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cardiac function mitochondria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239022/fndc5-knockdown-induced-suppression-of-mitochondrial-integrity-and-significantly-decreased-cardiac-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#1
Shima Nazem, Farzaneh Rabiee, Kmaran Ghaedi, Sadegh Babashah, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 protein (Fndc5) is a glycosylated protein with elevated expression in high energy demanded tissues as heart, brain and muscle. It has been shown that upregulation of Fndc5 is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), which is known as a master regulator of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Also, our group indicated that Fndc5 expression increases gradually during cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237304/the-role-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cardiovascular-disease-a-brief-review
#2
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Tatiana P Shkurat, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Andrey V Grechko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Proper mitochondrial function is necessary in tissues and organs that are of high energy demand, including the heart. Mitochondria are very sensitive to nutrient and oxygen supply and undergo metabolic adaptation to the changing environment. In CVD, such an adaptation is impaired, which, in turn, leads to a progressive decline of the mitochondrial function associated with abnormalities in the respiratory chain and ATP synthesis, increased oxidative stress, and loss of the structural integrity of mitochondria...
December 14, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236952/impaired-cardiac-contractile-function-in-agat-knockout-mice-devoid-of-creatine-is-rescued-by-homoarginine-but-not-creatine
#3
Kiterie M E Faller, Dorothee Atzler, Debra J McAndrew, Sevasti Zervou, Hannah J Whittington, Jillian N Simon, Dunja Aksentijevic, Michiel Ten Hove, Chi-Un Choe, Dirk Isbrandt, Barbara Casadei, Jurgen E Schneider, Stefan Neubauer, Craig A Lygate
Aims: Creatine buffers cellular ATP via the creatine kinase reaction. Creatine levels are reduced in heart failure, but their contribution to pathophysiology is unclear. Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) in the kidney catalyses both the first step in creatine biosynthesis as well as homoarginine synthesis. AGAT-/- mice fed a creatine-free diet have a whole body creatine-deficiency. We hypothesised that AGAT-/- mice would develop cardiac dysfunction and rescue by dietary creatine would imply causality...
December 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234096/transit-and-integration-of-extracellular-mitochondria-in-human-heart-cells
#4
Douglas B Cowan, Rouan Yao, Jerusha K Thedsanamoorthy, David Zurakowski, Pedro J Del Nido, James D McCully
Tissue ischemia adversely affects the function of mitochondria, which results in impairment of oxidative phosphorylation and compromised recovery of the affected organ. The impact of ischemia on mitochondrial function has been extensively studied in the heart because of the morbidity and mortality associated with injury to this organ. As conventional methods to preserve cardiac cell viability and contractile function following ischemia are limited in their efficacy, we developed a unique approach to protect the heart by transplanting respiration-competent mitochondria to the injured region...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233845/physiologic-mitochondrial-fragmentation-is-a-normal-cardiac-adaptation-to-increased-energy-demand
#5
Michael Coronado, Giovanni Fajardo, Kim Nguyen, Mingming Zhao, Kristina B Kooiker, Gwanghyun Jung, Dong-Qing Hu, Sushma Reddy, Erik Sandoval, Aleksandr Stotland, Roberta A Gottlieb, Daniel Bernstein
Rationale: Mitochondria play a dual role in the heart, responsible for meeting energetic demands and regulating cell death. Paradigms have held that mitochondrial fission and fragmentation are the result of pathologic stresses such as ischemia, are an indicator of poor mitochondrial health, and lead to mitophagy and cell death. However, recent studies demonstrate that inhibiting fission also results in decreased mitochondrial function and cardiac impairment, suggesting that fission is important for maintaining cardiac and mitochondrial bioenergetic homeostasis...
December 12, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224958/renal-involvement-in-neuropathy-ataxia-retinitis-pigmentosa-narp-syndrome-a-case-report
#6
Sandrine Lemoine, Marine Panaye, Maud Rabeyrin, Elisabeth Errazuriz-Cerda, Bénédicte Mousson de Camaret, Philippe Petiot, Laurent Juillard, Fitsum Guebre-Egziabher
We report a case of a patient who had the mitochondrial cytopathy complex of neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) syndrome diagnosed at age 11 years with a biopsy-proven kidney involvement that progressed to end-stage renal disease at age 21 years. Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are maternally inherited and lead to mitochondrial cytopathies with predominant neurologic manifestations: psychomotor retardation, epilepsy, ataxia, neuropathy, and myopathy. Given the ubiquitous nature of mitochondria, cellular dysfunction can also appear in tissues with high metabolic turnover; thus, there can be cardiac, digestive, ophthalmologic, and kidney complications...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224834/hdac1-localizes-to-the-mitochondria-of-cardiac-myocytes-and-contributes-to-early-cardiac-reperfusion-injury
#7
Daniel J Herr, Mauhamad Baarine, Sverre E Aune, Xiaoyang Li, Lauren E Ball, John J Lemasters, Craig C Beeson, James C Chou, Donald R Menick
RATIONALE: Recent evidence indicates that histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) contribute to ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, and pan-HDAC inhibitors have been shown to be cardioprotective when administered either before an ischemic insult or during reperfusion. We have shown previously that selective inhibition of class I HDACs provides superior cardioprotection when compared to pan-HDAC inhibition in a pretreatment model, but selective class I HDAC inhibition has not been tested during reperfusion, and specific targets of class I HDACs in I/R injury have not been identified...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218098/overexpression-of-microrna-145-protects-against-rat-myocardial-infarction-through-targeting-pdcd4
#8
Hao Xu, Heng Cao, Guoqing Zhu, Shaowen Liu, Hongli Li
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cardiovascular disease with high mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine the biological role of miR-145 in MI rats and hypoxia-injured cardiomyocytes and to elucidate the potential mechanism. MI rats were induced by left anterior descending artery (LAD) ligation. qRT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Compared with sham group, miR-145 levels in MI group were significantly decreased. We observed that lentivirus-mediated overexpression of miR-145 significantly improves cardiac function, reduces infarcted tissue size and prevents post-infarction induced apoptosis in rats after MI...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217757/novel-mitochondria-targeting-peptide-in-heart-failure-treatment-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-elamipretide
#9
Melissa A Daubert, Eric Yow, Gary Dunn, Sotir Marchev, Huiman Barnhart, Pamela S Douglas, Christopher O'Connor, Sidney Goldstein, James E Udelson, Hani N Sabbah
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction and energy depletion in the failing heart are innovative therapeutic targets in heart failure management. Elamipretide is a novel tetrapeptide that increases mitochondrial energy; however, its safety, tolerability, and therapeutic effect on cardiac structure and function have not been studied in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose trial, patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (ejection fraction, ≤35%) were randomized to either a single 4-hour infusion of elamipretide (cohort 1 [n=8], 0...
December 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211728/an-open-label-non-randomized-study-of-the-pharmacokinetics-of-the-nutritional-supplement-nicotinamide-riboside-nr-and-its-effects-on-blood-nad-levels-in-healthy-volunteers
#10
Sophia E Airhart, Laura M Shireman, Linda J Risler, Gail D Anderson, G A Nagana Gowda, Daniel Raftery, Rong Tian, Danny D Shen, Kevin D O'Brien
OBJECTIVES: The co-primary objectives of this study were to determine the human pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral NR and the effect of NR on whole blood nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels. BACKGROUND: Though mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development and progression of heart failure, no mitochondria-targeted therapies have been translated into clinical practice. Recent murine studies have reported associations between imbalances in the NADH/NAD+ ratio with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues, including myocardium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201272/resveratrol-ameliorates-mitochondrial-elongation-via-drp1-parkin-pink1-signaling-in-senescent-like-cardiomyocytes
#11
Xuecong Ren, Li Chen, Jing Xie, Zhifeng Zhang, Gengting Dong, Jie Liang, Liang Liu, Hua Zhou, Pei Luo
Resveratrol is widely known for its antiaging properties and exerts cardiovascular protective effects in different experimental models. The role of resveratrol in regulating mitochondrial functions and dynamics during the cardiac aging process remains poorly understood. In this study, the effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial depolarization and on expressions of Drp1, parkin, PINK1, and LC3 were investigated in H9c2 cells after D-galactose treatment that induced senescent-like cardiomyocytes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196345/mitoprotection-attenuates-myocardial-vascular-impairment-in-porcine-metabolic-syndrome
#12
Fang Yuan, Ahmad F Hedayat, Christopher M Ferguson, Amir Lerman, Lilach O Lerman, Alfonso Eirin
INTRODUCTION: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) leads to cardiac vascular injury, which may reflect in increased retention of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Coronary endothelial cell (EC) mitochondria partly regulate vascular function and structure. We hypothesized that chronic mitoprotection would preserve EC mitochondria and attenuate coronary vascular injury and dysfunction in swine MetS. METHODS: Pigs were studied after 16 weeks of diet-induced MetS, MetS treated for the last 4 weeks with the mitochondria-targeted peptide elamipretide (ELAM, 0...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167150/the-dawn-of-succinylation-a-posttranslational-modification
#13
Matthew Alleyn, Mason Breitzig, Richard Lockey, Narasaiah Kolliputi
Posttranslational modifications affect almost all proteins and are critical to a well-functioning and diverse proteome; however, many modifications remain relatively unknown and unstudied. This paper will give a perspective on the rapidly developing, novel posttranslational modification called succinylation. This modification may be implicated in numerous diseases, such as hepatic, cardiac, and pulmonary diseases. Although the influences of this modification still remain poorly understood, we are confident that further research into succinylation will provide an enhanced understanding of the complex machinery within the mitochondria, as well as the imposing consequences associated with its dysfunction...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167149/three-dimensional-imaging-reveals-endo-sarco-plasmic-reticulum-containing-invaginations-within-the-muscle-nucleoplasm
#14
Shin-Haw Lee, Sina Hadipour-Lakmehsari, Tetsuaki Miyake, Anthony O Gramolini
The mammalian nucleus has invaginations from the cytoplasm, termed nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR). With increased resolution of cellular imaging, progress has been made in understanding the formation and function of NR. In fact, nucleoplasmic Ca2+ homeostasis has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression, DNA repair, and cell death. However, the majority of studies focus on cross-sectional or single plane analyses of NR invaginations, providing an incomplete assessment of its distribution and content...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162722/docosahexaenoic-acid-lowers-cardiac-mitochondrial-enzyme-activity-by-replacing-linoleic-acid-in-the-phospholipidome
#15
E Madison Sullivan, Edward Ross Pennington, Genevieve C Sparagna, Maria J Torres, P Darrell Neufer, Mitchel Harris, James Washington, Ethan J Anderson, Tonya N Zeczycki, David A Brown, Saame Raza Shaikh
Cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid acyl chains regulate respiratory enzymatic activity. In several diseases, the rodent cardiac phospholipidome is extensively rearranged; however, whether specific acyl chains impair respiratory enzyme function is unknown. One unique remodeling event in the myocardium of obese and diabetic rodents is an increase in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels. Here, we first confirmed that cardiac DHA levels are elevated in diabetic humans relative to controls. We then used dietary supplementation of a Western diet with DHA as a tool to promote cardiac acyl chain remodeling and to study its influence on respiratory enzyme function...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157817/cardioprotective-action-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-terminalia-arjuna-bark-against-toxicity-induced-by-doxorubicin
#16
Sarah Bishop, Shi J Liu
BACKGROUND: The aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) bark (TAAqE) has been shown to have a direct inotropic effect on ventricular myocytes. Active constituents of TAAqE contain various flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, some of which are known to have antioxidant activities. Whether TAAqE affords a cardioprotective action against oxidative stress (OS) remains unclear. PURPOSE: Increased OS is one of the major mechanisms underlying cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin (DOX), a commonly-used anticancer agent...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152896/trimetazidine-restores-the-positive-adaptation-to-exercise-training-by-mitigating-statin-induced-skeletal-muscle-injury
#17
Ming Song, Fang-Fang Chen, Yi-Hui Li, Lei Zhang, Feng Wang, Ran-Ran Qin, Zhi-Hao Wang, Ming Zhong, Meng-Xiong Tang, Wei Zhang, Lu Han
BACKGROUND: Exercise rehabilitation is demonstrated to improve the prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Statins, as the key medicine to lower cholesterol in CHD, result in skeletal muscle injury and impair exercise training adaptation. Energy metabolism dysfunction is identified as the potential mechanism underlying statin-induced skeletal muscle injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of the metabolic modulator trimetazidine on skeletal muscle energy metabolism and statin-associated exercise intolerance...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130663/-capsaicin-alleviate-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-attenuating-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress
#18
Juan-Xia Zhu, Ling-Heng Kong, Chao-Feng Zhang, Na Sun, Jin-Rui Chang, Yan Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of capsaicin (CAP) in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Twentyfour adult male SD rats were randomized into 4 groups,namely the control group,ischemia reperfusion group,ischemia reperfusion with CAP group,and ischemia reperfusion with CAPZ and CAP group. Isolated rat hearts underwent Langendorff perfusion. Left ventricular enddiastolic pressure (LVEDP) andleft ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) was calculated to evaluate myocardial performance at 30 min of reperfusion...
September 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129702/fkbp8-protects-the-heart-from-hemodynamic-stress-by-preventing-the-accumulation-of-misfolded-proteins-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-apoptosis-in-mice
#19
Tomofumi Misaka, Tomokazu Murakawa, Kazuhiko Nishida, Yosuke Omori, Manabu Taneike, Shigemiki Omiya, Chris Molenaar, Yoshihiro Uno, Osamu Yamaguchi, Junji Takeda, Ajay M Shah, Kinya Otsu
Protein quality control in cardiomyocytes is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis. The accumulation of damaged organelles, such as mitochondria and misfolded proteins in the heart is associated with heart failure. During the process to identify novel mitochondria-specific autophagy (mitophagy) receptors, we found FK506-binding protein 8 (FKBP8), also known as FKBP38, shares similar structural characteristics with a yeast mitophagy receptor, autophagy-related 32 protein. However, knockdown of FKBP8 had no effect on mitophagy in HEK293 cells or H9c2 myocytes...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127235/cardiac-performance-is-limited-by-oxygen-delivery-to-the-mitochondria-in-the-crystalloid-perfused-working-heart
#20
Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Raul Covian, Armel N Femnou, Brian Glancy, Rafael Jaimes, Anastasia M Wengrowski, Kara Garrott, Stephanie French, Robert S Balaban, Matthew W Kay
The left ventricular (LV) working, crystalloid-perfused heart is used extensively to evaluate basic cardiac function, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Crystalloid-perfused hearts may be limited by oxygen delivery, as adding oxygen carriers increases myoglobin oxygenation and improves myocardial function. However, whether decreased myoglobin oxygen saturation impacts oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) is unresolved since myoglobin has a much lower affinity for oxygen than cytochrome c oxidase (COX). In the present study, a laboratory-based synthesis of an affordable perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion was developed to increase perfusate oxygen-carrying capacity without impeding optical absorbance assessments...
November 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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