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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775342/boundaries-control-collective-dynamics-of-inertial-self-propelled-robots
#1
A Deblais, T Barois, T Guerin, P H Delville, R Vaudaine, J S Lintuvuori, J F Boudet, J C Baret, H Kellay
Simple ingredients, such as well-defined interactions and couplings for the velocity and orientation of self-propelled objects, are sufficient to produce complex collective behavior in assemblies of such entities. Here, we use assemblies of rodlike robots made motile through self-vibration. When confined in circular arenas, dilute assemblies of these rods act as a gas. Increasing the surface fraction leads to a collective behavior near the boundaries: polar clusters emerge while, in the bulk, gaslike behavior is retained...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775184/colloidal-transport-through-trap-arrays-controlled-by-active-microswimmers
#2
Wen Yang, Vyacheslav R Misko, Fabio Marchesoni, Franco Nori
We investigate the dynamics of a binary mixture consisting of active and passive colloidal particles diffusing in a two-dimensional
 array of truncated harmonic wells, or traps. We explore the possibility of using a small fraction of active particles to manipulate a much larger fraction of passive particles, for instance, to confine them in or extract them from the traps. The results of our study have potential application in biology and medical sciences, for example, to remove dead cells or undesired contaminants from biological systems by means of self-propelled nano-robots...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774959/authorship-trends-in-the-journal-of-orthopaedic-research-a-bibliometric-analysis
#3
Abhijit Seetharam, Mohammed T Ali, Christine Y Wang, Katherine E Schultz, James P Fischer, Shatoria Lunsford, Elizabeth C Whipple, Randall T Loder, Melissa A Kacena
Publications are an important tool to measure one's success and achievement in academia. They can help propel a career forward and move one into a position of leadership. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate changes in bibliometric variables, authorship, and collaboration trends in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research (JOR®), since its inception in 1983. A bibliometric analysis was completed for all manuscripts meeting the inclusion criteria (638), which were published throughout the inaugural year plus one representative year of each decade...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773821/recording-animal-vocalizations-from-a-uav-bat-echolocation-during-roost-re-entry
#4
Laura N Kloepper, Morgan Kinniry
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are rising in popularity for wildlife monitoring, but direct recordings of animal vocalizations have not yet been accomplished, likely due to the noise generated by the UAV. Echolocating bats, especially Tadarida brasiliensis, are good candidates for UAV recording due to their high-speed, high-altitude flight. Here, we use a UAV to record the signals of bats during morning roost re-entry. We designed a UAV to block the noise of the propellers from the receiving microphone, and report on the characteristics of bioacoustic recordings from a UAV...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771909/receptors-of-intermediates-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-gpr91-and-gpr99-mediate-axon-growth
#5
Hosni Cherif, François Duhamel, Bruno Cécyre, Alex Bouchard, Ariane Quintal, Sylvain Chemtob, Jean-François Bouchard
During the development of the visual system, high levels of energy are expended propelling axons from the retina to the brain. However, the role of intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism in the development of the visual system has been overlooked. Here, we report that the carbohydrate metabolites succinate and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and their respective receptor-GPR91 and GPR99-are involved in modulating retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections toward the thalamus during visual system development. Using ex vivo and in vivo approaches, combined with pharmacological and genetic analyses, we revealed that GPR91 and GPR99 are expressed on axons of developing RGCs and have complementary roles during RGC axon growth in an extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2)-dependent manner...
May 17, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771627/efficiency-and-perceived-exertion-of-novel-wheelchair-wheels-a-comparative-study
#6
Laura Sanches Rocha, Bonita Sawatzky, W Ben Mortenson
New geared wheelchair wheels have been developed allowing the user to pull backwards on the rims to move forward. Theoretically, this utilizes larger muscle groups compared to conventional propulsion preventing repetitive stress injuries. This study compared the gross mechanical efficiency (GME), perceived effort and energy expenditure of propelling the wheelchair using two types of these geared wheels and standard forward propulsion wheels. A within participants repeated measures design was used. Participants' energy expenditure and perceived exertion were measured...
May 17, 2018: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766738/the-role-of-gene-editing-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
Hueng-Chuen Fan, Ching-Shiang Chi, Yih-Jing Lee, Jeng-Dau Tsai, Shinn-Zong Lin, Horng-Jyh Harn
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), at least including Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases, have become the most dreaded maladies because there are no precise diagnostic tools or definite treatments for these debilitating diseases. The increased prevalence and a substantial impact on the social-economic and medical care of NDs propel governments to develop policies to counteract the impact. Although the etiologies of NDs are still unknown, growing evidence suggests that genetic, cellular, and circuit alternations may cause the generation of abnormal misfolded proteins, which uncontrolledly accumulate to damage and eventually overwhelm the protein-disposal mechanisms of these neurons, leading to a common pathological feature of NDs...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765762/tris-2-2-6-6-tetra-methyl-8-tri-methyl-sil-yl-benzo-1-2-d-4-5-d-bis-1-3-di-thiol-4-yl-methanol-diethyl-ether-monosolvate
#8
Nico Fleck, Gregor Schnakenburg, Alexander C Filippou, Olav Schiemann
The title compound, a tri-aryl-methanol, C46 H64 OS12 Si3 1 , was synthesized via li-thia-tion of tris-2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-benzo[1,2- d ;4,5- d ']bis-[1,3]di-thiol-4-yl-methanol, 2 , and electrophilic quenching with tri-methyl-silyl chloride. The current crystal structure reveals information about the reactivity of this compound and compares well with the structure reported for the unsubstituted parent compound 2 [Driesschaert et al. (2012 ▸). Eur. J. Org. Chem. 33 , 6517-6525]. The title compound 1 forms mol-ecular propellers and crystallizes in P [Formula: see text], featuring an unusually long Si-Car bond of 1...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764612/the-effect-of-a-novel-square-profile-hand-rim-on-propulsion-technique-of-wheelchair-tennis-players
#9
Sonja de Groot, Femke Bos, Jorine Koopman, Aldo E Hoekstra, Riemer J K Vegter
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a square-profile hand rim (SPR) on propulsion technique of wheelchair tennis players. Eight experienced wheelchair tennis players performed two sets of three submaximal exercise tests and six sprint tests on a wheelchair ergometer, once with a regular rim (RR) and once with a SPR. Torque and velocity were measured continuously and power output and timing variables were calculated. No significant differences were found in propulsion technique between the RR and SPR during the submaximal tests...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760033/the-mid-career-demon
#10
Timothy P Daaleman
For several months I have been trying to tag a greyness that has shaded my doctoring. I was not burned out but uncovered the desert experience of mind and soul known as acedia, which is called the noonday demon because it vexes those in the mid-stages of life. Grappling with the noonday demon has upended all of my assumptions about the workings of hope in the practice of medicine. For me, hope is no longer the anticipation of a positive outcome, or the warm feeling associated with the validation of a correct diagnosis, or the conclusion of successful treatment...
May 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758693/phase-separation-of-self-propelled-ballistic-particles
#11
Isaac R Bruss, Sharon C Glotzer
Self-propelled particles phase-separate into coexisting dense and dilute regions above a critical density. The statistical nature of their stochastic motion lends itself to various theories that predict the onset of phase separation. However, these theories are ill-equipped to describe such behavior when noise becomes negligible. To overcome this limitation, we present a predictive model that relies on two density-dependent timescales: τ_{F}, the mean time particles spend between collisions; and τ_{C}, the mean lifetime of a collision...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758687/dynamical-patterns-in-nematic-active-matter-on-a-sphere
#12
Silke Henkes, M Cristina Marchetti, Rastko Sknepnek
Using simulations of self-propelled agents with short-range repulsion and nematic alignment, we explore the dynamical phases of a dense active nematic confined to the surface of a sphere. We map the nonequilibrium phase diagram as a function of curvature, alignment strength, and activity. Our model reproduces several phases seen in recent experiments on active microtubule bundles confined the surfaces of vesicles. At low driving, we recover the equilibrium nematic ground state with four +1/2 defects. As the driving is increased, geodesic forces drive the transition to a polar band wrapping around an equator, with large empty spherical caps corresponding to two +1 defects at the poles...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758683/markovian-robots-minimal-navigation-strategies-for-active-particles
#13
Luis Gómez Nava, Robert Großmann, Fernando Peruani
We explore minimal navigation strategies for active particles in complex, dynamical, external fields, introducing a class of autonomous, self-propelled particles which we call Markovian robots (MR). These machines are equipped with a navigation control system (NCS) that triggers random changes in the direction of self-propulsion of the robots. The internal state of the NCS is described by a Boolean variable that adopts two values. The temporal dynamics of this Boolean variable is dictated by a closed Markov chain-ensuring the absence of fixed points in the dynamics-with transition rates that may depend exclusively on the instantaneous, local value of the external field...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758634/reduced-order-model-for-inertial-locomotion-of-a-slender-swimmer
#14
Raksha Mahalinkam, Felicity Gong, Aditya S Khair
The inertial locomotion of an elongated model swimmer in a Newtonian fluid is quantified, wherein self-propulsion is achieved via steady tangential surface treadmilling. The swimmer has a length 2l and a circular cross section of longitudinal profile aR(z), where a is the characteristic width of the cross section, R(z) is a dimensionless shape function, and z is a dimensionless coordinate, normalized by l, along the centerline of the body. It is assumed that the swimmer is slender, ε=a/l≪1. Hence, we utilize slender-body theory to analyze the Navier-Stokes equations that describe the flow around the swimmer...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758623/pseudochemotaxis-in-inhomogeneous-active-brownian-systems
#15
Hidde D Vuijk, Abhinav Sharma, Debasish Mondal, Jens-Uwe Sommer, Holger Merlitz
We study dynamical properties of confined, self-propelled Brownian particles in an inhomogeneous activity profile. Using Brownian dynamics simulations, we calculate the probability to reach a fixed target and the mean first passage time to the target of an active particle. We show that both these quantities are strongly influenced by the inhomogeneous activity. When the activity is distributed such that high-activity zone is located between the target and the starting location, the target finding probability is increased and the passage time is decreased in comparison to a uniformly active system...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754806/machine-learning-in-cardiac-ct-basic-concepts-and-contemporary-data
#16
REVIEW
Gurpreet Singh, Subhi J Al'Aref, Marly Van Assen, Timothy Suyong Kim, Alexander van Rosendael, Kranthi K Kolli, Aeshita Dwivedi, Gabriel Maliakal, Mohit Pandey, Jing Wang, Virginie Do, Manasa Gummalla, Carlo N De Cecco, James K Min
Propelled by the synergy of the groundbreaking advancements in the ability to analyze high-dimensional datasets and the increasing availability of imaging and clinical data, machine learning (ML) is poised to transform the practice of cardiovascular medicine. Owing to the growing body of literature validating both the diagnostic performance as well as the prognostic implications of anatomic and physiologic findings, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is now a well-established non-invasive modality for the assessment of cardiovascular disease...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754528/canadian-patients-preferences-in-topical-psoriasis-care-insights-from-the-propel-surveys
#17
Ronald Vender, Melinda J Gooderham, Lyn C Guenther, Dimitrios Kyritsis, Jaggi Rao, Alice Kowalczyk, John Ashkenas
BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis of all severities employ topical treatment, either alone or in combination. Promoting Patient Engagement at the Leading Edge of Topical Psoriasis Treatment (PROPEL) surveyed Canadian dermatologists and their patients about their attitudes toward topical care. OBJECTIVES: To identify gaps between patients and dermatologists regarding the burden of psoriasis, the burden of treatment, and priorities for topical care to Canadian patients with psoriasis...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753451/single-stage-reconstruction-of-post-traumatic-and-post-excisional-composite-perigenual-defects-using-chimeric-pedicled-propelled-osteomyocutaneous-fibula-flap
#18
T M Balakrishnan, Sruthi Sridhar, J Jaganmohan, Hemantha Kumar Govinda Rajan, Singaravadivelu Vaidyanathan
INTRODUCTION: Composite perigenual defects (CPGDs) are exacting the expertise of the reconstructive surgeons. Segmental skeletal defects continue to be a challenge for both orthopedic and plastic surgeons. There are many techniques available for the reconstruction of segmental skeletal defects in the perigenual region. This study explores the outcomes of pedicled chimeric propelled osteomyocutaneous fibula flap reconstruction of post traumatic and post excisional composite perigenual defects (CPGDs) MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a retrospective study conducted from 2011 to 2016 including 16 patients (5 post excisional defects and 11 post traumatic defects)...
April 27, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750967/evaluation-of-four-novel-isothermal-amplification-assays-towards-simple-and-rapid-genotyping-of-chloroquine-resistant-plasmodium-falciparum
#19
Madhvi Chahar, Anup Anvikar, Rajnikant Dixit, Neena Valecha
Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is sensitive, prompt, high throughput and field deployable technique for nucleic acid amplification under isothermal conditions. In this study, we have developed and optimized four different visualization methods of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect Pfcrt K76T mutants of P. falciparum and compared their important features for one-pot in-field applications. Even though all the four tested LAMP methods could successfully detect K76T mutants of P...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749406/improvement-of-the-activity-of-the-anti-hiv-1-integrase-aptamer-t30175-by-introducing-a-modified-thymidine-into-the-loops
#20
Antonella Virgilio, Teresa Amato, Luigi Petraccone, Francesca Esposito, Nicole Grandi, Enzo Tramontano, Raquel Romero, Shozeb Haider, Isabel Gomez-Monterrey, Ettore Novellino, Luciano Mayol, Veronica Esposito, Aldo Galeone
In this paper, we report our investigations on analogues of the anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) aptamer T30175 in which the individual thymidines forming the loops were replaced by 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine residues (H). Circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance and gel electrophoresis investigations clearly indicated that all the modified aptamers preserve the ability to form the original 5'-5' end-stacked head-to-head dimeric G-quadruplex structure, in which each G-quadruplex adopts a parallel arrangement and is characterized by three G-tetrads, three propeller loops and one bulge-loop...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
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