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Markus Selmke, Utsab Khadka, Andreas P Bregulla, Frank Cichos, Haw Yang
Photon nudging is a new experimental method which enables the force-free manipulation and localization of individual self-propelled artificial micro-swimmers in fluidic environments. It uses a weak laser to stochastically and adaptively turn on and off the swimmer's propulsion when the swimmer, through rotational diffusion, points towards or away from its target, respectively. This contribution presents a theoretical framework for the statistics of both 2D and 3D controls. The main results are: the on- and off-time distributions for the controlling laser, the arrival time statistics for the swimmer to reach a remote target, and how the experimentally accessible control parameters influence the control, e...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kazuya Kawai, Kenta Kato, Lingqing Peng, Yasutomo Segawa, Lawrence T Scott, Kenichiro Itami
The synthesis and structure of a C3 -symmetric propeller-shaped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that bears three seven-membered rings is reported. The synthesis was accomplished in three steps from benzo[ c]naphtho[2,1- p]chrysene, including a Pd-catalyzed intramolecular C-H arylation for the formation of the seven-membered rings. The combination of the helicities ( P/ M) of the three seven-membered-ring moieties and three [4]helicene moieties affords 24 possible conformers, and two relatively stable conformations were observed by1 H NMR spectroscopy...
March 21, 2018: Organic Letters
Qiong Wang, Hai-Jiao Xing, Na Bao, Ling-Juan Kong, Ye-Juan Jia, Ke Yang, Yan-Hui Sun, Jian-Ling Wang, Jing Shi, Xiao-Feng Li, Jing Xu, Xuan-Ping Zhang, Xin Zhang, Chun-Sheng Jia, Ren-Ling Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the regularity and characteristics of clinical application of scalp acupuncture therapy for different types of clinical conditions so as to provide a reference for clinical practice. METHODS: In the present study, "head acupuncture" and"scalp acupuncture" were used as the keywords to search papers and academic dissertations having definite standards for diagnosis and therapeutic effect assessment and published in journals and academic conferences collected in database China National Knowledge Internet(CNKI) from January 1 of 1959 to December 31 of 2016, followed by constructing a database after sorting, screening, recording, extracting, and statistical analysis by using a computer...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Stéphanie Philtjens, Sara Van Mossevelde, Julie van der Zee, Eline Wauters, Lubina Dillen, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Rik Vandenberghe, Adrian Ivanoiu, Anne Sieben, Christiana Willems, Luisa Benussi, Roberta Ghidoni, Giuliano Binetti, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Pau Pastor, Monica Diez-Fairen, Miquel Aguilar, Alexandre de Mendonça, Gabriel Miltenberger-Miltényi, Isabel Hernández, Merce Boada, Agustín Ruiz, Benedetta Nacmias, Sandro Sorbi, Maria Rosário Almeida, Isabel Santana, Jordi Clarimón, Alberto Lleó, Giovanni B Frisoni, Raquel Sanchez-Valle, Albert Lladó, Estrella Gómez-Tortosa, Ellen Gelpi, Marleen Van den Broeck, Karin Peeters, Patrick Cras, Peter P De Deyn, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Marc Cruts, Christine Van Broeckhoven
We investigated the genetic role of sortilin (SORT1) in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). SORT1 is the neuronal receptor for granulin, encoded by the progranulin gene (GRN), a major causal gene for inherited FTD. In Belgian cohorts of 636 FTD patients and 1066 unaffected control individuals, we identified 5 patient-only nonsynonymous rare variants in SORT1. Rare variant burden analysis showed a significant increase in rare coding variants in patients compared to control individuals (p = 0.04), particularly in the β-propeller domain (p = 0...
February 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Alex H Wrede, Aarthy Shah, Marilyn C McNamara, Reza Montazami, Nicole N Hashemi
We report a study on two methods that enable spatial control and induced cavitation on targeted microbubbles (MBs). Cavitation is known to be present in many situations throughout nature. This phenomena has been proven to have the energy to erode alloys, like steel, in propellers and turbines. It is recently theorized that cavitation occurs inside the skull during a traumatic-brain injury (TBI) situation. Controlled cavitation methods could help better understand TBIs and explain how neurons respond at moments of trauma...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Daniel Almirall, Connie Kasari, Daniel F McCaffrey, Inbal Nahum-Shani
Hedges (2018) encourages us to consider asking new scientific questions concerning the optimization of adaptive interventions in education. In this commentary, we have expanded on this (albeit briefly) by providing concrete examples of scientific questions and associated experimental designs to optimize adaptive interventions, and commenting on some of the ways such designs might challenge us to think differently. A great deal of methodological work remains to be done. For example, we have only begun to consider experimental design and analysis methods for developing "cluster-level adaptive interventions" (NeCamp, Kilbourne, & Almirall, 2017), or to extend methods for comparing the marginal mean trajectories between the adaptive interventions embedded in a SMART (Lu et al...
2018: Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness
Salomé Gutiérrez-Ramos, Mauricio Hoyos, J C Ruiz-Suárez
Brownian or self-propelled particles in aqueous suspensions can be trapped by acoustic fields generated by piezoelectric transducers usually at frequencies in the megahertz. The obtained confinement allows the study of rich collective behaviours like clustering or spreading dynamics in microgravity-like conditions. The acoustic field induces the levitation of self-propelled particles and provides secondary lateral forces to capture them at nodal planes. Here, we give a step forward in the field of confined active matter, reporting levitation experiments of bacterial suspensions of Escherichia coli...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nicole Spitzer, Jasleen K Singh
Drones are increasingly being used by children and adults recreationally and commercially. The propeller blades when spinning at high speeds may cause serious harm to the eye and orbital structures. We report 2 cases of injuries to the eye and orbital structures caused by drones.
March 13, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Alexandre P Solon, Joakim Stenhammar, Michael E Cates, Yariv Kafri, Julien Tailleur
Motility-induced phase separation (MIPS) arises generically in fluids of self-propelled particles when interactions lead to a kinetic slowdown at high densities. Starting from a continuum description of scalar active matter akin to a generalized Cahn-Hilliard equation, we give a general prescription for the mean densities of coexisting phases in flux-free steady states that amounts, at a hydrodynamics scale, to extremizing an effective free energy. We illustrate our approach on two well-known models: self-propelled particles interacting either through a density-dependent propulsion speed or via direct pairwise forces...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Paolo Sartori, Enrico Chiarello, Gaurav Jayaswal, Matteo Pierno, Giampaolo Mistura, Paola Brun, Adriano Tiribocchi, Enzo Orlandini
We systematically investigate the role of different swimming patterns on the concentration distribution of bacterial suspensions confined between two flat walls, by considering wild-type motility Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which perform Run and Tumble and Run and Reverse patterns, respectively. The experiments count motile bacteria at different distances from the bottom wall. In agreement with previous studies, an accumulation of motile bacteria close to the walls is observed. Different wall separations, ranging from 100 to 250μm, are tested...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Jens Grauer, Hartmut Löwen, Liesbeth M C Janssen
We study the collective dynamics of self-propelled rods in an inhomogeneous motility field. At the interface between two regions of constant but different motility, a smectic rod layer is spontaneously created through aligning interactions between the active rods, reminiscent of an artificial, semipermeable membrane. This "active membrane" engulfes rods which are locally trapped in low-motility regions and thereby further enhances the trapping efficiency by self-organization, an effect which we call "self-encapsulation...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Mohd Suhail Rizvi, Alexander Farutin, Chaouqi Misbah
The self-propelled microswimmers have recently attracted considerable attention as model systems for biological cell migration as well as artificial micromachines. A simple and well-studied microswimmer model consists of three identical spherical beads joined by two springs in a linear fashion with active oscillatory forces being applied on the beads to generate self-propulsion. We have extended this linear microswimmer configuration to a triangular geometry where the three beads are connected by three identical springs in an equilateral triangular manner...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Annie Hartmann, Deb Kegelmeyer, Anne Kloos
: Individuals with concomitant spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury have cognitive deficits that may limit the ability to learn novel motor tasks necessary for functional independence. Errorless learning has been shown to improve cognitive task performance in persons with brain injury but little is known about its usefulness for improving novel motor task learning. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 44-year-old man with traumatic spinal cord and brain injuries from a motor vehicle accident was admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Brooke W Longbottom, Stefan A F Bon
Microspheres with catalytic caps have become a popular model system for studying self-propelled colloids. Existing experimental studies involve predominantly "smooth" particle surfaces. In this study we determine the effect of irregular surface deformations on the propulsive mechanism with a particular focus on speed. The particle surfaces of polymer microspheres were deformed prior to depositing a layer of platinum which resulted in the formation of nanoscopic pillars of catalyst. Self-propulsion was induced upon exposure of the micromotors to hydrogen peroxide, whilst they were dispersed in water...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vicente G Jiménez, Rubén Tapia, Miguel A Medel, Inês F A Mariz, Tânia Ribeiro, Victor Blanco, Juan M Cuerva, Ermelinda Maçôas, Araceli G Campaña
Turning on the fluorescence of [3]cumulenes: we report the luminescence at room temperature upon aggregation of [3]cumulenes functionalized with propeller-like heptagon-containing polyphenylenes. These endgroups turn on the emission of a [3]cumulene by steric protection and restriction of their intramolecular rotations in the aggregates.
March 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Julie E Maguire, Aakarsha Pandey, Yushi Wu, Anna Di Gregorio
Ascidian embryos have been employed as model systems for studies of developmental biology for well over a century, owing to their desirable blend of experimental advantages, which include their rapid development, traceable cell lineage, and evolutionarily conserved morphogenetic movements. Two decades ago, the development of a streamlined electroporation method drastically reduced the time and cost of transgenic experiments, and, along with the elucidation of the complete genomic sequences of several ascidian species, propelled these simple chordates to the forefront of the model organisms available for studies of regulation of gene expression...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Leron Khalifa, Daniel Gelman, Mor Shlezinger, Axel Lionel Dessal, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Nurit Beyth, Ronen Hazan
The deteriorating effectiveness of antibiotics is propelling researchers worldwide towards alternative techniques such as phage therapy: curing infectious diseases using viruses of bacteria called bacteriophages. In a previous paper, we isolated phage EFDG1, highly effective against both planktonic and biofilm cultures of one of the most challenging pathogenic species, the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Thus, it is a promising phage to be used in phage therapy. Further experimentation revealed the emergence of a mutant resistant to EFDG1 phage: EFDG1r ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mariana Medina-Sánchez, Haifeng Xu, Oliver G Schmidt
Micro- and nano-motors are emerging as novel drug delivery platforms, offering advantages such as rapid drug transport, high tissue penetration and motion controllability. They can be propelled and/or guided by endogenous (i.e., chemotaxis) or exogenous stimuli (e.g., ultrasound, magnetic fields, light) toward the area of interest. Moreover, such stimuli can be used to trigger the release of a therapeutic payload when the motor reaches certain location in order to improve the drug targeting. In this review article, we highlight medically oriented micro-/nano-motors, in particular the ones created for targeted drug delivery, and discuss their current limitations and possibilities toward in vivo applications...
March 1, 2018: Therapeutic Delivery
Joonchul Shin, Sudesna Chakravarty, Wooseok Choi, Kyungyeon Lee, Dongsik Han, Hyundoo Hwang, Jaekyu Choi, Hyo-Il Jung
The emergence of a wide range of applications of smartphones along with advances in 'liquid biopsy' has significantly propelled medical research particularly in the field of in vitro diagnostics (IVD). Herein, we have presented a detailed analysis of IVD, its associated critical concerns and probable solutions. It also demonstrates the transition in terms of analytes from minimally invasive (blood) to non-invasive (urine, saliva and sweat) and depicts how the different features of a smartphone can be integrated for specific diagnostic purposes...
March 14, 2018: Analyst
Saul N Rajak, Shyamala C Huilgol, Masahiro Murakami, Dinesh Selva
PURPOSE: Propeller flaps are island flaps that reach the recipient site through an axial rotation. The flap has a subcutaneous pedicle on which it pivots, thereby resembling a helicopter propeller. We present our series of propeller flaps for the reconstruction of large eyelid defects. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of the clinical case notes of eight patients that underwent tumour excision with reconstruction with a cutaneous propeller flap supplied by a non-perforator orbicularis pedicle between July and December 2016...
March 14, 2018: Eye
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