammad Umar, Joel Alada, Uwazoeke Onyebuchi, Fracisca Olamiju, Sunday Isiyaku, Adamani William, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca Mann Flueckiger, Alexandre Pavluck, Brian K Chu, Danjuma Mohammed, Nicholas Olobio, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: To determine the need or otherwise for establishment of a trachoma elimination program in Gombe State, Nigeria, by estimating the population-based prevalence of trachoma in each Local Government Area (LGA) of Gombe. METHODS: Using a multi-stage, systematic, random, and quasi-random sampling approach and Global Trachoma Mapping Project support, we selected 25 clusters in each LGA. In each cluster, we selected 25 households and all consenting residents aged 1 year and older were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis, using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Robert M R Butcher, Oliver Sokana, Kelvin Jack, Colin K Macleod, Michael Marks, Eric Kalae, Leslie Sui, Charles Russell, Helena J Tutill, Rachel J Williams, Judith Breuer, Rebecca Willis, Richard T Le Mesurier, David C W Mabey, Anthony W Solomon, Chrissy H Roberts
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004863.].
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sarah E Burr, Ansumana Sillah, Anselme S Sanou, Anita C Wadagni, John Hart, Emma M Harding-Esch, Sarjo Kanyi, Robin L Bailey
BACKGROUND: The Gambia's National Eye Health Programme has made a concerted effort to reduce the prevalence of trachoma. The present study had two objectives. The first was to conduct surveillance following mass drug administrations to determine whether The Gambia has reached the World Health Organization's (WHO) criteria for trachoma elimination, namely a prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) of less than 5% in children aged 1 to 9 years. The second was to determine the prevalence of trichiasis (TT) cases unknown to the programme and evaluate whether these meet the WHO criteria of less than 0...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Roberta Lilian Fernandes de Sousa Meneghim, Magda Massae Hata Viveiros, Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Silvana Artioli Schellini
PURPOSE: To evaluate the sequelae due to epidemic viral conjunctivitis (VC) for a possible association with inflammatory trachoma in schoolchildren. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed of 2,093 schoolchildren in public schools in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The exams were conducted according to the WHO definitions to detect trachoma. We evaluated the prevalence and the association between inflammatory trachoma and sequelae due to VC. RESULTS: The prevalence of inflammatory trachoma in schoolchildren in Botucatu City was 2...
September 14, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Kassahun Mengistu, Mulugeta Shegaze, Kifle Woldemichael, Hailay Gesesew, Yohannes Markos
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization's 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Wenwen Xue, Lina Lu, Jianfeng Zhu, Xiangui He, Jiangnan He, Rong Zhao, Haidong Zou
We investigated the prevalence of clinical trachoma in 154,265 children aged 6 to 16 years in 206 Shanghai migrant schools. Clean water availability in school, each child's facial cleanliness, eyelids, corneas, and the presenting distance visual acuities were examined. Trachoma was clinically diagnosed in accordance with the World Health Organization simplified classification. Eyes diagnosed with trachoma were swabbed to test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections (OCTI) with a rapid latex immunochromatographic test...
2016: BioMed Research International
Robert M R Butcher, Oliver Sokana, Kelvin Jack, Colin K Macleod, Michael E Marks, Eric Kalae, Leslie Sui, Charles Russell, Helena J Tutill, Rachel J Williams, Judith Breuer, Rebecca Willis, Richard T Le Mesurier, David C W Mabey, Anthony W Solomon, Chrissy H Roberts
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is endemic in several Pacific Island states. Recent surveys across the Solomon Islands indicated that whilst trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) was present at levels warranting intervention, the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was low. We set out to determine the relationship between chlamydial infection and trachoma in this population. METHODS: We conducted a population-based trachoma prevalence survey of 3674 individuals from two Solomon Islands provinces...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michael Marks, Oliver Sokana, Eli Nachamkin, Elliot Puiahi, Georgina Kilua, Allan Pillay, Christian Bottomley, Anthony W Solomon, David C Mabey
INTRODUCTION: Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in the Pacific. Mass treatment with azithromycin is the mainstay of the WHO strategy for both the eradication of yaws and the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem, but the dose recommended for trachoma is lower than that for yaws. In countries where both diseases are endemic, there is a potential for synergy between yaws and trachoma control programs if mass treatment with the lower dose of azithromycin was shown to be effective for the treatment of yaws...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Carleigh S Cowling, Bette C Liu, Thomas L Snelling, James S Ward, John M Kaldor, David P Wilson
Australia remains the only developed country to have endemic levels of trachoma (a prevalence of 5% or greater among children) in some regions. Endemic trachoma in Australia is found predominantly in remote and very remote Aboriginal communities. The Australian Government funds the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit to collate, analyse and report trachoma prevalence data and document trachoma control strategies in Australia through an annual surveillance report. This report presents data collected in 2013...
2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Colin K Macleod, Robert Butcher, Umesh Mudaliar, Kinisimere Natutusau, Alexandre L Pavluck, Rebecca Willis, Neal Alexander, David C W Mabey, Luisa Cikamatana, Mike Kama, Eric Rafai, Chrissy H Roberts, Anthony W Solomon
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sumit Malhotra, Praveen Vashist, Noopur Gupta, Mani Kalaivani, Gita Satpathy, Anita Shah, Sujaya Krishnan, Rajvardhan Azad
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of active trachoma infection in children of Car-Nicobar Island was reported through the Trachoma Rapid Assessment survey conducted in year 2010 by the same researchers. Annual mass drug treatment with azithromycin was administered from years 2010-12 to all individuals residing in this island for reducing the burden of active trachoma infection. A cross-sectional prevalence survey was conducted in the year 2013 to assess the post-treatment burden of trachoma in this population...
2016: PloS One
Bette Liu, Carleigh Cowling, Andrew Hayen, Gabrielle Watt, Donna B Mak, Stephen Lambert, Hugh Taylor, John M Kaldor
BACKGROUND: Australia is the only high income country with persisting endemic trachoma. A national control program involving mass drug administration with oral azithromycin, in place since 2006, has some characteristics which differ from programs in low income settings, particularly in regard to the use of a wider range of treatment strategies, and more regular assessments of community prevalence. We aimed to examine the association between treatment strategies and trachoma prevalence...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Fengchen Liu, Travis C Porco, Abdou Amza, Boubacar Kadri, Baido Nassirou, Sheila K West, Robin L Bailey, Jeremy D Keenan, Thomas M Lietman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Robert A Rubinstein, Sandra D Lane, Sunny A Sallam, Ahmed S Sheta, Zahira M Gad, Aida R Sherif, Mohammed Selim, Ashry Gad, Ahmed Shama, Julius Schachter, Chandler R Dawson
Trachoma is a leading cause of preventable blindness in the world. The disease is hyperendemic in rural Egypt, where more than 75% of children show signs of having had at least one episode of infectious trachoma during the first year of life. Earlier anthropological and epidemiological observations suggested that trachoma prevalence would decrease if children had their faces washed with soap and water at least once each day. We conducted a community-based intervention to increase face washing in order to control trachoma...
August 2006: Anthropology & Medicine
Ningli Wang, Shijing Deng, Lei Tian
Trachoma is one of the most widespread blinding eye diseases, which is harmful to human visual health. The efforts to prevent and control trachoma in China can be divided into three periods, i.e., highly epidemic period, research on pathogenesis and control of trachoma, and blinding trachoma elimination and epidemiological evaluation. In 1956, Prof. Feifan Tang and Xiaolou Zhang first discovered and isolated Chlamydia trachomatis, which clarified the cause of trachoma, and kick-started a fresh chapter in trachoma research, prevention, and control around the world...
June 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Tanja A J Houweling, Henrike E Karim-Kos, Margarete C Kulik, Wilma A Stolk, Juanita A Haagsma, Edeltraud J Lenk, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Sake J de Vlas
BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are generally assumed to be concentrated in poor populations, but evidence on this remains scattered. We describe within-country socioeconomic inequalities in nine NTDs listed in the London Declaration for intensified control and/or elimination: lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), trachoma, Chagas' disease, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), leprosy, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
May 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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