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Trachoma prevalence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743637/detection-of-chlamydiaceae-and-chlamydia-like-organisms-on-the-ocular-surface-of-children-and-adults-from-a-trachoma-endemic-region
#1
Ehsan Ghasemian, Aleksandra Inic-Kanada, Astrid Collingro, Florian Tagini, Elisabeth Stein, Hadeel Alchalabi, Nadine Schuerer, Darja Keše, Balgesa Elkheir Babiker, Nicole Borel, Gilbert Greub, Talin Barisani-Asenbauer
Trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness, is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), a bacterium of the phylum Chlamydiae. Recent investigations revealed the existence of additional families within the phylum Chlamydiae, also termed Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). In this study, the frequency of Ct and CLOs was examined in the eyes of healthy Sudanese (control) participants and those with trachoma (case). We tested 96 children (54 cases and 42 controls) and 93 adults (51 cases and 42 controls) using broad-range Chlamydiae and Ct-specific (omcB) real-time PCR...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741592/ocular-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-under-the-safe-strategy-in-amhara-ethiopia-2011-2015
#2
Scott D Nash, Aisha E P Stewart, Mulat Zerihun, Eshetu Sata, Demelash Gessese, Berhanu Melaku, Tekola Endeshaw, Melsew Chanyalew, Ambahun Chernet, Belay Bayissasse, Jeanne Moncada, Thomas M Lietman, Paul M Emerson, Jonathan D King, Zerihun Tadesse, E Kelly Callahan
Background: WHO recommendations for starting and stopping mass antibiotic distributions are based on a clinical sign of trachoma, which is indirectly related to actual infection with the causative agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: This study aimed to understand the effect of SAFE (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement) interventions on ocular chlamydia in Amhara, Ethiopia by describing the infection prevalence in a population-based sample of children ages 1-5 years...
May 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617922/chlamydial-ompa-diversity-in-trachoma-hyperendemic-communities-treated-with-azithromycin
#3
Stephanie A Chin, Daniel P Morberg, Wondu Alemayehu, Muluken Melese, Takele Lakew, Michael C Chen, Zhaoxia Zhou, Thuy Doan, Vicky Cevallos, Thomas M Lietman, Jeremy D Keenan
Prior studies have theorized that low chlamydial genetic diversity following mass azithromycin treatments for trachoma may create a population bottleneck that prevents the return of infection, but little empiric evidence exists to support this hypothesis. In this study, a single mass azithromycin distribution was administered to 21 communities in the Gurage Zone of Ethiopia in 2003. All children aged 1-5 years had conjunctival swabs performed before treatment, and at 2 and 6 months following treatment. All swabs positive for Chlamydia trachomatis at 2 months underwent ompA typing, as did the same number of swabs per community from the pre-treatment and 6-month visits...
April 3, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588922/clinical-signs-of-trachoma-are-prevalent-among-solomon-islanders-who-have-no-persistent-markers-of-prior-infection-with-chlamydia-trachomatis
#4
Robert Butcher, Oliver Sokana, Kelvin Jack, Leslie Sui, Charles Russell, Anna Last, Diana L Martin, Matthew J Burton, Anthony W Solomon, David C W Mabey, Chrissy H Roberts
Background: The low population-prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis and high prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) provide contradictory estimates of the magnitude of the public health threat from trachoma in the Solomon Islands. Improved characterisation of the biology of trachoma in the region may support policy makers as they decide what interventions are required. Here, age-specific profiles of anti-Pgp3 antibodies and conjunctival scarring were examined to determine whether there is evidence of ongoing transmission and pathology from ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513663/correction-prevalence-of-active-and-latent-yaws-in-the-solomon-islands-18-months-after-azithromycin-mass-drug-administration-for-trachoma
#5
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004927.].
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451881/population-based-coverage-survey-results-following-the-mass-drug-administration-of-azithromycin-for-the-treatment-of-trachoma-in-amhara-ethiopia
#6
Tigist Astale, Eshetu Sata, Mulat Zerihun, Andrew W Nute, Aisha E P Stewart, Demelash Gessese, Gedefaw Ayenew, Berhanu Melak, Melsew Chanyalew, Zerihun Tadesse, E Kelly Callahan, Scott D Nash
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. In communities where the district level prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular among children ages 1-9 years is ≥5%, WHO recommends annual mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics with the aim of at least 80% coverage. Population-based post-MDA coverage surveys are essential to understand the effectiveness of MDA programs, yet published reports from trachoma programs are rare. METHODS: In the Amhara region of Ethiopia, a population-based MDA coverage survey was conducted 3 weeks following the 2016 MDA to estimate the zonal prevalence of self-reported drug coverage in all 10 administrative zones...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447155/prevalence-of-trachoma-in-school-children-in-the-maraj%C3%A3-archipelago-brazilian-amazon-and-the-impact-of-the-introduction-of-educational-and-preventive-measures-on-the-disease-over-eight-years
#7
Joana Favacho, Antonio José Ledo Alves da Cunha, Samara Tatielle Monteiro Gomes, Felipe Bonfim Freitas, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak
Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world and is associated with precarious living conditions in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of trachoma in three municipalities of the Marajó Archipelago, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. In 2008, 2,054 schoolchildren from the public primary school system of the urban area of the region and their communicants were clinically examined; in 2016, 1,502 schoolchildren were examined. The positive cases seen during the clinical evaluation were confirmed by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) laboratory tests...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432434/prevalence-of-trachoma-in-the-kayes-region-of-mali-eight-years-after-stopping-mass-drug-administration
#8
Lamine Traoré, Benoit Dembele, Modibo Keita, Steven D Reid, Mahamadou Dembéle, Bréhima Mariko, Famolo Coulibaly, Whitney Goldman, Dramane Traoré, Daouda Coulibaly, Boubacar Guindo, Joseph J Amon, Marily Knieriemen, Yaobi Zhang
BACKGROUND: In 2009, three years after stopping mass treatment with azithromycin, a trachoma impact survey in four health districts in the Kayes region of Mali found a prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) among children aged 1 to 9 years of >5% and a trachomatous trichiasis (TT) prevalence within the general population (≥1-year-old) of <1%. As a result, the government's national trachoma program expanded trichiasis surgery and related activities required to achieve trachoma elimination...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357365/sanitation-and-water-supply-coverage-thresholds-associated-with-active-trachoma-modeling-cross-sectional-data-from-13-countries
#9
Joshua V Garn, Sophie Boisson, Rebecca Willis, Ana Bakhtiari, Tawfik Al-Khatib, Khaled Amer, Wilfrid Batcho, Paul Courtright, Michael Dejene, Andre Goepogui, Khumbo Kalua, Biruck Kebede, Colin K Macleod, Kouakou IIunga Marie Madeleine, Mariamo Saide Abdala Mbofana, Caleb Mpyet, Jean Ndjemba, Nicholas Olobio, Alexandre L Pavluck, Oliver Sokana, Khamphoua Southisombath, Fasihah Taleo, Anthony W Solomon, Matthew C Freeman
BACKGROUND: Facial cleanliness and sanitation are postulated to reduce trachoma transmission, but there are no previous data on community-level herd protection thresholds. We characterize associations between active trachoma, access to improved sanitation facilities, and access to improved water sources for the purpose of face washing, with the aim of estimating community-level or herd protection thresholds. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used cluster-sampled Global Trachoma Mapping Project data on 884,850 children aged 1-9 years from 354,990 households in 13 countries...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282126/the-impact-of-a-single-round-of-community-mass-treatment-with-azithromycin-on-disease-severity-and-ocular-chlamydia-trachomatis-load-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-trachoma-endemic-island-communities-in-west-africa
#10
Anna R Last, Sarah E Burr, Emma Harding-Esch, Eunice Cassama, Meno Nabicassa, Chrissy H Roberts, David C W Mabey, Martin J Holland, Robin L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Trachoma, a neglected tropical disease, is caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends three annual rounds of community mass drug treatment with azithromycin (MDA) if the prevalence of follicular trachoma in 1-9 year olds (TF1-9 ) exceeds 10% at district level to achieve an elimination target of district-level TF1-9 below 5% after. To evaluate this strategy in treatment-naïve trachoma-endemic island communities in Guinea Bissau, we conducted a cross-sectional population-based trachoma survey on four islands...
December 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260659/comparison-of-mass-azithromycin-coverage-targets-of-children-in-niger-a-cluster-randomized-trachoma-trial
#11
Catherine E Oldenburg, Abdou Amza, Boubacar Kadri, Beido Nassirou, Sun Y Cotter, Nicole E Stoller, Sheila K West, Robin L Bailey, Travis C Porco, Bruce D Gaynor, Jeremy D Keenan, Thomas M Lietman
Repeated oral azithromycin distribution targeted only to children has proven effective in reducing the ocular Chlamydia that causes trachoma. Here, we assess whether an enhanced coverage target of at least 90% of children is superior to the World Health Organization recommendation of at least 80%. Twenty-four trachoma-endemic communities in Matamèye, Niger, were randomized to a single day of azithromycin distribution aiming for at least 80% coverage or up to 4 days of treatment and > 90% coverage of children under age 12...
February 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232708/elimination-of-trachoma-as-a-public-health-problem-in-ghana-providing-evidence-through-a-pre-validation-survey
#12
Oscar Debrah, Ernest O Mensah, Laura Senyonjo, Dziedzom K de Souza, Tei E Hervie, David Agyemang, Didier Bakajika, Benjamin Marfo, Felix Ahorsu, Seth Wanye, Robin Bailey, Joseph B Koroma, Agatha Aboe, Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum
BACKGROUND: In order to achieve elimination of trachoma, a country needs to demonstrate that the elimination prevalence thresholds have been achieved and then sustained for at least a two-year period. Ghana achieved the thresholds in 2008, and since 2011 has been implementing its trachoma surveillance strategy, which includes community and school screening for signs of follicular trachoma and trichiasis, in trachoma-endemic districts. In 2015-2016, the country conducted a district level population-based survey to validate elimination of trachoma as a public health problem...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232692/trachomatous-scarring-among-children-in-a-formerly-hyper-endemic-district-of-tanzania
#13
Jacob T Cox, Harran Mkocha, Beatriz Munoz, Sheila K West
BACKGROUND: Associations between repeated ocular infections with Chlamydia trachomatis in childhood and conjunctival scarring in adulthood are well established. Trachomatous scarring (TS) in children has also been observed in hyper-endemic areas, but data are scant regarding childhood scarring in areas where trachoma has been reduced to hypo-endemic levels. METHODS/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of children, ages 1-9 years, were selected from 38 communities in the formerly hyper-endemic district of Kongwa, Tanzania...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141720/prevalence-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-specific-antibodies-before-and-after-mass-drug-administration-for-trachoma-in-community-wide-surveys-of-four-communities-in-nepal
#14
Sarah E Gwyn, Lingwei Xiang, Ram Prasad Kandel, Deborah Dean, Manoj Gambhir, Diana L Martin
The target end date for the global elimination of trachoma as a public health problem is 2020. As countries begin the process for submitting their dossier for the validation of elimination of trachoma as a public health problem, strategies for post-validation surveillance must be considered. Seroprevalence of antibodies against antigens from the causative bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in young children has been shown to reflect trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) rates in both endemic and previously endemic settings...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140407/targeted-treatment-of-yaws-with-household-contact-tracing-how-much-do-we-miss
#15
Louise Dyson, Michael Marks, Oliver M Crook, Oliver Sokana, Anthony W Solomon, Alex Bishop, David C W Mabey, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Yaws is a disabling bacterial infection found primarily in warm and humid tropical areas. The World Health Organization strategy mandates an initial round of total community treatment (TCT) with single-dose azithromycin followed either by further TCT or active case-finding and treatment of cases and their contacts (the Morges strategy). We sought to investigate the effectiveness of the Morges strategy. We employed a stochastic household model to study the transmission of infection using data collected from a pre-TCT survey conducted in the Solomon Islands...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125849/effect-of-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-on-active-trachoma-in-north-and-south-wollo-zones-of-amhara-region-ethiopia-a-quasi-experimental-study
#16
Beselam Tadesse, Alemayehu Worku, Abera Kumie, Solomon Abebe Yimer
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is chronic kerato conjunctivitis, which is caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium. It is hyper endemic in many rural areas of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in selected woredas of North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A community based quasi-experimental study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 among children aged 1-8 years at baseline and among one year older same children after intervention...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118442/serology-reflects-a-decline-in-the-prevalence-of-trachoma-in-two-regions-of-the-gambia
#17
Stephanie J Migchelsen, Nuno Sepúlveda, Diana L Martin, Gretchen Cooley, Sarah Gwyn, Harry Pickering, Hassan Joof, Pateh Makalo, Robin Bailey, Sarah E Burr, David C W Mabey, Anthony W Solomon, Chrissy H Roberts
Trachoma is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). It is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem. In 2014, a population-based cross-sectional study was performed in two previously trachoma-endemic areas of The Gambia. Participants of all ages from Lower River Region (LRR) (N = 1028) and Upper River Region (URR) (N = 840) underwent examination for trachoma and had blood collected for detection of antibodies against the Ct antigen Pgp3, by ELISA. Overall, 30 (1.6%) individuals had active trachoma; the prevalence in children aged 1-9 years was 3...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053275/thiazolino-2-pyridone-amide-isosteres-as-inhibitors-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-infectivity
#18
James A D Good, Martina Kulén, Jim Silver, K Syam Krishnan, Wael Bahnan, Carlos Núñez-Otero, Ingela Nilsson, Emma Wede, Esmee de Groot, Åsa Gylfe, Sven Bergström, Fredrik Almqvist
Chlamydia trachomatis is a global health burden due to its prevalence as a sexually transmitted disease and as the causative agent of the eye infection trachoma. We recently discovered 3-amido thiazolino 2-pyridones which attenuated C. trachomatis infectivity without affecting host cell or commensal bacteria viability. We present here the synthesis and evaluation of nonhydrolyzable amide isosteres based on this class, leading to highly potent 1,2,3-triazole based infectivity inhibitors (EC50 ≤ 20 nM).
November 22, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045419/the-cost-of-mapping-trachoma-data-from-the-global-trachoma-mapping-project
#19
Guillaume Trotignon, Ellen Jones, Thomas Engels, Elena Schmidt, Deborah A McFarland, Colin K Macleod, Khaled Amer, Amadou A Bio, Ana Bakhtiari, Sarah Bovill, Amy H Doherty, Asad Aslam Khan, Mariamo Mbofana, Siobhain McCullagh, Tom Millar, Consity Mwale, Lisa A Rotondo, Angela Weaver, Rebecca Willis, Anthony W Solomon
BACKGROUND: The Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) was implemented with the aim of completing the baseline map of trachoma globally. Over 2.6 million people were examined in 1,546 districts across 29 countries between December 2012 and January 2016. The aim of the analysis was to estimate the unit cost and to identify the key cost drivers of trachoma prevalence surveys conducted as part of GTMP. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-country and global support costs were obtained using GTMP financial records...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016320/comparison-of-platforms-for-testing-antibody-responses-against-the-chlamydia-trachomatis-antigen-pgp3
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sarah Gwyn, Gretchen Cooley, Brook Goodhew, Stephan Kohlhoff, Natalie Banniettis, Ryan Wiegand, Diana L Martin
Antibody responses to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) antigens may be useful tools for surveillance of trachoma by estimating cumulative prevalence of infection within a population. Data were compared from three different platforms-multiplex bead array (MBA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and lateral flow assay (LFA)-measuring antibody responses against the CT antigen protein plasmid gene product 3 (Pgp3). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of specimens testing antibody positive from a set of dried blood spots from Tanzanian 1-9-year olds who were positive for CT nucleic acid of all nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive individuals ( N = 103)...
December 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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