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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921171/computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-fusion-imaging-in-cholesteatoma-preoperative-assessment
#1
Agustín Campos, Federico Mata, Rosa Reboll, María Luisa Peris, Jorge Basterra
The purpose of this study is to describe a method for developing fusion imaging for the preoperative evaluation of cholesteatoma. In 33 patients diagnosed with cholesteatoma, a high-resolution temporal bone computed tomography (CT) scan without intravenous contrast and propeller diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. Both studies were then sent to the BrainLAB work station, where the images were fused to obtain a morphological and color map. Intraoperative findings coincided with fusion CT-MRI imaging in all but two patients...
December 5, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920150/heterotrimeric-kinesin-2-together-with-kinesin-1-steers-vesicular-acetylcholinesterase-movements-toward-the-synapse
#2
Anuttama Kulkarni, Yasmin Khan, Krishanu Ray
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is implicated in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, is distributed along the axon and enriched at the presynaptic basal lamina. It hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which inhibits synaptic transmission. Aberrant AChE activity and ectopic axonal accumulation of the enzyme are associated with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism that underlies AChE transport is still unclear. Here, we show that expression of Drosophila AChE tagged with photoactivable green fluorescent protein and m-Cherry (GPAC) in cholinergic neurons compensates for the RNA interference-mediated knockdown of endogenous AChE activity...
December 5, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919892/significant-divergence-in-sensitivity-to-antimalarial-drugs-between-neighboring-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-along-the-eastern-border-of-myanmar
#3
Weilin Zeng, Yao Bai, Meilian Wang, Zenglei Wang, Shuang Deng, Yonghua Ruan, Shi Feng, Zhaoqing Yang, Liwang Cui
Malaria parasites in different endemic areas display different levels of resistance to antimalarial drugs as the result of varied drug use histories. To provide updated knowledge of drug sensitivities during the malaria elimination phase in Southeast Asia, an epicenter of multidrug resistance, we determined in vitro susceptibilities of culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum isolates from two eastern border regions (Wa and Kachin) of Myanmar to ten drugs. Despite their close proximity, the Kachin parasites displayed higher IC50 values than the Wa parasites to chloroquine, piperaquine, naphthoquine, mefloquine, quinine, pyrimethamine, pyronaridine, lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917828/molecular-determinants-of-substrate-specificity-revealed-by-the-structure-of-clostridium-thermocellum-arabinofuranosidase-43a-from-glycosyl-hydrolase-family-43-subfamily-16
#4
Arun Goyal, Shadab Ahmed, Kedar Sharma, Vikas Gupta, Pedro Bule, Victor D Alves, Carlos M G A Fontes, Shabir Najmudin
The recent division of the large glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43) into subfamilies offers a renewed opportunity to develop structure-function studies aimed at clarifying the molecular determinants of substrate specificity in carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. α-L-Arabinofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.55) remove arabinose side chains from heteropolysaccharides such as xylan and arabinan. However, there is some evidence suggesting that arabinofuranosidases are substrate-specific, being unable to display a debranching activity on different polysaccharides...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916682/adaptive-optics-optical-coherence-tomography-in-glaucoma
#5
REVIEW
Zachary M Dong, Gadi Wollstein, Bo Wang, Joel S Schuman
Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT...
December 1, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916517/a-near-atomic-structure-of-the-dark-apoptosome-provides-insight-into-assembly-and-activation
#6
Tat Cheung Cheng, Ildikó V Akey, Shujun Yuan, Zhiheng Yu, Steven J Ludtke, Christopher W Akey
In Drosophila, the Apaf-1-related killer (Dark) forms an apoptosome that activates procaspases. To investigate function, we have determined a near-atomic structure of Dark double rings using cryo-electron microscopy. We then built a nearly complete model of the apoptosome that includes 7- and 8-blade β-propellers. We find that the preference for dATP during Dark assembly may be governed by Ser325, which is in close proximity to the 2' carbon of the deoxyribose ring. Interestingly, β-propellers in V-shaped domains of the Dark apoptosome are more widely separated, relative to these features in the Apaf-1 apoptosome...
November 16, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915056/human-to-human-transmission-of-arthropod-borne-pathogens
#7
REVIEW
Byron E Martina, Luisa Barzon, Gorben P Pijlman, José de la Fuente, Annapaola Rizzoli, Linda J Wammes, Willem Takken, Ronald P van Rij, Anna Papa
Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex interactions between pathogens, vectors and humans, in which human interventions and demographic and environmental conditions play a significant role. Herein, we discuss the distal and proximal drivers affecting H2H vector-borne pathogen transmission and identify knowledge gaps and future perspectives...
December 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914547/preliminary-classification-of-characteristic-organic-gunshot-residue-compounds
#8
Ellen Goudsmits, George P Sharples, Jason W Birkett
For the first time, a classification system for organic gunshot residue (OGSR) compounds with respect to the confirmation of OGSR materials is presented. There are 136 compounds considered to be associated with OGSR that have been highlighted in the literature. Many of these compounds could be classified as being ubiquitous in the environment and thus their detection as characteristic components of OGSR could cause issues with the interpretation of chemical ballistic evidence. The proposed system aims to address this problem by classifying OGSR compounds based on their forensic relevance with respect to the confirmation of GSR materials...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912758/emerging-polymorphisms-in-falciparum-kelch-13-gene-in-northeastern-region-of-india
#9
Neelima Mishra, Ram Suresh Bharti, Prashant Mallick, Om Prakash Singh, Bina Srivastava, Roma Rana, Sobhan Phookan, Hardev Prasad Gupta, Pascal Ringwald, Neena Valecha
BACKGROUND: Recent reports of emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance in the Southeast Asia region, including Myanmar, pose a greater threat to malaria control and elimination in India. Whole genome sequencing studies have associated mutations in the K13 propeller gene (k13), PF3D7_1343700 with artemisinin resistance both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to find the k13 gene polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum parasites from the three sites in the Northeast region of India, bordering Bangladesh and Myanmar...
December 3, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911781/structure-and-mechanism-of-nov1-a-resveratrol-cleaving-dioxygenase
#10
Ryan P McAndrew, Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, Michael M Mbughuni, Richard A Heins, Jose H Pereira, Anthe George, Kenneth L Sale, Brian G Fox, Blake A Simmons, Paul D Adams
Stilbenes are diphenyl ethene compounds produced naturally in a wide variety of plant species and some bacteria. Stilbenes are also derived from lignin during kraft pulping. Stilbene cleavage oxygenases (SCOs) cleave the central double bond of stilbenes, forming two phenolic aldehydes. Here, we report the structure of an SCO. The X-ray structure of NOV1 from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans was determined in complex with its substrate resveratrol (1.89 Å), its product vanillin (1.75 Å), and without any bound ligand (1...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908001/interaction-between-synchronization-and-motion-in-a-system-of-mobile-agents
#11
Arturo Buscarino, Luigi Fortuna, Mattia Frasca, Salvatore Frisenna
In this paper, we study synchronization in time-varying networks inherited by the Vicsek's model of self-propelled particles. In our model, each particle/agent moves in a two dimensional space according to the Vicsek's rules and is associated to a chaotic system. The dynamics of two oscillators are coupled with each other only when agents are at a distance less than an interaction radius. We investigate the system behavior with respect to some fundamental parameters, and, in particular, to the noise level, which for increasing intensity drives the system from an ordered motion to a disordered one...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906752/recent-developments-in-emerging-therapeutic-targets-of-osteoarthritis
#12
Margaret Man-Ger Sun, Frank Beier, Michael A Pest
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the tremendous individual suffering and socioeconomic burden caused by osteoarthritis, there are currently no effective disease-modifying treatment options. This is in part because of our incomplete understanding of osteoarthritis disease mechanism. This review summarizes recent developments in therapeutic targets identified from surgical animal models of osteoarthritis that provide novel insight into osteoarthritis pathology and possess potential for progression into preclinical studies...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906393/geometric-control-of-active-collective-motion
#13
Maxime Theillard, Roberto Alonso-Matilla, David Saintillan
Recent experimental studies have shown that confinement can profoundly affect self-organization in semi-dilute active suspensions, leading to striking features such as the formation of steady and spontaneous vortices in circular domains and the emergence of unidirectional pumping motions in periodic racetrack geometries. Motivated by these findings, we analyze the two-dimensional dynamics in confined suspensions of active self-propelled swimmers using a mean-field kinetic theory where conservation equations for the particle configurations are coupled to the forced Navier-Stokes equations for the self-generated fluid flow...
December 1, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905700/use-of-ozone-depleting-substances-direct-final-rule
#14
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is amending its regulation on uses of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), to remove the designation for certain products as "essential uses" under the Clean Air Act. Essential-use products are exempt from the ban by FDA on the use of CFCs and other ODS propellants in FDA-regulated products and from the ban by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the use of ODSs in pressurized dispensers. The products that will no longer constitute an essential use are: Sterile aerosol talc administered intrapleurally by thoracoscopy for human use and metered-dose atropine sulfate aerosol human drugs administered by oral inhalation...
October 26, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901107/how-a-life-like-system-emerges-from-a-simplistic-particle-motion-law
#15
Thomas Schmickl, Martin Stefanec, Karl Crailsheim
Self-structuring patterns can be observed all over the universe, from galaxies to molecules to living matter, yet their emergence is waiting for full understanding. We discovered a simple motion law for moving and interacting self-propelled particles leading to a self-structuring, self-reproducing and self-sustaining life-like system. The patterns emerging within this system resemble patterns found in living organisms. The emergent cells we found show a distinct life cycle and even create their own ecosystem from scratch...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900838/periodic-oscillatory-motion-of-a-self-propelled-motor-driven-by-decomposition-of-h2-o2-by-catalase
#16
Satoshi Nakata, Mio Nomura, Hiroya Yamamoto, Shunsuke Izumi, Nobuhiko J Suematsu, Yumihiko Ikura, Takashi Amemiya
A self-propelled motor driven by the enzymatic reaction of catalase adsorbed onto a filter paper floating on an aqueous solution of H2 O2 was used to study nonlinear behavior in the motor's motion. An increase in the concentration of H2 O2 resulted in a change from no motion to irregular oscillatory motion, periodic oscillatory motion, and continuous motion. The mechanisms underlying oscillation and mode bifurcation are discussed based on experimental results on O2 bubble formation and growth on the underside of the motor...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896003/kagome-fiber-based-ultrafast-laser-microsurgery-probe-delivering-micro-joule-pulse-energies
#17
Kaushik Subramanian, Ilan Gabay, Onur Ferhanoğlu, Adam Shadfan, Michal Pawlowski, Ye Wang, Tomasz Tkaczyk, Adela Ben-Yakar
We present the development of a 5 mm, piezo-actuated, ultrafast laser scalpel for fast tissue microsurgery. Delivery of micro-Joules level energies to the tissue was made possible by a large, 31 μm, air-cored inhibited-coupling Kagome fiber. We overcome the fiber's low NA by using lenses made of high refractive index ZnS, which produced an optimal focusing condition with 0.23 NA objective. The optical design achieved a focused laser spot size of 4.5 μm diameter covering a 75 × 75 μm(2) scan area in a miniaturized setting...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895654/a-comprehensive-phylogeny-reveals-functional-conservation-of-the-uv-b-photoreceptor-uvr8-from-green-algae-to-higher-plants
#18
María B Fernández, Vanesa Tossi, Lorenzo Lamattina, Raúl Cassia
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is present in sunlight (280-315 nm) and has diverse effects on living organisms. Low fluence rate of exposure induces a specific photomorphogenic response regulated by the UV-B response locus 8 (UVR8) receptor. UVR8 was first described in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the absence of stimuli it is located in the cytoplasm as a homodimer. However, upon UV-B irradiation, it switches to a monomer and interacts with the ubiquitin ligase E3 COP1 via the UVR8 β-propeller domain and the VP core. This induces the expression of the transcription factor HY5 leading to changes in the expression of genes associated with UV-B acclimation and stress tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894916/reliability-of-extended-dorsal-intercostal-artery-perforator-propeller-flaps-for-reconstruction-of-large-myelomeningocele-defects
#19
Goktekin Tenekeci, Yavuz Basterzi
Reconstruction of large myelomeningocele defects using extended (elongated beyond the lateral margin of the latissimus dorsi muscle) dorsal intercostal artery perforator (DICAP) propeller flaps is not recommended by previous studies. However, to provide tension-free and successful closure of a defect, the DICAP propeller flaps must sometimes be elongated beyond this margin. Our experience and results in this issue are discussed. In this article, reconstruction of 11 consecutive cases, with large myelomeningocele defects in which standard DICAP propeller flaps were incapable to close the defect, was achieved using extended DICAP propeller flaps between June 2013 and November 2015...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889613/two-approaches-one-problem-cultural-constructions-of-type-ii-diabetes-in-an-indigenous-community-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-mexico
#20
Sarah M Frank, T Elizabeth Durden
The emerging epidemic of obesity and type II diabetes in Mexico has recently propelled the nation into the public health spotlight. In the state of Yucatán, the experience of diabetes is greatly impacted by two cultural constructions of disease. In this setting, elements of Yucatec Mayan health practices as well as the biomedical model affect the approach to type II diabetes. Both frameworks offer unique understandings of the etiology of diabetes and recommend different ways to manage the condition. Based on in-depth and semi-structured interviews with both community members and clinicians, the present study seeks to understand how diabetes is understood and treated in indigenous settings in rural Yucatán...
November 16, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
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