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Pauline Provini, Anick Abourachid
Previous studies showed that birds primarily use their hindlimbs to propel themselves into the air in order to take-off. Yet, it remains unclear how the different parts of their musculoskeletal system move to produce the necessary acceleration. To quantify the relative motions of the bones during the terrestrial phase of take-off, we used biplanar fluoroscopy in two species of birds, diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We obtained a detailed 3D kinematics analysis of the head, the trunk and the three long bones of the left leg...
January 6, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
Ruquan Ye, Xiao Han, Dmitry V Kosynkin, Yilun Li, Chenhao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Angel A Marti, James M Tour
Laser-assisted materials fabrication is an advance that has propelled recent carbon synthesis approaches. Direct laser writing on polyimide or lignocellulose materials by a CO2 laser has successfully transformed the substrates into hierarchical graphene. However, formation of other carbon allotropes such as diamond and fullerene remains challenging. Here we report the direct synthesis of fluorinated nanodiamonds or fluorinated graphene by treating polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon, or PTFE) with a 9.3 μm pulsed CO2 laser under argon; no exogenous fluorine source is needed...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
Susan J Hayflick, Manju A Kurian, Penelope Hogarth
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting children and adults. These rare disorders are often first suspected when increased basal ganglia iron is observed on brain magnetic resonance imaging. For the majority of NBIA disorders the genetic basis has been delineated, and clinical testing is available. The four most common NBIA disorders include pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) due to mutations in PANK2, phospholipase A2-associated neurodegeneration caused by mutation in PLA2G6, mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration from mutations in C19orf12, and beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration due to mutations in WDR45...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Brent L Fogel
The influence of genetics on neurologic disease is broad and it is becoming more common that clinicians are presented with a patient whose disease is likely of genetic origin. In the search for mutations causing Mendelian disorders, advances in genetic testing methodology have propelled modern neurologic practice beyond single-gene testing into the realm of genomic medicine, where routine evaluations encompass hundreds or thousands of genes, or even the entire exome, representing all protein-coding genes in the genome...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Malthe Hansen-Bruhn, Berta Esteban-Fernandez de Avila, Mara Beltrán-Gastélum, Jing Zhao, Doris E Ramírez-Herrera, Pavimol Angsantikul, Kurt Vesterager Gothelf, Liangfang Zhang, Joseph Wang
Direct and rapid intracellular delivery of functional Cas9-sgRNA complex using ultrasound-powered nanomotors is reported. The Cas9-sgRNA complex is loaded onto the nanomotors surface through a reversible disulfide linkage. A 5-min ultrasound treatment enables the Cas9-sgRNA-loaded nanomotors to directly penetrate through the plasma membrane of GFP-expressing B16F10 cells. The carried Cas9-sgRNA is released inside the cells achieving highly effective GFP-gene knockout. The acoustic Cas9-sgRNA-loaded nanomotors display more than 80% GFP-knockout within 2 h of cell incubation compared to 30% knockout using static nanowires...
January 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Amy Tsui-Chi Lam, Stanislav Tsitkov, Yifei Zhang, Henry Hess
Biological materials and systems often dynamically self-assemble and disassemble, forming temporary structures as needed and allowing for dynamic responses to stimuli and changing environmental conditions. However, this dynamic interplay of localized component recruitment and release has been difficult to achieve in artificial molecular-scale systems, which are usually designed to have long-lasting, stable bonds. Here, we report the experimental realization of a molecular-scale system that dynamically assembles and disassembles its building blocks while retaining functionality...
January 10, 2018: Nano Letters
Bonnie Chaban, Izaak Coleman, Morgan Beeby
Understanding the evolution of molecular machines underpins our understanding of the development of life on earth. A well-studied case are bacterial flagellar motors that spin helical propellers for bacterial motility. Diverse motors produce different torques, but how this diversity evolved remains unknown. To gain insights into evolution of the high-torque ε-proteobacterial motor exemplified by the Campylobacter jejuni motor, we inferred ancestral states by combining phylogenetics, electron cryotomography, and motility assays to characterize motors from Wolinella succinogenes, Arcobacter butzleri and Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Claudio Angrigiani, Alberto Rancati, Ezequiel Escudero, Guillermo Artero, Gustavo Gercovich, Ernesto Gil Deza
[This corrects the article on p. 174 in vol. 3, PMID: 25207210.].
December 2017: Gland Surgery
Mengshi Wei, Chao Zhou, Jinyao Tang, Wei Wang
Synthetic microswimmers, or micromotors, are finding potential uses in a wide range of applications, most of which involve boundaries. However, subtle yet important effects beyond physical confinement on the motor dynamics remain less understood. In this letter, glass substrates were functionalized with positively and negatively charged polyelectrolytes, and the dynamics of micromotors moving close to the modified surfaces was examined. Using acoustic levitation and numerical simulation, we reveal how the speed of a chemically propelled micromotor slows down significantly near a polyelectrolyte-modified surface by the combined effects of surface charges, surface morphology, and ions released from the films...
January 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yurong Yang, Charles Paillard, Bin Xu, Laurent Bellaiche
The present work reviews a series of recent first-principles studies devoted to the description of the interaction of light and strain in ferroelectric and multiferroic materials. Specifically, the modelling schemes used in these works to describe the so-called photostriction and elasto-optic effects are presented, in addition to the results and analysis provided by these ab-initio calculations. In particular, the large importance of the piezoelectric effect in the polar direction in the photostriction of ferroelectric materials is stressed out...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Juliana Araujo Guimarães, Lucas Oliveira da Fonseca, Ana Carolina de Sousa, Miguel Eduardo Gutierrez Paredes, George Andrew Brindeiro, Antônio Padilha Lanari Bó, Emerson Fachin-Martins
FES-assisted cycling has been recommended to people struggling to emerge from a disability to more functioning life after spinal cord injury. Recommendations issued by a gowing number of scientific papershas promised toimprove body composition and physical activity levels, as well as to controlinvoluntary muscle response; favoring activity and participation which break new grounds in expanding locomotion, leisure and occupational options for people with paraplegia and tetraplegia. In this report we described our experience to select and prepare a pilot to compete in the FES Bike Race modality at Cybathlon 2016 in Kloten (Zurick)...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
Benoît Sijobert, Charles Fattal, Anne Daubigney, Christine Azevedo-Coste
This article is a contribution to a special issue aiming at collecting data and documenting the different specificities of the teams which participated into Cybathlon 2016 FES-bike discipline. Our team prepared one paraplegic pilot over one year and developed a FES-cycling device based on existing commercial products. Our pilot (47 y.o, spinal cord lesion T3 AIS A since year 1995) was qualified for the final race and finished in 6th position over 12 participants in the discipline, covering a total distance of 750m at an average speed of 5...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
John McDaniel, Lisa M Lombardo, Kevin M Foglyano, Paul D Marasco, Ronald J Triolo
Recently our laboratory team focused on training five individuals with complete spinal cord injuries for an overground FES bike race in the 2016 Cybathlon held in Zurich Switzerland. A unique advantage team Cleveland had over other teams was the use of implanted pulse generators that provide more selective activation of muscles compared to standard surface stimulation. The advancements in muscle strength and endurance and ultimately cycling power our pilots made during this training period helped propel our competing pilot to win gold at the Cybathlon and allowed our pilots to ride their bikes outside within their communities...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
Tijana Maric, Muhammad Zafir Mohamad Nasir, Yong Wang, Bahareh Khezri, Martin Pumera
Autonomous self-propelled nano and microrobots are in the forefront of materials research. The micromachines are typically prepared in batches, stored and subsequently used. We show here that the storage of platinum tubular catalytic microrobots in water causes their corrosion which results in their lower mobility and performance. This has important implications for the construction and storage of these autonomous micromotors.
January 3, 2018: Nanoscale
Xinxin Gao, Rami N Hannoush
Protein palmitoylation plays diverse roles in regulating the trafficking, stability, and activity of cellular proteins. The advent of click chemistry has propelled the field of protein palmitoylation forward by providing specific, sensitive, rapid, and easy-to-handle methods for studying protein palmitoylation. This year marks the 10th anniversary since the first click chemistry-based fatty acid probes for detecting protein lipid modifications were reported. The goal of this review is to highlight key biological advancements in the field of protein palmitoylation during the past 10 years...
December 18, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
M Padariya, U Kalathiya, M Baginski
EmrE is a bacterial transporter protein that forms an anti-parallel homodimer with four transmembrane helices in each monomer. EmrE transports positively charged aromatic compounds, such as TPP+ and its derivatives. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of EmrE in complex with TPP+, MeTPP+, and MBTPP+ embedded in a membrane. The detailed molecular properties and interactions were analysed for all EmrE-ligand complexes. Our MD results identified that Lys22, Tyr40, Phe44, Trp45, and Trp63 formed potential π interactions with all three ligands and further confirmed the essential role of Glu14...
December 27, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Nobuhiko J Suematsu, Satoshi Nakata
A variety of moving objects driven by chemical energy have been reported. In this review, we focus on self-propelled objects driven by interfacial tension and explain three types of basic mechanisms for such self-propelled motion, i.e., driven by (a) surface tension difference, (b) contact angle difference, and (c) axisymmetric swirling flow in a droplet. Simple behaviours induced from the basic mechanisms are then extended by coupling to a chemical reaction or increasing the number of moving objects. Even though the chemicals used here are still simple, the extended systems could show characteristic nonlinear behaviours, such as reciprocating motion, oscillatory motion, and spatiotemporal pattern formation...
December 30, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Adel Djellouli, Philippe Marmottant, Henda Djeridi, Catherine Quilliet, Gwennou Coupier
Microswimmers, and among them aspirant microrobots, generally have to cope with flows where viscous forces are dominant, characterized by a low Reynolds number (Re). This implies constraints on the possible sequences of body motion, which have to be nonreciprocal. Furthermore, the presence of a strong drag limits the range of resulting velocities. Here, we propose a swimming mechanism which uses the buckling instability triggered by pressure waves to propel a spherical, hollow shell. With a macroscopic experimental model, we show that a net displacement is produced at all Re regimes...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
G A Patterson, P I Fierens, F Sangiuliano Jimka, P G König, A Garcimartín, I Zuriguel, L A Pugnaloni, D R Parisi
We report experimental results on the competitive passage of elongated self-propelled vehicles rushing through a constriction. For the chosen experimental conditions, we observe the emergence of intermittencies similar to those reported previously for active matter passing through narrow doors. Noteworthy, we find that, when the number of individuals crowding in front of the bottleneck increases, there is a transition from an unclogged to a clogged state characterized by a lack of convergence of the mean clog duration as the measuring time increases...
December 15, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Kenneth Pak Kin Lee, Jue Chen, Roderick MacKinnon
In many excitable cells KATP channels respond to intracellular adenosine nucleotides: ATP inhibits while ADP activates. We present two structures of the human pancreatic KATP channel, containing the ABC transporter SUR1 and the inward-rectifier K+ channel Kir6.2, in the presence of Mg2+ and nucleotides. These structures, referred to as quatrefoil and propeller forms, were determined by single-particle cryo-EM at 3.9 Å and 5.6 Å, respectively. In both forms ATP occupies the inhibitory site in Kir6.2. The nucleotide-binding domains of SUR1 are dimerized with Mg2+-ATP in the degenerate site and Mg2+-ADP in the consensus site...
December 29, 2017: ELife
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