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Brain radiation

Uday B Maachani, Uma Shankavaram, Tamalee Kramp, Philip J Tofilon, Kevin Camphausen, Anita T Tandle
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) continues to be the most frequently diagnosed and lethal primary brain tumor. Adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy remains the standard of care following surgical resection. In this study, using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs), we assessed the biological effects of radiation on signaling pathways to identify potential radiosensitizing molecular targets. We identified subsets of proteins with clearly concordant/discordant behavior between irradiated and non-irradiated GBM cells in vitro and in vivo...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
S Kemp, R S Allan, N Patanjali, M H Barnett, B P Jonker
We report a unique case of neurological deficit from late onset multiple sclerosis (MS), in a 65-year-old woman, after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). At 3.5months post-SRS for TN, the patient developed ataxia and left leg paraesthesiae and brain MRI showed altered signal and enhancement in the vicinity of the right trigeminal root entry zone (REZ). The symptoms remitted following treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, however, 10months post-SRS, the patient developed gait ataxia and left lower limb weakness...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
J A Molad, D T Blumenthal, F Bokstein, M Findler, I Finkel, N M Bornstein, S Yust-Katz, E Auriel
Post-radiation leukoencephalopathy is characterized by cognitive impairment and white matter alternations on imaging. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is one of several suggested etiologies. Cerebral microinfarction (CMI) is a recently described marker of SVD. We sought to examine the rate of CMI as a biomarker of ongoing ischemia among patients who underwent brain radiotherapy (RT). 110 patients treated with RT for primary or metastatic brain tumors were enrolled. A total of 685 brain MRI tests performed 1-108 months post-radiation were examined...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
E Liniker, A M Menzies, B Y Kong, A Cooper, S Ramanujam, S Lo, R F Kefford, G B Fogarty, A Guminski, T W Wang, M S Carlino, A Hong, G V Long
The anti-PD-1 antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab are active in metastatic melanoma; however, there is limited data on combining anti-PD-1 antibody and radiotherapy (RT). We sought to review clinical outcomes of patients receiving RT and anti-PD-1 therapy. All patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibody and RT for metastatic melanoma were identified. RT and systemic treatment, clinical outcome, and toxicity data were collected. Fifty-three patients were included; 35 patients received extracranial RT and/or intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and 21 received whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) (three of whom also received SRS/extracranial RT)...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Viktor S Kokhan, Marina I Matveeva, Azat Mukhametov, Andrey S Shtemberg
Space flight factors (SFF) significantly affect the operating activity of astronauts during deep space missions. Gravitational overloads, hypo-magnetic field and ionizing radiation are the main SFF that perturb the normal activity of the central nervous system (CNS). Acute and chronic CNS risks include alterations in cognitive abilities, reduction of motor functions and behavioural changes. Multiple experimental works have been devoted to the SFF effects on integrative functional activity of the brain; however, the model parameters utilized have not always been ideal and consistent...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Edouard Mazerand, Marc Le Renard, Sophie Hue, Jean-Michel Lemee, Evelyne Klinger, Philippe Menei
BACKGROUND: Brain mapping during awake craniotomy is a well-known technique to preserve neurological functions, especially the language. It is still challenging to map the optic radiations due to the difficulty to test the visual field intraoperatively. OBJECTIVE: To assess the visual field during awake craniotomy, we developed the Functions' Explorer based on a Virtual Reality Headset (FEX-VRH). METHODS: The impaired visual field of ten patients was tested with the gold standard exam (an automated perimetry), and the FEX-VRH...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Takahiro Wakasaki, Hirofumi Omori, Shintaro Sueyoshi, Fumihide Rikimaru, Satoshi Toh, Kenichi Taguchi, Yuichiro Higaki, Masaru Morita, Muneyuki Masuda
BACKGROUND: Advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas frequently develop distant metastases to limited organs, including the lungs, bone, mediastinal lymph nodes, brain, and liver. Peritoneal carcinomatosis as an initial distant metastasis from hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is quite rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old man diagnosed with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and his clinical stage was determined as T2N2cM0. Notably, the right retropharyngeal lymph node surrounded more than half of the right internal carotid artery...
October 18, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
H-J Kim, S-I Oh, M de Leon, X Wang, K-W Oh, J-S Park, A Deshpande, M Buj, S H Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a motor neuron disease, is associated with various cortical symptoms including mild cognitive decline with behavior changes, suggesting the involvement of extra-motor areas in ALS. Our aim was to investigate the specific patterns of brain atrophy in sporadic, impaired ALS patients without commonly known genetic mutations using voxel-based morphometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients with sporadic ALS and 28 age-matched healthy controls were recruited...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Timothy M Zagar, Amanda E D Van Swearingen, Orit Kaidar-Person, Matthew G Ewend, Carey K Anders
This review summarizes the most up-to-date approach to the multidisciplinary management of patients with breast cancer brain metastases. A brief overview of the epidemiology and biology of breast cancer brain metastasis is provided. The perspectives of radiation oncology, neurosurgery, and medical oncology-and landmark studies from each discipline-are all discussed. We also offer practical tips to help guide the treating physician, including data on antiseizure medications. Finally, we introduce the concept of a multidisciplinary clinic that combines input from medical and radiation oncology, neurosurgery, and support services, which we developed at the University of North Carolina as a coordinated and optimal approach to the management of patients with this complex disease...
October 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Andreas Maus, Godefridus J Peters
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common type of primary brain tumor. It has a devastating prognosis with a 2-year-overall survival rate of only 26 % after standard treatment, which includes surgery, radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Also lower grade gliomas are difficult to treat, because they diffusely spread into the brain, where extensive removal of tissue is critical. Better understanding of the cancer's biology is a key for the development of more effective therapy approaches...
October 17, 2016: Amino Acids
Egesta Lopci, Laura Olivari, Lorenzo Bello, Pierina Navarria, Arturo Chiti
We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA). Her medical history included brain surgery for small vascular lesions and suspicion of cerebral malignancy. C methionine PET (C-METH PET) demonstrated a diffusely increased uptake on the right hemisphere. Contrast-enhanced MRI documented a massive lesion with a diffuse "nidus" appearance, involving the right cerebral hemisphere (sparing the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior frontal lobe), the brainstem, and the middle cerebellar peduncle...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Sheldon Greer, Tieran Han, Cristina Dieguez, Nicola McLean, Rafael Saer, Isildinha Reis, Joe Levi, Victor E Marquez
Enzymatic activity from tumor and adjacent normal tissue of 200 patients involving deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), uridine/cytidine kinase (U/CK), cytidine deaminase (CD) and deoxycytidylate deaminase (dCMPD) was quantified. . Patients with brain (17), colon (24), and breast (30) tumors, 53, 67, and 73%, respectively, had an elevated T/N value (Specific Activity of tumor/ Specific Activity of normal tissue) involving dCK and dCMPD suggesting chemo therapy with 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (5-FdC) alone or in combination with thymidine plus deoxytetrahydrouridine, or with the radiosensitizer, 5-chlorodeoxycytidine (5-CldC) plus tetrahydrouridine (H4U)...
October 13, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Robert T Granata, Edward M Castillo, Gary M Vilke
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with altered mental status and alcohol intoxication can clinically resemble patients with an intracranial hemorrhage. Although intracranial hemorrhage is quickly excluded with a head computed tomographic (CT) scan, it is common practice to defer imaging and allow the patient to metabolize to spare ED resources and minimize radiation exposure to the patient. Although this reduces unnecessary scans, it may delay treatment in patients with occult intracranial hemorrhage, which some fear may increase morbidity and mortality...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jacob A Miller, Elizabeth E Bennett, Roy Xiao, Rupesh Kotecha, Samuel T Chao, Michael A Vogelbaum, Gene H Barnett, Lilyana Angelov, Erin S Murphy, Jennifer S Yu, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, John H Suh, Alireza M Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: The primary dose-limiting toxicity of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is radiation necrosis (RN), which occurs after approximately 5% to 10% of treatments. This adverse event may worsen neurologic deficits, increase the frequency and cost of imaging, and necessitate prolonged treatment with steroids or antiangiogenic agents. Previous investigations have primarily identified lesion size and dosimetric constraints as risk factors for RN in small populations. We hypothesized that disease histology, receptor status, and mutational status are associated with RN...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Ghaith Habboub, Mayur Sharma, Gene H Barnett, Alireza M Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Minimally-invasive approaches are attractive alternative to standard craniotomy for large intracranial tumors with potentially lesser morbidity. In this report, we describe a sequential combination of two minimally-invasive surgical techniques to treat a large intracranial tumor. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 49year-old woman presented with a history of breast cancer and large left parietal metastasis with significant perilesional edema. This was initially managed by whole brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
O Rapalino, E M Ratai
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a magnetic resonance-based imaging modality that allows noninvasive sampling of metabolic changes in normal and abnormal brain parenchyma. MRS is particularly useful in the differentiation of developmental or non-neoplastic disorders from neoplastic processes. MRS is also useful during routine imaging follow-up after radiation treatment or during antiangiogenic treatment and for predicting outcomes and treatment response. The objective of this article is to provide a concise but thorough review of the basic physical principles, important applications of MRS in brain tumor imaging, and future directions...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
David B Hanbury, Ann M Peiffer, Greg Dugan, Rachel N Andrews, J Mark Cline
In this study, the effects of a potentially lethal radiation exposure on the brain for long-term cognitive sequelae were investigated, using Rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) adopted from other facilities after analysis of acute radiation response via the Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) network. Fifty-nine animals were given the opportunity to participate in cognitive cage-side testing. The animals that received single-dose gamma irradiation were significantly less likely to engage in cognitive testing than the controls, suggesting that irradiated animals may have differences in cognitive ability...
October 14, 2016: Radiation Research
Alicia Martı Nez-González, Gabriel F Calvo, Jose M Ayuso, Ignacio Ochoa, Luis J Fernández, Víctor M Pérez-García
This chapter explores the use of mathematical models as promising and powerful tools to understand the complexity of tumors and their, frequently, hypoxic environment. We focus on gliomas, which are primary brain tumors derived from glial cells, mainly astrocytes and/or oligodendrocytes. A variety of mathematical models, based on ordinary and/or partial differential equations, have been developed both at the micro and macroscopic levels. The aim here is to describe in a quantitative way key physiopathological mechanisms relevant in these types of malignancies and to suggest optimal therapeutical strategies...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tosol Yu, Bong Jun Cho, Eun Jung Choi, Ji Min Park, Dan Hyo Kim, In Ah Kim
Trastuzumab has been widely used for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer, however, it cannot easily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and is known to increase the incidence of brain metastases. In contrast, lapatinib has a low molecular weight and can cross the BBB and it could be useful to treat brain metastases in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.To explore the impact of lapatinib on radiation response, we conducted an in vitro experiment using SKBR3 and BT474 breast carcinoma cells exhibiting HER2/neu amplification...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
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