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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021711/ginsenoside-rg1-from-panax-ginseng-enhances-myoblast-differentiation-and-myotube-growth
#1
Ga-Yeon Go, Sang-Jin Lee, Ayoung Jo, Jaecheol Lee, Dong-Wan Seo, Jong-Sun Kang, Si-Kwan Kim, Su-Nam Kim, Yong Kee Kim, Gyu-Un Bae
BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside Rg1 belongs to protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides and has diverse pharmacological activities. In this report, we investigated whether Rg1 could upregulate muscular stem cell differentiation and muscle growth. METHODS: C2C12 myoblasts, MyoD-transfected 10T1/2 embryonic fibroblasts, and HEK293T cells were treated with Rg1 and differentiated for 2 d, subjected to immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, or immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: Rg1 activated promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and Akt signaling, that in turn promote the heterodimerization with MyoD and E proteins, resulting in enhancing myogenic differentiation...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993734/osmotin-protects-h9c2-cells-from-simulated-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-adipor1-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#2
Jianhua Liu, Hua Sui, Jianlin Zhao, Yan Wang
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of osmotin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), as well as the underlying mechanisms. Methods:In vitro I/R injury model was established on rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells by oxygen and glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD/R). Cells were administrated with osmotin, and transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) which specifically target adiponectin receptor 1 or 2 (AdipoR1/2). Besides, the cells were incubated with or without LY294002 as inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) under OGD/R condition...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992079/sustained-activation-of-p2x7-induces-mmp-2-evoked-cleavage-and-functional-purinoceptor-inhibition
#3
Christopher N J Young, Natalia Chira, Justyna Róg, Rasha Al-Khalidi, Magalie Benard, Ludovic Galas, Philippe Chan, David Vaudry, Krzysztof Zablocki, Dariusz C Górecki
P2X7 purinoceptor promotes survival or cytotoxicity depending on extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulus intensity controlling its ion channel or P2X7-dependent large pore (LP) functions. Mechanisms governing this operational divergence and functional idiosyncrasy are ill-understood. We have discovered a feedback loop where sustained activation of P2X7 triggers release of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), which halts ion channel and LP responses via the MMP-2-dependent receptor cleavage...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981327/molecular-cloning-and-motif-identification-of-the-sheep-musclin-gene-promoter
#4
Weizhen Li, Hongqiang Zhang, Shuai Qi, Jian Qin, Hong Guan, Jianwei Li, Xiaorong An, Rong Du
Musclin is a bioactive factor that functions in regulating the muscle growth and metabolism. To investigate the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the gene, the 1.4 kb musclin promoter in sheep was cloned (GenBank accession: JX966391) and the sequence was analyzed to predict the motifs associated with muscle growth. Next the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was selected as the reporter gene and various wild-type and motif-mutant vectors were constructed. The transcriptional regulatory activities were compared by observing the fluorescence strength and detecting the EGFP mRNA expression in C2C12 myoblasts transfected with the vectors...
October 5, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951939/biological-and-pro-angiogenic-properties-of-genetically-modified-human-primary-myoblasts-overexpressing-placental-growth-factor-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#5
Agnieszka Zimna, Bartosz Wiernicki, Tomasz Kolanowski, Natalia Rozwadowska, Agnieszka Malcher, Wojciech Labedz, Tomasz Trzeciak, Katarzyna Chojnacka, Katarzyna Bednarek-Rajewska, Przemyslaw Majewski, Maciej Kurpisz
Cardiovascular diseases are a growing problem in developing countries; therefore, there is an ongoing intensive search for new approaches to treat these disorders. Currently, cellular therapies are focused on healing the damaged heart by implanting stem cells modified with pro-angiogenic factors. This approach ensures that the introduced cells are capable of fulfilling the complex requirements of the environment, including the replacement of the post-infarction scar with cells that are able to contract and promote the formation of new blood vessels that can supply the ischaemic region with nutrients and oxygen...
September 26, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919162/mir-101-1-expression-pattern-in-qinchuan-cattle-and-its-role-in-the-regulation-of-cell-differentiation
#6
Jiyao Wu, Dandan He, Binglin Yue, Chunlei Zhang, Xingtang Fang, Hong Chen
MiRNAs have emerged as key regulators of skeletal muscle development, but the knowledge of miRNAs in the molecular network of muscle development remains poorly understood. In this study, we designed to examine the biological function of bovine-miR-101-1. The bovine miR-101-1 was detected in the skeletal muscle of fetal, calf and adult cattle. Its abundance was significantly higher in the skeletal muscle of calf cattle than that in fetal and adult cattle. In the course of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, the expression of miR-101-1 gradually increased...
September 14, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803542/spin-infection-enables-efficient-gene-delivery-to-muscle-stem-cells
#7
Yusaku Kodaka, Yoko Asakura, Atsushi Asakura
Viral vector-mediated foreign gene expression in cultured cells has been extensively used in stem cell studies to explore gene function. However, it is difficult to obtain high-quality stem cells and primary cells after viral vector infection. Here, we describe a new protocol for high-efficiency retroviral infection of primary muscle stem cell (satellite cell) cultures. We compared multiple commercially available transfection reagents to determine which was optimal for retroviral infections of primary myoblasts...
August 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796037/functional-prediction-of-mir-3144-5p-in-human-cardiac-myocytes-based-on-transcriptome-sequencing-and-bioinformatics
#8
Lei Ruan, Yi Yang, Yi Huang, Ling Ding, Cuntai Zhang, Xiaofen Wu
BACKGROUND: RAN guanine nucleotide release factor (RANGRF) encoding protein MOG1 plays an important role in cardiac arrhythmia, so we intended to investigate the regulatory miRNA of RANGRF and explore its potential regulatory mechanism in arrhythmogenesis. METHODS: Based on bioinformatic analysis, miR-3144-5p was predicted to be a regulatory miRNA of RANGRF, which were then validated through a dual-luciferase reporter plasmid assay. Subsequently, the expression level of miR-3144-5p in human cardiac myocytes (HCMs) was detected, followed by cell transfection with miR-3144-5p mimics...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742140/short-16-mer-locked-nucleic-acid-splice-switching-oligonucleotides-restore-dystrophin-production-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-myotubes
#9
Vanessa Borges Pires, Ricardo Simões, Kamel Mamchaoui, Célia Carvalho, Maria Carmo-Fonseca
Splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (SSOs) offer great potential for RNA-targeting therapies, and two SSO drugs have been recently approved for treating Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). Despite promising results, new developments are still needed for more efficient chemistries and delivery systems. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a chemically modified nucleic acid that presents several attractive properties, such as high melting temperature when bound to RNA, potent biological activity, high stability and low toxicity in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687587/foxo1-regulates-myocardial-glucose-oxidation-rates-via-transcriptional-control-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4-expression
#10
Keshav Gopal, Bruno Saleme, Rami Al Batran, Hanin Aburasayn, Amina Eshreif, Kim L Ho, Wayne K Ma, Malak Almutairi, Farah Eaton, Manoj Gandhi, Edwards A Park, Gopinath Sutendra, John R Ussher
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for glucose oxidation and a critical regulator of metabolic flexibility during the fasting to feeding transition. PDH is regulated via both PDH kinases (PDHK) and PDH phosphatases, which phosphorylate/inactivate and dephosphorylate/activate PDH, respectively. Our goal was to determine whether the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) regulates PDH activity and glucose oxidation in the heart via increasing the expression of Pdk4, the gene encoding PDHK4...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665998/igfn1_v1-is-required-for-myoblast-fusion-and-differentiation
#11
Xiang Li, Jane Baker, Tobias Cracknell, Andrew R Haynes, Gonzalo Blanco
Igfn1 is a complex locus that codes for multiple splicing variants of Immunoglobulin- and Fibronectin-like domain containing proteins predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. To reveal possible roles for Igfn1, we applied non-selective knock-down by shRNAs as well as specific targeting of Igfn1 exon 13 by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis in C2C12 cells. Decreased expression of Igfn1 variants via shRNAs against the common 3'-UTR region caused a total blunting of myoblast fusion, but did not prevent expression of differentiation markers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652859/lncrna-h19-promotes-the-differentiation-of-bovine-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-by-suppressing-sirt1-foxo1
#12
Xiaochun Xu, Shengyue Ji, Weili Li, Bao Yi, Hengxin Li, Hongfu Zhang, Wenping Ma
BACKGROUND: H19 is a well-characterized Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that has been proven to promote myoblast differentiation in humans and mice. However, its mechanism of action is still not fully interpreted. METHODS: Using RT-qPCR, we examined H19 RNA levels in various tissues from 1-week, 1-month, 6-month and 36-month old male cattle (i.e., newborn, infant, young and adult). The protein and mRNA levels of MyoG, MyHC, Sirt1 and FoxO1 in the satellite and C2C12 cells with an H19 silencing or overexpression vector were respectively detected using western blot and real-time qPCR...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637658/decreased-myoblast-differentiation-in-chronic-binge-alcohol-administered-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-male-macaques-role-of-decreased-mir-206
#13
L Simon, S M Ford, K Song, P Berner, C Vande Stouwe, S Nelson, G J Bagby, P E Molina
Skeletal muscle stem cells play a critical role in regeneration of myofibers. We previously demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) markedly attenuates myoblast differentiation potential and myogenic gene expression. Muscle-specific microRNAs (miRs) are implicated in regulation of myogenic genes. The aim of this study was to determine whether myoblasts isolated from asymptomatic CBA-administered simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) showed similar impairments and, if so, to elucidate potential underlying mechanisms...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625776/beta-carotene-preferentially-regulates-chicken-myoblast-proliferation-withdrawal-and-differentiation-commitment-via-bco1-activity-and-retinoic-acid-production
#14
C Praud, S Al Ahmadieh, E Voldoire, Y Le Vern, E Godet, N Couroussé, B Graulet, E Le Bihan Duval, C Berri, M J Duclos
The enzyme β-carotene oxygenase 1 (BCO1) catalyzes the breakdown of provitamin A, including beta-carotene (BC), into retinal, prior to its oxidation into retinoic acid (RA). Allelic variation at the BCO1 locus results in differential expression of its mRNA and affects carotenoid metabolism specifically in chicken Pectoralis major muscle. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential myogenic effect of BC and the underlying mechanisms in chicken myoblasts. BCO1 mRNA was detected in myoblasts derived from chicken satellite cells...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620838/modelling-fus-mislocalisation-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-innervated-human-muscle
#15
Sonja Prpar Mihevc, Mojca Pavlin, Simona Darovic, Marko Živin, Matej Podbregar, Boris Rogelj, Tomaz Mars
Degeneration of distal axons and neuromuscular junctions is an early feature in the pathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which culminates in motor neuron loss due to axon retraction and muscle atrophy. The complex interactions in the pathogenesis of ALS between motor neurons, muscle cells and accompanying glia require an appropriate experimental model. Here, we have defined a co-culture model based on human myotubes innervated by neurons from embryonic rat spinal cord explants to investigate the pathology and treatment of ALS...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504656/effect-of-il-1%C3%AE-tnf-%C3%AE-and-igf-1-on-trans-endothelial-passage-of-synthetic-vectors-through-an-in-vitro-vascular-endothelial-barrier-of-striated-muscle
#16
J P Gomez, C Gonçalves, C Pichon, P Midoux
When administrated in the blood circulation, plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexed with synthetic vectors must pass through a vascular endothelium to transfect underlying tissues. Under inflammatory condition, cytokines can modify the endothelium integrity. Here, the trans-endothelial passage (TEP) of DNA complexes including polyplexes, lipoplexes and lipopolyplexes was investigated in the presence of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). The experiments were performed by using an in vitro model comprising a monolayer of mouse cardiac endothelial cells (MCEC) seeded on a trans-well insert and the transfection of C2C12 myoblasts cultured on the lower chamber as read out of TEP...
July 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480592/slow-myofiber-commitment-by-semaphorin-3a-secreted-from-myogenic-stem-cells
#17
Ryuichi Tatsumi, Takahiro Suzuki, Mai-Khoi Q Do, Yuki Ohya, Judy E Anderson, Ayumi Shibata, Mai Kawaguchi, Shunpei Ohya, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Wataru Mizunoya, Shoko Sawano, Yusuke Komiya, Riho Ichitsubo, Koichi Ojima, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Tsutomu Nohno, Yutaka Ohsawa, Yoshihide Sunada, Mako Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Takanori Nishimura, Takeshi Yagi, Ronald E Allen
Recently, we found that resident myogenic stem satellite cells upregulate a multi-functional secreted protein, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), exclusively at the early-differentiation phase in response to muscle injury; however, its physiological significance is still unknown. Here we show that Sema3A impacts slow-twitch fiber generation through a signaling pathway, cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin-myocyte enhancer factor 2D → slow myosin heavy chain. This novel axis was found by small interfering RNA-transfection experiments in myoblast cultures, which also revealed an additional element that Sema3A-neuropilin1/plexinA1, A2 may enhance slow-fiber formation by activating signals that inhibit fast-myosin expression...
May 7, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459804/transplantation-of-hgf-gene-engineered-skeletal-myoblasts-improve-infarction-recovery-in-a-rat-myocardial-ischemia-model
#18
Shu-Ling Rong, Xiao-Lin Wang, Cui-Ying Zhang, Zhuo-Hui Song, Lu-Hua Cui, Xiao-Feng He, Xu-Jiong Li, Hui-Jin Du, Bao Li
BACKGROUND: Skeletal myoblast transplantation seems a promising approach for the repair of myocardial infarction (MI). However, the low engraftment efficacy and impaired angiogenic ability limit the clinical efficiency of the myoblasts. Gene engineering with angiogenic growth factors promotes angiogenesis and enhances engraftment of transplanted skeletal myoblasts, leading to improved infarction recovery in myocardial ischemia. The present study evaluated the therapeutic effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene-engineered skeletal myoblasts on tissue regeneration and restoration of heart function in a rat MI model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325301/increased-expression-of-laminin-subunit-alpha-1-chain-by-dcas9-vp160
#19
Arnaud Perrin, Joël Rousseau, Jacques P Tremblay
Laminin-111 protein complex links the extracellular matrix to integrin α7β1 in sarcolemma, thus replacing in dystrophic muscles links normally insured by the dystrophin complex. Laminin-111 injection in mdx mouse stabilized sarcolemma, restored serum creatine kinase to wild-type levels, and protected muscles from exercised-induced damages. These results suggested that increased laminin-111 is a potential therapy for DMD. Laminin subunit beta 1 and laminin subunit gamma 1 are expressed in adult human muscle, but laminin subunit alpha 1 (LAMA1) gene is expressed only during embryogenesis...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321424/cell-based-meniscus-repair-and-regeneration-at-the-brink-of-clinical-translation-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies
#20
Jasmijn V Korpershoek, Tommy S de Windt, Michella H Hagmeijer, Lucienne A Vonk, Daniel B F Saris
BACKGROUND: Meniscus damage can be caused by trauma or degeneration and is therefore common among patients of all ages. Repair or regeneration of the menisci could be of great importance not only for pain relief or regaining function but also to prevent degenerative disease and osteoarthritis. Current treatment does not offer consistent long-term improvement. Although preclinical research focusing on augmentation of meniscal tear repair and regeneration after meniscectomy is encouraging, clinical translation remains difficult...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
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