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Alex Saywell, Anne Bakker, Johannes Mielke, Takashi Kumagai, Martin Wolf, Victor García-López, Pinn-Tsong Chiang, James M Tour, Leonhard Grill
Molecular machines are a key component in the vision of molecular nanotechnology, and have the potential to transport molecular species and cargo on surfaces. The motion of such machines should be triggered remotely, ultimately allowing a large number of molecules to be propelled by a single source, with light being an attractive stimulus. Here, we report upon the photo-induced translation of molecular machines across a surface by characterizing single molecules before and after illumination. Illumination of molecules containing a motor unit results in an enhancement in the diffusion of the molecules...
October 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Vasileios Prymidis, Siddharth Paliwal, Marjolein Dijkstra, Laura Filion
We study a three-dimensional system of self-propelled Lennard-Jones particles using Brownian dynamics simulations. Using recent theoretical results for active matter, we calculate the pressure and report equations of state for the system. Additionally, we chart the vapour-liquid coexistence and show that the coexistence densities can be well described using simple power laws. Lastly, we demonstrate that our out-of-equilibrium system shows deviations from both the law of rectilinear diameters and the law of corresponding states...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Sven Erik Ilse, Christian Holm, Joost de Graaf
Self-propelled particles can spontaneously form dense phases from a dilute suspension in a process referred to as motility-induced phase separation. The properties of the out-of-equilibrium structures that are formed are governed by the specifics of the particle interactions and the strength of the activity. Thus far, most studies into the formation of these structures have focused on spherical colloids, dumbbells, and rod-like particles endowed with various interaction potentials. Only a few studies have examined the collective behavior of more complex particle shapes...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Wen Yan, John F Brady
Diffusiophoresis is the process by which a colloidal particle moves in response to the concentration gradient of a chemical solute. Chemically active particles generate solute concentration gradients via surface chemical reactions which can result in their own motion - the self-diffusiophoresis of Janus particles - and in the motion of other nearby particles - normal down-gradient diffusiophoresis. The long-range nature of the concentration disturbance created by a reactive particle results in strong interactions among particles and can lead to the formation of clusters and even coexisting dense and dilute regions often seen in active matter systems...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yoonsik Bang, Jiyoung Kim, Kiyun Yu
Wearable and smartphone technology innovations have propelled the growth of Pedestrian Navigation Services (PNS). PNS need a map-matching process to project a user's locations onto maps. Many map-matching techniques have been developed for vehicle navigation services. These techniques are inappropriate for PNS because pedestrians move, stop, and turn in different ways compared to vehicles. In addition, the base map data for pedestrians are more complicated than for vehicles. This article proposes a new map-matching method for locating Global Positioning System (GPS) trajectories of pedestrians onto road network datasets...
October 22, 2016: Sensors
Eric P M Grist, Jennifer A Flegg, Georgina Humphreys, Ignacio Suay Mas, Tim J C Anderson, Elizabeth A Ashley, Nicholas P J Day, Mehul Dhorda, Arjen M Dondorp, M Abul Faiz, Peter W Gething, Tran T Hien, Tin M Hlaing, Mallika Imwong, Jean-Marie Kindermans, Richard J Maude, Mayfong Mayxay, Marina McDew-White, Didier Menard, Shalini Nair, Francois Nosten, Paul N Newton, Ric N Price, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Shannon Takala-Harrison, Frank Smithuis, Nhien T Nguyen, Kyaw M Tun, Nicholas J White, Benoit Witkowski, Charles J Woodrow, Rick M Fairhurst, Carol Hopkins Sibley, Philippe J Guerin
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites are now present across much of mainland Southeast Asia, where ongoing surveys are measuring and mapping their spatial distribution. These efforts require substantial resources. Here we propose a generic 'smart surveillance' methodology to identify optimal candidate sites for future sampling and thus map the distribution of artemisinin resistance most efficiently. METHODS: The approach uses the 'uncertainty' map generated iteratively by a geostatistical model to determine optimal locations for subsequent sampling...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
María-Victoria Hinckelmann, Amandine Virlogeux, Christian Niehage, Christel Poujol, Daniel Choquet, Bernard Hoflack, Diana Zala, Frédéric Saudou
The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) facilitates fast axonal transport in neurons. However, given that GAPDH does not produce ATP, it is unclear whether glycolysis per se is sufficient to propel vesicles. Although many proteins regulating transport have been identified, the molecular composition of transported vesicles in neurons has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we selectively enrich motile vesicles and perform quantitative proteomic analysis. In addition to the expected molecular motors and vesicular proteins, we find an enrichment of all the glycolytic enzymes...
October 24, 2016: Nature Communications
Ankita Pandey, P B Sunil Kumar, R Adhikari
Active bodies in viscous fluids interact hydrodynamically through self-generated flows. A stiff, apolar, active filament generates symmetric fluid flow around it and thus cannot self-propel. Here we study the mobility and aggregation induced by hydrodynamic flow in a suspension of stiff, apolar, active filaments. We consider two types of active filaments, with those producing extensile or contractile flows along their long axis. Lateral hydrodynamic attractions in extensile filaments lead, independent of the volume fraction, to anisotropic aggregates which translate and rotate ballistically...
October 24, 2016: Soft Matter
Hugo de Almeida, Vincent Leroux, Flávia Nader Motta, Philippe Grellier, Bernard Maigret, Jaime M Santana, Izabela Marques Dourado Bastos
We have previously demonstrated that the secreted prolyl oligopeptidase of Trypanosoma cruzi (POPTc80) is involved in the infection process by facilitating parasite migration through the extracellular matrix. We have built a 3D structural model where POPTc80 is formed by a catalytic α/β-hydrolase domain and a β-propeller domain, and in which the substrate docks at the inter-domain interface, suggesting a "jaw opening" gating access mechanism. This preliminary model was refined by molecular dynamics simulations and next used for a virtual screening campaign, whose predictions were tested by standard binding assays...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
Francesc R Garcia-Gonzalo, Jeremy F Reiter
Cilia are plasma membrane protrusions that act as cellular propellers or antennae. To perform these functions, cilia must maintain a composition distinct from those of the contiguous cytosol and plasma membrane. The specialized composition of the cilium depends on the ciliary gate, the region at the ciliary base separating the cilium from the rest of the cell. The ciliary gate's main structural features are electron dense struts connecting microtubules to the adjacent membrane. These structures include the transition fibers, which connect the distal basal body to the base of the ciliary membrane, and the Y-links, which connect the proximal axoneme and ciliary membrane within the transition zone...
October 21, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
D Caballero, J Katuri, J Samitier, S Sánchez
The ubiquitous random motion of mesoscopic active particles, such as cells, can be "rectified" or directed by embedding the particles in systems containing local and periodic asymmetric cues. Incorporated on lab-on-a-chip devices, these microratchet-like structures can be used to self-propel fluids, transport particles, and direct cell motion in the absence of external power sources. In this Focus article we discuss recent advances in the use of ratchet-like geometries in microfluidics which could open new avenues in biomedicine for applications in diagnosis, cancer biology, and bioengineering...
October 19, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Rolf E Isele-Holder, Julia Jäger, Guglielmo Saggiorato, Jens Elgeti, Gerhard Gompper
Worm-like filaments, which are propelled by a tangential homogeneous force along their contour, are studied as they push loads of different shapes and sizes. The resulting dynamics is investigated using Langevin dynamics simulations. The effects of size and shape of the load, propulsion strength, and thermal noise are systematically explored. The propulsive force and hydrodynamic friction of the load cause a compression in the filament that results in a buckling instability and versatile motion. Distinct regimes of elongated filaments, curved filaments, beating filaments, and filaments with alternating beating and circular motion are identified, and a phase diagram depending on the propulsion strength and the size of the load is constructed...
October 19, 2016: Soft Matter
Atul Kumar, Petra Sýkorová, Gabriel Demo, Pavel Dobeš, Pavel Hyršl, Michaela Wimmerová
Photorhabdus luminescens is known for its symbiosis with the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and its pathogenicity towards insect larvae. A hypothetical protein from P. luminescens was identified, purified from the native source and characterized as an L-fucose-binding lectin, named PLL. Glycan array and biochemical characterization data revealed PLL to be specific towards L-fucose and the disaccharide glycan 3,6-O-Me2-Glcβ1-4(2,3-O-Me2)Rhaα-O-(p-C6H4)-OCH2CH2NH2. PLL was discovered to be a homo-tetramer with an inter-subunit disulphide bridge...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Griffin D Santarelli, Joseph K Han
Propel and Propel Mini sinus implants are mometasone furoate-coated bioabsorbable stents used as an adjunct in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis after endoscopic sinus surgery. The original sinus implant was deployed in the ethmoid sinuses to provide medialization of the middle turbinate, decrease scarring and mucosal adhesions, limit polyp regrowth, and reduce mucosal inflammation. A structurally smaller version of the Propel, the Propel Mini, was developed and now has been approved for endoscopic placement in the frontal sinuses...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Rei Ogawa, Shimpei Ono, Satoshi Akaishi, Teruyuki Dohi, Takeshi Iimura, Junichi Nakao
: It is difficult to completely resect huge anterior chest wall keloids and then close the wound directly. We report here our retrospective analysis of our case series of patients with such keloids who underwent reconstruction with internal mammary artery perforator (IMAP) pedicled propeller flaps and then received postoperative high-dose-rate superficial brachytherapy. METHODS: All consecutive patients with large/severe keloids on the anterior chest wall who underwent keloid resection followed by reconstruction with IMAP-pedicled propeller flaps and then high-dose-rate superficial brachytherapy in our academic hospital were identified...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
HaoYuan Hsiao, Thomas M Zabielski, Jacqueline A Palmer, Jill S Higginson, Stuart A Binder-Macleod
Recent rehabilitation approaches for individuals poststroke have focused on improving walking speed because it is a reliable measurement that is associated with quality of life. Previous studies have demonstrated that propulsion, the force used to propel the body forward, determines walking speed. However, there are several different ways of measuring propulsion and no studies have identified which measurement best reflects differences in walking speed. The primary purposes of this study were to determine for individuals poststroke, which measurement of propulsion (1) is most closely related to their self-selected walking speeds and (2) best reflects changes in walking speed within a session...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Chad M Teven, Julie Mhlaba, Annemarie O'Connor, Lawrence J Gottlieb
The majority of surgical burn care involves the use of skin grafts. However, there are cases when flaps are required or provide superior outcomes both in the acute setting and for postburn reconstruction. Rarely discussed in the context of burn care, the perforator-based propeller flap is an important option to consider. We describe our experience with perforator-based propeller flaps in the acute and reconstructive phases of burn care. We reviewed demographics, indications, operative details, and outcomes for patients whose burn care included the use of a perforator-based propeller flap at our institution from May 2007 to April 2015...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Bumjin Jang, Wei Wang, Samuel Wiget, Andrew J Petruska, Xiangzhong Chen, Chengzhi Hu, Ayoung Hong, David Folio, Antoine Ferreira, Salvador Pané, Bradley J Nelson
We report the partial core-shell nanowire motors. These nanowires are fabricated using our previously developed electrodeposition-based technique, and their catalytic locomotion in the presence of H2O2 is investigated. Unlike conventional bimetallic nanowires that are self-electroosmotically propelled, our Au/Ru core-shell nanowires show both a noticeable decrease in rotational diffusivity and increase in motor speed with nanowire length. Numerical modelling based on self-electroosmosis attributes the decreases in rotational diffusivity to the formation of toroidal vortices at the nanowire tail, but fails to explain the speed increase with length...
October 18, 2016: ACS Nano
Jeganathan Manivannan, Manjunath Prashanth, Venkatesan Saravana Kumar, Manickaraj Shairam, Jayachandran Subburaj
Since there is no precise therapy for treating vascular calcification by directly targeting the vascular wall, we aim to unveil novel drug targets through mining the molecular effect of a high phosphate environment on vascular cells through computational methods. Here, we hypothesize that manipulation of the vascular pathogenic network by small molecule therapeutics predicted from prior knowledge might offer great promise. With this, we intend to understand the publicly available transcriptomic data of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells exposed to the high phosphate induced vascular calcification milieu and to re-examine the above published experiments for reasons different from those examined in the previous studies through multilevel systems biological understanding...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Baohu Dai, Jizhuang Wang, Ze Xiong, Xiaojun Zhan, Wei Dai, Chien-Cheng Li, Shien-Ping Feng, Jinyao Tang
Phototaxis is commonly observed in motile photosynthetic microorganisms. For example, green algae are capable of swimming towards a light source (positive phototaxis) to receive more energy for photosynthesis, or away from a light source (negative phototaxis) to avoid radiation damage or to hide from predators. Recently, with the aim of applying nanoscale machinery to biomedical applications, various inorganic nanomotors based on different propulsion mechanisms have been demonstrated. The only method to control the direction of motion of these self-propelled micro/nanomotors is to incorporate a ferromagnetic material into their structure and use an external magnetic field for steering...
October 17, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
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