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Trachoma prevalence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282126/the-impact-of-a-single-round-of-community-mass-treatment-with-azithromycin-on-disease-severity-and-ocular-chlamydia-trachomatis-load-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-trachoma-endemic-island-communities-in-west-africa
#1
Anna R Last, Sarah E Burr, Emma Harding-Esch, Eunice Cassama, Meno Nabicassa, Chrissy H Roberts, David C W Mabey, Martin J Holland, Robin L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Trachoma, a neglected tropical disease, is caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends three annual rounds of community mass drug treatment with azithromycin (MDA) if the prevalence of follicular trachoma in 1-9 year olds (TF1-9) exceeds 10% at district level to achieve an elimination target of district-level TF1-9 below 5% after. To evaluate this strategy in treatment-naïve trachoma-endemic island communities in Guinea Bissau, we conducted a cross-sectional population-based trachoma survey on four islands...
December 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260659/comparison-of-mass-azithromycin-coverage-targets-of-children-in-niger-a-cluster-randomized-trachoma-trial
#2
Catherine E Oldenburg, Abdou Amza, Boubacar Kadri, Beido Nassirou, Sun Y Cotter, Nicole E Stoller, Sheila K West, Robin L Bailey, Travis C Porco, Bruce D Gaynor, Jeremy D Keenan, Thomas M Lietman
Repeated oral azithromycin distribution targeted only to children has proven effective in reducing the ocular Chlamydia that causes trachoma. Here, we assess whether an enhanced coverage target of at least 90% of children is superior to the World Health Organization recommendation of at least 80%. Twenty-four trachoma-endemic communities in Matamèye, Niger, were randomized to a single day of azithromycin distribution aiming for at least 80% coverage or up to 4 days of treatment and > 90% coverage of children under age 12...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232708/elimination-of-trachoma-as-a-public-health-problem-in-ghana-providing-evidence-through-a-pre-validation-survey
#3
Oscar Debrah, Ernest O Mensah, Laura Senyonjo, Dziedzom K de Souza, Tei E Hervie, David Agyemang, Didier Bakajika, Benjamin Marfo, Felix Ahorsu, Seth Wanye, Robin Bailey, Joseph B Koroma, Agatha Aboe, Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum
BACKGROUND: In order to achieve elimination of trachoma, a country needs to demonstrate that the elimination prevalence thresholds have been achieved and then sustained for at least a two-year period. Ghana achieved the thresholds in 2008, and since 2011 has been implementing its trachoma surveillance strategy, which includes community and school screening for signs of follicular trachoma and trichiasis, in trachoma-endemic districts. In 2015-2016, the country conducted a district level population-based survey to validate elimination of trachoma as a public health problem...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232692/trachomatous-scarring-among-children-in-a-formerly-hyper-endemic-district-of-tanzania
#4
Jacob T Cox, Harran Mkocha, Beatriz Munoz, Sheila K West
BACKGROUND: Associations between repeated ocular infections with Chlamydia trachomatis in childhood and conjunctival scarring in adulthood are well established. Trachomatous scarring (TS) in children has also been observed in hyper-endemic areas, but data are scant regarding childhood scarring in areas where trachoma has been reduced to hypo-endemic levels. METHODS/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of children, ages 1-9 years, were selected from 38 communities in the formerly hyper-endemic district of Kongwa, Tanzania...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141720/prevalence-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-specific-antibodies-before-and-after-mass-drug-administration-for-trachoma-in-community-wide-surveys-of-four-communities-in-nepal
#5
Sarah E Gwyn, Lingwei Xiang, Ram Prasad Kandel, Deborah Dean, Manoj Gambhir, Diana L Martin
The target end date for the global elimination of trachoma as a public health problem is 2020. As countries begin the process for submitting their dossier for the validation of elimination of trachoma as a public health problem, strategies for post-validation surveillance must be considered. Seroprevalence of antibodies against antigens from the causative bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in young children has been shown to reflect trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) rates in both endemic and previously endemic settings...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140407/targeted-treatment-of-yaws-with-household-contact-tracing-how-much-do-we-miss
#6
Louise Dyson, Michael Marks, Oliver M Crook, Oliver Sokana, Anthony W Solomon, Alex Bishop, David C W Mabey, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Yaws is a disabling bacterial infection primarily found in warm and humid tropical areas. The World Health Organisation strategy mandates an initial round of total community treatment (TCT) with single-dose azithromycin followed either by further TCT or active case finding and treatment of cases and their contacts (the Morges strategy). We wish to investigate the effectiveness of the Morges strategy. We employ a stochastic household model to study the transmission of infection using data collected from a pre-TCT survey conducted in the Solomon Islands...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125849/effect-of-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-on-active-trachoma-in-north-and-south-wollo-zones-of-amhara-region-ethiopia-a-quasi-experimental-study
#7
Beselam Tadesse, Alemayehu Worku, Abera Kumie, Solomon Abebe Yimer
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is chronic kerato conjunctivitis, which is caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium. It is hyper endemic in many rural areas of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in selected woredas of North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A community based quasi-experimental study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 among children aged 1-8 years at baseline and among one year older same children after intervention...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118442/serology-reflects-a-decline-in-the-prevalence-of-trachoma-in-two-regions-of-the-gambia
#8
Stephanie J Migchelsen, Nuno Sepúlveda, Diana L Martin, Gretchen Cooley, Sarah Gwyn, Harry Pickering, Hassan Joof, Pateh Makalo, Robin Bailey, Sarah E Burr, David C W Mabey, Anthony W Solomon, Chrissy H Roberts
Trachoma is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). It is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem. In 2014, a population-based cross-sectional study was performed in two previously trachoma-endemic areas of The Gambia. Participants of all ages from Lower River Region (LRR) (N = 1028) and Upper River Region (URR) (N = 840) underwent examination for trachoma and had blood collected for detection of antibodies against the Ct antigen Pgp3, by ELISA. Overall, 30 (1.6%) individuals had active trachoma; the prevalence in children aged 1-9 years was 3...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053275/thiazolino-2-pyridone-amide-isosteres-as-inhibitors-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-infectivity
#9
James A D Good, Martina Kulén, Jim Silver, K Syam Krishnan, Wael Bahnan, Carlos Núñez-Otero, Ingela Nilsson, Emma Wede, Esmee de Groot, Åsa Gylfe, Sven Bergström, Fredrik Almqvist
Chlamydia trachomatis is a global health burden due to its prevalence as a sexually transmitted disease and as the causative agent of the eye infection trachoma. We recently discovered 3-amido thiazolino 2-pyridones which attenuated C. trachomatis infectivity without affecting host cell or commensal bacteria viability. We present here the synthesis and evaluation of nonhydrolyzable amide isosteres based on this class, leading to highly potent 1,2,3-triazole based infectivity inhibitors (EC50 ≤ 20 nM).
November 3, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045419/the-cost-of-mapping-trachoma-data-from-the-global-trachoma-mapping-project
#10
Guillaume Trotignon, Ellen Jones, Thomas Engels, Elena Schmidt, Deborah A McFarland, Colin K Macleod, Khaled Amer, Amadou A Bio, Ana Bakhtiari, Sarah Bovill, Amy H Doherty, Asad Aslam Khan, Mariamo Mbofana, Siobhain McCullagh, Tom Millar, Consity Mwale, Lisa A Rotondo, Angela Weaver, Rebecca Willis, Anthony W Solomon
BACKGROUND: The Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) was implemented with the aim of completing the baseline map of trachoma globally. Over 2.6 million people were examined in 1,546 districts across 29 countries between December 2012 and January 2016. The aim of the analysis was to estimate the unit cost and to identify the key cost drivers of trachoma prevalence surveys conducted as part of GTMP. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-country and global support costs were obtained using GTMP financial records...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016320/comparison-of-platforms-for-testing-antibody-responses-against-the-chlamydia-trachomatis-antigen-pgp3
#11
Sarah Gwyn, Gretchen Cooley, Brook Goodhew, Stephan Kohloff, Natalie Banniettis, Ryan Wiegand, Diana L Martin
Antibody responses to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) antigens may be useful tools for surveillance of trachoma by estimating cumulative prevalence of infection within a population. Data were compared from three different platforms-multiplex bead array (MBA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and lateral flow assay (LFA)-measuring antibody responses against the CT antigen protein plasmid gene product 3 (Pgp3). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of specimens testing antibody positive from a set of dried blood spots from Tanzanian 1-9-year olds who were positive for CT nucleic acid of all nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive individuals (N = 103)...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988540/the-burden-of-and-risk-factors-for-active-trachoma-in-the-north-and-south-wollo-zones-of-amhara-region-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Beselam Tadesse, Alemayehu Worku, Abera Kumie, Solomon Abebe Yimer
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is a disease of the eye, caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, which can lead to blindness if left untreated. Ethiopia is one of the most trachoma-affected countries in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for active trachoma among children in selected woredas of North and South Wollo Zones in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. METHODS: This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study, which was conducted from October to December 2014 among children aged 1-8...
October 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988539/prevalence-and-determinants-of-active-trachoma-among-preschool-aged-children-in-dembia-district-northwest-ethiopia
#13
Ayanaw Tsega Ferede, Abel Fekadu Dadi, Amare Tariku, Akilew Awoke Adane
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is an infectious eye disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, which is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. In areas where trachoma is endemic, active trachoma is common among preschool-aged children, with varying magnitude. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of active trachoma and associated risk factors among preschool-aged children in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among preschool-aged children of northwest Ethiopia...
October 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973295/surveillance-surveys-for-reemergent-trachoma-in-formerly-endemic-districts-in-nepal-from-2-to-10-years-after-mass-drug-administration-cessation
#14
Sheila K West, Andrea I Zambrano, Shekhar Sharma, Sailesh K Mishra, Beatriz E Muñoz, Laura Dize, Kathryn Crowley, Charlotte A Gaydos, Lisa A Rotondo
Importance: To verify districts for elimination of blinding trachoma, the World Health Organization requires a population-based surveillance survey for follicular trachoma (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) 2 years after mass drug administration (MDA) activities have ceased. However, it is unknown if 2 years provides enough time to discover reemergence. Objective: To determine the prevalence of trachoma from surveys among 4 districts in Nepal (Dailekh, Dang, Surkhet, and Kanchanpur) that had surveillance intervals of 2, 4, 8, and 10 years, respectively, after cessation of MDA...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966918/immunofibrogenic-gene-expression-patterns-in-tanzanian-children-with-ocular-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-active-trachoma-and-scarring-baseline-results-of-a-4-year-longitudinal-study
#15
Athumani M Ramadhani, Tamsyn Derrick, David Macleod, Patrick Massae, Tara Mtuy, David Jeffries, Chrissy H Roberts, Robin L Bailey, David C W Mabey, Martin J Holland, Matthew J Burton
Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness and remains a significant public health problem. Much of trachomatous disease pathology is thought to be caused indirectly by host cellular and immune responses, however the immune response during active trachoma and how this initiates progressive scarring is not clearly understood. Defining protective vs. pathogenic immune response to C. trachomatis is important for vaccine design and evaluation. This study reports the baseline results of a longitudinal cohort of Tanzanian children, who were monitored for 4 years in order to determine the immunofibrogenic and infectious correlates of progressive scarring trachoma...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936049/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-dry-eye-symptoms-in-a-saudi-arabian-population
#16
Abdulaziz A Alshamrani, Abdulwahab S Almousa, Abdulrahman A Almulhim, Abdullah A Alafaleq, Mohammed B Alosaimi, Abdulrahman M Alqahtani, Ammar M Almulhem, Mohammed A Alshamrani, Ahmad H Alhallafi, Ismail Z Alqahtani, Abdullah A Alshehri
BACKGROUND: The information about dry eye epidemiology in Saudi Arabia is few in literature. PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of dry eye symptoms (DES) in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Using a multi-stage proportionate sampling technique, Saudis of both genders from 6 urban and 4 rural Primary Health Care centers in Al-Ahsa were enrolled. They were interviewed to gather data on sociodemography, symptoms of dry eye, factors potentially related to dry eye, and chronic comorbidities...
April 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932256/hamiltonian-analysis-of-subcritical-stochastic-epidemic-dynamics
#17
Lee Worden, Ira B Schwartz, Simone Bianco, Sarah F Ackley, Thomas M Lietman, Travis C Porco
We extend a technique of approximation of the long-term behavior of a supercritical stochastic epidemic model, using the WKB approximation and a Hamiltonian phase space, to the subcritical case. The limiting behavior of the model and approximation are qualitatively different in the subcritical case, requiring a novel analysis of the limiting behavior of the Hamiltonian system away from its deterministic subsystem. This yields a novel, general technique of approximation of the quasistationary distribution of stochastic epidemic and birth-death models and may lead to techniques for analysis of these models beyond the quasistationary distribution...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910562/the-epidemiology-of-trachoma-in-mozambique-results-of-96-population-based-prevalence-surveys
#18
Mariamo Abdala, Carlos C Singano, Rebecca Willis, Colin K Macleod, Sharone Backers, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Anselmo Vilanculos, Dantew Terefe, Moises Houane, Fitsum Bikele, Amir Bedri Kello, Philip Downs, Zulquifla Bay, Laura Senyonjo, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: Surveys are needed to guide trachoma control efforts in Mozambique, with WHO guidelines for intervention based on the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years and the prevalence of trichiasis in adults aged 15 years and above. We conducted surveys to complete the map of trachoma prevalence in Mozambique. METHODS: Between July 2012 and May 2015, we carried out cross-sectional surveys in 96 evaluation units (EUs) covering 137 districts...
September 14, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898240/prevalence-of-signs-of-trachoma-ocular-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-and-antibodies-to-pgp3-in-residents-of-kiritimati-island-kiribati
#19
Anaseini Cama, Andreas Müller, Raebwebwe Taoaba, Robert M R Butcher, Iakoba Itibita, Stephanie J Migchelsen, Tokoriri Kiauea, Harry Pickering, Rebecca Willis, Chrissy H Roberts, Ana Bakhtiari, Richard T Le Mesurier, Neal D E Alexander, Diana L Martin, Rabebe Tekeraoi, Anthony W Solomon
OBJECTIVE: In some Pacific Island countries, such as Solomon Islands and Fiji, active trachoma is common, but ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) are rare. On Tarawa, the most populous Kiribati island, both the active trachoma sign "trachomatous inflammation-follicular" (TF) and TT are present at prevalences warranting intervention. We sought to estimate prevalences of TF, TT, ocular Ct infection, and anti-Ct antibodies on Kiritimati Island, Kiribati, to assess local relationships between these parameters, and to help determine the need for interventions against trachoma on Kiribati islands other than Tarawa...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893761/effectiveness-of-expanding-annual-mass-azithromycin-distribution-treatment-coverage-for-trachoma-in-niger-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#20
Abdou Amza, Boubacar Kadri, Beido Nassirou, Sun Y Cotter, Nicole E Stoller, Sheila K West, Robin L Bailey, Travis C Porco, Bruce D Gaynor, Jeremy D Keenan, Thomas M Lietman, Catherine E Oldenburg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The WHO recommends 3-5 years of annual mass azithromycin distribution with at least 80% treatment coverage to districts with active trachoma prevalence over 10% among children. Here, we assess the efficacy of expanding the coverage target to at least 90% for trachoma control in a mesoendemic region of Niger. METHODS: Twenty-four communities were randomised to a single day of azithromycin distribution with a coverage target of 80% of the community or up to 4 days of treatment, aiming for greater than 90% coverage...
September 11, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
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