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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921213/pediatric-intracranial-primary-anaplastic-ganglioglioma
#1
Wolf Lüdemann, Rouzbeh Banan, Christian Hartmann, Helmut Bertalanffy, Concezio Di Rocco
BACKGROUND: Primary intracranial anaplastic gangliogliomas are rare tumors in the pediatric patient group. Most of them present with symptoms of elevated pressure or symptomatic epilepsy. Extraaxial location is far more common than axial location. On MRI examination, they mimic pilocytic astrocytomas. The outcome after surgery depends mainly on the possible amount of surgical resection, and oncological therapy is necessary to prevent recurrence of the disease. CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old boy presented with headache and double vision due to obstructive hydrocephalus...
December 5, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919332/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-mammalian-brain
#2
Daniela Hladik, Soile Tapio
Epidemiological studies on the atomic-bomb survivors, cancer survivors and occupational cohorts provide strong evidence for multifaceted damage to brain after ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced late effects may manifest as brain tumors or cognitive impairment. Decreased neurogenesis and differentiation, alteration in neural structure and synaptic plasticity as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation are suggested to contribute to adverse effects in the brain. In addition to neural stems cells, several brain-specific mature cell types including endothelial and glial cells are negatively affected by ionizing radiation...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919126/-a-case-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-malignant-pleural-effusion-showing-marked-response-to-axitinib
#3
Yu Ishizuya, Takuya Okusa, Koji Hatano, Yasutomo Nakai, Masashi Nakayama, Ken-Ichi Kakimoto, Kazuo Nishimura
A 36-year-old woman had undergone left radical nephrectomy followed by interferon-α and sunitinib for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma with para-aortic lymph node and lung involvements (papillary renal cell carcinoma, G3, cT3aN1M1) in the previous hospital. She was referred to our hospital for further treatment and received serial molecular targeted agents (everolimus, sorafenib, sunitinib) and radiation therapy for right ischial and femoral bone metastases. Then she was found to have multiple metastatic lesions in the lungs and carcinomatous pleural effusion associated with dyspnea...
October 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918827/optic-radiations-microstructural-changes-in-glaucoma-and-association-with-severity-a-study-using-3tesla-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#4
Laury Tellouck, Muriel Durieux, Pierrick Coupé, Audrey Cougnard-Grégoire, Joy Tellouck, Thomas Tourdias, Fanny Munsch, Arnaud Garrigues, Catherine Helmer, Florence Malet, Jean-François Dartigues, Vincent Dousset, Cécile Delcourt, Cédric Schweitzer
Purpose: To compare microstructural changes along the optical radiations and brain structure volumes between glaucoma and control subjects using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and to analyze their association with severity of the disease. Methods: A total of 50 open-angle glaucoma subjects and 50 healthy age- and sex-matched controls underwent detailed ophthalmologic examinations (including visual field testing [VF], funduscopy, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography) as well as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using 3...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917595/societal-preferences-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-medulloblastoma-balancing-risk-of-death-and-quality-of-life
#5
Amir Khakban, Tima Mohammadi, Larry D Lynd, Don Mabbott, Eric Bouffet, Louise Gastonguay, Zafar Zafari, David Malkin, Michael Taylor, Carlo A Marra
PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma is the most prevalent childhood brain cancer. Children with medulloblastoma typically receive a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The survival rate is high but survivors often have sequelae from radiotherapy of the entire developing brain and spinal cord. Ongoing genetic studies have suggested that decreasing the dose of radiation might be possible among children with favorable molecular variants; however, this may result in an increased disease recurrence...
December 4, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917372/which-prognostic-index-is-most-appropriate-in-the-setting-of-delayed-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases
#6
Timothy Malouff, Nathan R Bennion, Vivek Verma, Gabriel A Martinez, Nathan Balkman, Abhijeet Bhirud, Tanner Smith, Chi Lin
OBJECTIVES: To determine if five commonly used prognostic indices (PIs) - recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), Score Index for Radiosurgery (SIR), Basic Score for Brain Metastases (BSBM), graded prognostic assessment (GPA), and the diagnosis-specific GPA - are valid following delay between diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases. METHODS: In a single-institutional cohort, records of patients who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) more than 30 days from diagnosis of brain metastases were collected, and five PI scores were calculated for each patient...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917312/a-4d-ct-digital-phantom-of-an-individual-human-brain-for-perfusion-analysis
#7
Rashindra Manniesing, Christoph Brune, Bram van Ginneken, Mathias Prokop
Brain perfusion is of key importance to assess brain function. Modern CT scanners can acquire perfusion maps of the cerebral parenchyma in vivo at submillimeter resolution. These perfusion maps give insights into the hemodynamics of the cerebral parenchyma and are critical for example for treatment decisions in acute stroke. However, the relations between acquisition parameters, tissue attenuation curves, and perfusion values are still poorly understood and cannot be unraveled by studies involving humans because of ethical concerns...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913960/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-clade-c-hiv-are-independent-of-tat-genetic-diversity
#8
Robert H Paul, Sarah Phillips, Jacqueline Hoare, David H Laidlaw, Ryan Cabeen, Gayla R Olbricht, Yuqing Su, Dan J Stein, Susan Engelbrecht, Soraya Seedat, Lauren E Salminen, Laurie M Baker, Jodi Heaps, John Joska
Controversy remains regarding the neurotoxicity of clade C human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-C). When examined in preclinical studies, a cysteine to serine substitution in the C31 dicysteine motif of the HIV-C Tat protein (C31S) results in less severe brain injury compared to other viral clades. By contrast, patient cohort studies identify significant neuropsychological impairment among HIV-C individuals independent of Tat variability. The present study clarified this discrepancy by examining neuroimaging markers of brain integrity among HIV-C individuals with and without the Tat substitution...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912831/systemic-treatment-of-brain-metastases
#9
REVIEW
Saiama N Waqar, Daniel Morgensztern, Ramaswamy Govindan
Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Brain metastases are a significant problem in patients with lung cancer and have conventionally been treated with whole-brain radiation. This article reviews the data for systemic chemotherapy to treat brain metastasis from lung cancer and examines the activity of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the targeted therapy for brain metastases from EGFR-mutant and ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer...
February 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911249/international-multicenter-cohort-study-of-pediatric-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-part-2-outcomes-after-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#10
Robert M Starke, Dale Ding, Hideyuki Kano, David Mathieu, Paul P Huang, Caleb Feliciano, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Luis Almodovar, Inga S Grills, Danilo Silva, Mahmoud Abbassy, Symeon Missios, Douglas Kondziolka, Gene H Barnett, L Dade Lunsford, Jason P Sheehan
OBJECTIVE Pediatric patients (age < 18 years) harboring brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are burdened with a considerably higher cumulative lifetime risk of hemorrhage than adults. Additionally, the pediatric population was excluded from recent prospective comparisons of intervention versus conservative management for unruptured AVMs. The aims of this multicenter, retrospective cohort study are to analyze the outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery for unruptured and ruptured pediatric AVMs. METHODS We analyzed and pooled AVM radiosurgery data from 7 participating in the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910829/optimization-of-photon-beam-energies-in-gold-nanoparticle-enhanced-arc-radiation-therapy-using-monte-carlo-methods
#11
B Koger, C Kirkby
As a recent area of development in radiation therapy, gold nanoparticle (GNP) enhanced radiation therapy has shown potential to increase tumour dose while maintaining acceptable levels of healthy tissue toxicity. In this study, the effect of varying photon beam energy in GNP enhanced arc radiation therapy (GEART) is quantified through the introduction of a dose scoring metric, and GEART is compared to a conventional radiotherapy treatment. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo code was used to model several simple phantoms consisting of a spherical tumour containing GNPs (concentration: 15 mg Au g(-1) tumour, 0...
December 2, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909286/three-cases-of-levodopa-resistant-parkinsonism-after-radiation-therapy
#12
Raja Mehanna, Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Ilia Itin
BACKGROUND Unequivocal brain radiation-induced parkinsonism has so far been reported in only in two pediatric patients. However, with the rising incidence rates for brain tumors in industrialized countries and the consequential increased exposure to cranial radiotherapy, clinicians might become more exposed to this entity. CASE REPORT Three patients were treated for intraparenchymal brain tumor with resection, chemotherapy, and whole brain radiation. One patient developed leukoencephalopathy and parkinsonism within one year of treatment, one developed it seven years after treatment completion, and one developed dementia, parkinsonism and cerebral infracts 40 years after whole brain radiation...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908148/local-attenuation-curve-optimization-framework-for-high-quality-perfusion-maps-in-low-dose-cerebral-perfusion-ct
#13
Vincent Van Nieuwenhove, Geert Van Eyndhoven, K Joost Batenburg, Nico Buls, Jef Vandemeulebroucke, Jan De Beenhouwer, Jan Sijbers
PURPOSE: Cerebral perfusion x-ray computed tomography (PCT) is a powerful tool for noninvasive imaging of hemodynamic information throughout the brain. Conventional PCT requires the brain to be imaged multiple times during the perfusion process, and hence radiation dose is a major concern. The authors propose a PCT reconstruction algorithm that allows for lowering the dose while maintaining a high quality of the perfusion maps. It relies on an accurate estimation of the arterial input function (AIF), which in turn depends on the quality of the attenuation curves in the arterial region...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905869/neurogenic-effects-of-low-dose-whole-body-hze-fe-ion-and-gamma-irradiation
#14
Tara B Sweet, Sean D Hurley, Michael D Wu, John A Olschowka, Jacqueline P Williams, M Kerry O'Banion
Understanding the dose-toxicity profile of radiation is critical when evaluating potential health risks associated with natural and man-made sources in our environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose whole-body high-energy charged (HZE) iron (Fe) ions and low-energy gamma exposure on proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, cells deemed to play a critical role in memory regulation. To determine the dose-response characteristics of the brain to whole-body Fe-ion vs...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905022/neurophysiology-of-space-travel-energetic-solar-particles-cause-cell-type-specific-plasticity-of-neurotransmission
#15
Sang-Hun Lee, Barna Dudok, Vipan K Parihar, Kwang-Mook Jung, Miklós Zöldi, Young-Jin Kang, Mattia Maroso, Allyson L Alexander, Gregory A Nelson, Daniele Piomelli, István Katona, Charles L Limoli, Ivan Soltesz
In the not too distant future, humankind will embark on one of its greatest adventures, the travel to distant planets. However, deep space travel is associated with an inevitable exposure to radiation fields. Space-relevant doses of protons elicit persistent disruptions in cognition and neuronal structure. However, whether space-relevant irradiation alters neurotransmission is unknown. Within the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for cognition, perisomatic inhibitory control of pyramidal cells (PCs) is supplied by two distinct cell types, the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1)-expressing basket cells (CB1BCs) and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons (PVINs)...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904528/neuroprotective-effects-of-erythropoietin-against-oxidant-injury-following-brain-irradiation-an-experimental-study
#16
Gamze Ugurluer, Aysegul Cebi, Handan Mert, Nihat Mert, Meltem Serin, Haldun Sukru Erkal
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy (RT) is a major treatment modality, and the central nervous system is a dose-limiting organ in clinical RT. This experimental study aims to present the evaluation of the neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) against oxidant injury following brain irradiation in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 each). In group 1 the rats received no EPO and underwent sham RT. The rats in groups 2 and 3 received EPO...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903197/upfront-boost-gamma-knife-leading-edge-radiosurgery-to-flair-mri-defined-tumor-migration-pathways-in-174-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme-a-15-year-assessment-of-a-novel-therapy
#17
Christopher M Duma, Brian S Kim, Peter V Chen, Marianne E Plunkett, Ralph Mackintosh, Marlon S Mathews, Ryan M Casserly, Gustavo A Mendez, Daniel J Furman, Garrett Smith, Nathan Oh, Chad A Caraway, Ami R Sanathara, Robert O Dillman, Azzurra-Sky Riley, David Weiland, Lian Stemler, Ruslana Cannell, Daniela Alexandru Abrams, Alexa Smith, Christopher M Owen, Burton Eisenberg, Michael Brant-Zawadzki
OBJECTIVE Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is composed of cells that migrate through the brain along predictable white matter pathways. Targeting white matter pathways adjacent to, and leading away from, the original contrast-enhancing tumor site (termed leading-edge radiosurgery [LERS]) with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery as a boost to standard therapy could limit the spread of glioma cells and improve clinical outcomes. METHODS Between December 2000 and May 2016, after an initial diagnosis of GBM and prior to or during standard radiation therapy and carmustine or temozolomide chemotherapy, 174 patients treated with radiosurgery to the leading edge (LE) of tumor cell migration were reviewed...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903191/cost-effectiveness-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-versus-whole-brain-radiation-therapy-for-up-to-10-brain-metastases
#18
Nataniel H Lester-Coll, Arie P Dosoretz, William J Magnuson, Maxwell S Laurans, Veronica L Chiang, James B Yu
OBJECTIVE The JLGK0901 study found that stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a safe and effective treatment option for treating up to 10 brain metastases. The purpose of this study is to determine the cost-effectiveness of treating up to 10 brain metastases with SRS, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), or SRS and immediate WBRT (SRS+WBRT). METHODS A Markov model was developed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of SRS, WBRT, and SRS+WBRT in patients with 1 or 2-10 brain metastases. Transition probabilities were derived from the JLGK0901 study and modified according to the recurrence rates observed in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9508 and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 22952-26001 studies to simulate the outcomes for patients who receive WBRT...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903181/prognostic-factors-for-melanoma-brain-metastases-treated-with-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#19
Shelly X Bian, David Routman, Jonathan Liu, Dongyun Yang, Susan Groshen, Gabriel Zada, Nicholas Trakul, Michael K Wong, Cheng Yu, Eric L Chang
OBJECTIVE Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is routinely used to treat brain metastases from melanoma due to their radioresistant nature. The median survival for these patients is 4-6 months, according to earlier studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors that influence survival in patients with metastatic melanoma to the brain treated with SRS. METHODS This retrospective analysis included all patients with melanoma brain metastases treated with SRS at the University of Southern California between 1994 and 2015...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903179/gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-from-pulmonary-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-a-japanese-multi-institutional-cooperative-study-jlgk1401
#20
Takuya Kawabe, Masaaki Yamamoto, Yasunori Sato, Shoji Yomo, Takeshi Kondoh, Osamu Nagano, Toru Serizawa, Takahiko Tsugawa, Hisayo Okamoto, Atsuya Akabane, Kazuyasu Aita, Manabu Sato, Hidefumi Jokura, Jun Kawagishi, Takashi Shuto, Hideya Kawai, Akihito Moriki, Hiroyuki Kenai, Yoshiyasu Iwai, Masazumi Gondo, Toshinori Hasegawa, Soichiro Yasuda, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Yasushi Nagatomo, Shinya Watanabe, Naoya Hashimoto
OBJECTIVE In 1999, the World Health Organization categorized large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung as a variant of large cell carcinoma, and LCNEC now accounts for 3% of all lung cancers. Although LCNEC is categorized among the non-small cell lung cancers, its biological behavior has recently been suggested to be very similar to that of a small cell pulmonary malignancy. The clinical outcome for patients with LCNEC is generally poor, and the optimal treatment for this malignancy has not yet been established...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
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