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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524919/micro-nanomotors-towards-in-vivo-application-cell-tissue-and-biofluid
#1
REVIEW
Fei Peng, Yingfeng Tu, Daniela A Wilson
Inspired by highly efficient natural motors, synthetic micro/nanomotors are self-propelled machines capable of converting the supplied fuel into mechanical motion. A significant advance has been made in the construction of diverse motors over the last decade. These synthetic motor systems, with rapid transporting and efficient cargo towing abilities, are expected to open up new horizons for various applications. Utilizing emergent motor platforms for in vivo applications is one important aspect receiving growing interest as conventional therapeutic methodology still remains limited for cancer, heart, or vasculature diseases...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524756/self-propelling-micro-nanorobots-challenges-and-future-perspectives-in-nanomedicine
#2
Xing Ma, Samuel Sánchez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524730/recent-advances-in-genetic-testing-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#3
Michael A Iacocca, Robert A Hegele
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease that is widely underdiagnosed and undertreated. To improve the identification of FH and initiate timely and appropriate treatment strategies, genetic testing is becoming increasingly offered worldwide as a central part of diagnosis. Areas covered: Recent advances have been propelled by an improved understanding of the genetic determinants of FH together with substantially reduced costs of appropriate screening strategies...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524665/synthesis-of-a-three-bladed-propeller-shaped-triple-5-helicene
#4
Hiromu Saito, Akira Uchida, Soichiro Watanabe
Three-bladed propeller-shaped triple [5]helicene was synthesized using eliminative and oxidative photocyclization reactions, which proceeded in 37 and 63% yields, respectively. Chromatographic purification gave a mixture of diastereomers, and the PPM and PMM isomers were gradually converted to the thermodynamically more stable PPP and MMM isomers at room temperature. The activation parameters for the racemization of the PPP and MMM isomers were determined, and the structure of the triple [5]helicene was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520892/on-the-cradle-of-ccm-research-discovery-development-and-challenges-ahead
#5
Aaron Kaplan
Herein, 40 years after its discovery, I briefly and critically survey the development of ideas that propelled research on CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs; a term proposed by Dean Price) of phytoplankton, mainly focusing on cyanobacteria. This is not a comprehensive review on CCM research, but a personal view on the past developments and challenges that lie ahead.
May 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516991/synthesis-properties-and-crystal-structures-of-%C3%AF-extended-double-6-helicenes-contorted-multi-dimensional-stacking-lattice
#6
Takao Fujikawa, Nobuhiko Mitoma, Atsushi Wakamiya, Akinori Saeki, Yasutomo Segawa, Kenichiro Itami
The synthesis and properties of a new π-extended double [6]helicene 2 and a dithia[6]helicene 3 are described. Compared to the previously reported parent double-helicene molecule 1, the introduction of n-butyl groups successfully improved the solubility, which allowed an experimental investigation into the electronic structure of 2 and 3 by photophysical measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The characteristic two-blade propeller structures of 2 and 3 were unambiguously determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis...
May 18, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511651/high-resolution-mucociliary-transport-measurement-in-live-excised-large-animal-trachea-using-synchrotron-x-ray-imaging
#7
Martin Donnelley, Kaye S Morgan, Maged Awadalla, Nigel R Farrow, Chris Hall, David W Parsons
BACKGROUND: The Australian Synchrotron Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) was designed as the world's widest synchrotron X-ray beam, enabling both clinical imaging and therapeutic applications for humans as well as the imaging of large animal models. Our group is developing methods for imaging the airways of newly developed CF animal models that display human-like lung disease, such as the CF pig, and we expect that the IMBL can be utilised to image airways in animals of this size. METHODS: This study utilised samples of excised tracheal tissue to assess the feasibility, logistics and protocols required for airway imaging in large animal models such as pigs and sheep at the IMBL...
May 16, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509652/risk-assessment-of-zinc-oxide-a-cosmetic-ingredient-used-as-a-uv-filter-of-sunscreens
#8
Kyu-Bong Kim, Young Woo Kim, Seong Kwang Lim, Tae Hyun Roh, Du Yeon Bang, Seul Min Choi, Duck Soo Lim, Yeon Joo Kim, Seol-Hwa Baek, Min-Kook Kim, Hyo-Seon Seo, Min-Hwa Kim, Hyung Sik Kim, Joo Young Lee, Sam Kacew, Byung-Mu Lee
Zinc oxide (ZnO), an inorganic compound that appears as a white powder, is used frequently as an ingredient in sunscreens. The aim of this review was to examine the toxicology and risk assessment of ZnO based upon available published data. Recent studies on acute, sub-acute, and chronic toxicities of ZnO indicated that this compound is virtually non-toxic in animal models. However, it was reported that ZnO nanoparticles (NP) (particle size, 40 nm) induced significant changes in anemia-related hematologic parameters and mild to moderate pancreatitis in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at 536...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506525/how-does-mg-2-modulate-the-rna-folding-mechanism-a-case-study-of-the-g-c-w-w-trans-basepair
#9
Antarip Halder, Rohit Roy, Dhananjay Bhattacharyya, Abhijit Mitra
Reverse Watson-Crick G:C basepairs (G:C W:W Trans) occur frequently in different functional RNAs. This is one of the few basepairs whose gas-phase-optimized isolated geometry is inconsistent with the corresponding experimental geometry. Several earlier studies indicate that through post-transcriptional modification, direct protonation, or coordination with Mg(2+), accumulation of positive charge near N7 of guanine can stabilize the experimental geometry. Interestingly, recent studies reveal significant variation in the position of putatively bound Mg(2+)...
May 12, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506064/ice-melting-dynamics-the-role-of-protons-and-interfacial-geometry
#10
Andrew J Schwartz, Gerald H Pollack
The surface of ice plays a significant role in melting. To better understand the role of the surface, we studied the melting of ice using infrared imaging and pH-sensitive dyes. Ice was allowed to melt in baths of water of varying depth. When the ice melted in a high level of room-temperature water, equal to the height of the ice, the conventional melting pattern appeared. When the ice melted in a chamber with a lower water level, the melting pattern was unexpected. Seconds after the ice was placed in the water, localized regions of low temperature water appeared around the perimeter of the ice...
May 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505815/interaction-of-toroidal-swimmers-in-stokes-flow
#11
Jianjun Huang, Lisa Fauci
A doughnut-shaped object supporting surface rotations was a hypothetical construct proposed by both Taylor and Purcell as a swimmer that would be able to propel itself in a Stokesian fluid because of the irreversibility of its stroke. Here we numerically examine the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs and trios of these free toroidal swimmers. First, we study the axisymmetric case of two toroidal swimmers placed in tandem, and show that a single torus of a corotating pair is more efficient than when it swims alone, but less efficient when paired with a counterrotating partner...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505141/a-decade-of-progress-toward-ending-the-intensive-confinement-of-farm-animals-in-the-united-states
#12
Sara Shields, Paul Shapiro, Andrew Rowan
In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to advance state ballot initiatives throughout the country, with a decisive advancement in California (Proposition 2) that paved the way for further progress. Combining legislative work with undercover farm and slaughterhouse investigations, litigation and corporate engagement, the HSUS and fellow animal protection organizations have made substantial progress in transitioning the veal, pork and egg industries away from intensive confinement systems that keep the animals in cages and crates...
May 15, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502179/self-propelled-motion-of-monodisperse-underwater-oil-droplets-formed-by-a-microfluidic-device
#13
Naoko Ueno, Taisuke Banno, Arisa Asami, Yuki Kazayama, Yuya Morimoto, Toshihisa Osaki, Shoji Takeuchi, Hiroyuki Kitahata, Taro Toyota
We evaluated the speed profile of self-propelled underwater oil droplets comprising a hydrophobic aldehyde derivative in terms of their diameter and the surrounding surfactant concentration using a microfluidic device. We found that the speed of the oil droplets is dependent on not only the surfactant concentration but also droplet size in a certain range of the surfactant concentration. This tendency is interpreted in terms of combination of the oil and surfactant affording spontaneous emulsification in addition to Marangoni effect...
May 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499841/effect-of-administration-method-animal-weight-and-age-on-the-intranasal-delivery-of-drugs-to-the-brain
#14
Jishnu K S Krishnan, Peethambaran Arun, Bhadra Chembukave, Abhilash P Appu, Nivetha Vijayakumar, John R Moffett, Narayanan Puthillathu, Aryan M A Namboodiri
BACKGROUND: The intranasal route of administration has proven to be an effective method for bypassing the blood brain barrier and avoiding first pass hepatic metabolism when targeting drugs to the brain. Most small molecules gain rapid access to CNS parenchyma when administered intranasally. However, bioavailability is affected by various factors ranging from the molecular weight of the drug to the mode of intranasal delivery. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: We examined the effects of animal posture, intranasal application method and animal weight and age on the delivery of radiolabeled pralidoxime ((3)H-2-PAM) to the brain of rats...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499808/high-contrast-high-resolution-imaging-of-posttraumatic-mandibular-nerve-by-3dac-propeller-magnetic-resonance-imaging-correlation-with-the-severity-of-sensory-disturbance
#15
Makoto Terumitsu, Hitoshi Matsuzawa, Kenji Seo, Masaki Watanabe, Shigenobu Kurata, Akiko Suda, Tsutomu Nakada
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance neurography reveals abnormal morphologies of regenerated nerves and overgrown connective tissue in injured trigeminal nerves, suggesting neuroma formation. We hypothesized that such deformities and scar formation contribute to pain symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: High-contrast high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging was utilized to evaluate the inferior alveolar nerve and lingual nerve following traumatic injury in 19 patients. The relationship between the morphologic classification and severity of the sensory disorder was assessed...
March 14, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498558/-e-1-1-4-4-tetramethyl-2-tetrazene-tmtz-a-prospective-alternative-to-hydrazines-in-rocket-propulsion
#16
Anne Dhenain, Chaza Darwich, Carlos Miró Sabaté, Duc-Minh Le, Anne-Julie Bougrine, Delalu Henri, Emmanuel Lacôte, Lea Payen, Jerôme Guitton, Emilie Labarthe, Guy Jacob
1,1,4,4-tetramethyl-2-tetrazene (TMTZ) is considered as a prospective replacement for toxic hydrazines used in liquid rocket propulsion. The heat of formation of TMTZ was computed and measured, giving values well above those of the hydrazines commonly used in propulsion. This led to a predicted maximum Isp of 337 s for TMTZ/N2O4 mixtures, which is a value comparable to that of MMH. We found that TMTZ has a vapor pressure well below that of liquid hydrazines, and it is far less toxic. Finally, an improved synthesis is proposed, which is compatible with existing industrial production facilities after minor changes...
May 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497134/enhanced-planar-perovskite-solar-cells-with-efficiency-exceeding-16-via-reducing-the-oxygen-vacancy-defect-state-in-titanium-oxide-electrode
#17
Yangyang Du, Hongkun Cai, Yunhao Wu, Zhixue Xing, Zhenglong Li, Jian Xu, Like Huang, Jian Ni, Juan Li, Jianjun Zhang
In this work, the influence of oxygen vacancy defect (OVD) in compact titanium oxide (c-TiO2) on the performance of planar perovskite solar cells (p-PSCs) is investigated, and the possible mechanisms are also proposed. To meet our objective, anatase c-TiO2 thin films with various OVD concentrations are prepared by changing the oxygen flux during the DC magnetron sputtering process and are characterized by the intensity of defect signals in the X-ray photoelectron spectra. We conclude that abundant OVDs can trigger an obviously increased majority carrier accumulation zone at the metal oxide/perovskite interface and enhanced capacitance, thereby greatly deteriorating photogenerated carrier collection efficiency...
May 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496425/verbalizations-affect-visuomotor-control-in-hitting-objects-to-distant-targets
#18
Raimey Olthuis, John Van Der Kamp, Simone Caljouw
There is a long-standing proposal for the existence of two neuroanatomically and functionally separate visual systems; one supported by the dorsal pathway to control action and the second supported by the ventral pathway to handle explicit perceptual judgments. The dorsal pathway requires fast access to egocentric information, while the ventral pathway primarily requires allocentric information. Despite the evidence for functionally distinct systems, researchers have posited important interactions. This paper examines evidence to what degree the interaction becomes more important when target-identity, the perception of which is supported by the ventral stream, is verbalized during the execution of a target-directed far-aiming movement...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495507/up-and-away-five-decades-of-urologic-investigation-in-microgravity
#19
REVIEW
Michael S Leapman, Jeffrey A Jones, Karl Coutinho, Daniel Sagalovich, Maurice Garcia, Carl A Olsson, Jeffrey Stock
A renewed global interest in manned space-exploration has emerged, propelled by the challenge of reaching a new frontier: travel to the Red Planet, Mars. As the physiologic changes induced by microgravity bear direct relevance to the safety and viability of these goals, we provide a historical narrative of the urological investigations in space. We review the significant contributions to the understanding of the urologic consequences associated with exposure to microgravity, considerations for prolonged missions, and forward-looking efforts to manage emergent conditions remotely...
May 8, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493690/chemically-propelled-molecules-and-machines
#20
Krishna K Dey, Ayusman Sen
Self-propelled, synthetic active matters that transduce chemical energy into mechanical motion are examples of biomimetic non-equilibrium systems. They are of great current interest, with potential applications in nanomachinery, nanoscale assembly, fluidics, and chemical/biochemical sensing. Many of the physical challenges associated with generating motility on the small scale have recently been overcome, leading to the first generation of autonomous motors and pumps on scales ranging from microns to nanometers...
May 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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