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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165794/leptomeningeal-metastasis-from-systemic-cancer-review-and-update-on-management
#1
REVIEW
Nancy Wang, Mia S Bertalan, Priscilla K Brastianos
Leptomeningeal metastasis is an uncommon and typically late complication of cancer with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Diagnosis is often challenging, with nonspecific presenting symptoms ranging from headache and confusion to focal neurologic deficits, such as cranial nerve palsies. Standard diagnostic evaluation involves a neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine with gadolinium, and cytologic evaluation of the cerebral spinal fluid. Therapy entails a multimodal approach focused on palliation with surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy, which may be administered systemically or directly into the cerebral spinal fluid...
November 22, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165288/treatment-related-noncontiguous-radiologic-changes-in-children-with-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-treated-with-expanded-irradiation-fields-and-antiangiogenic-therapy
#2
Zoltan Patay, Thomas E Merchant, Rosa Nguyen, Christopher R Pierson, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Alberto Broniscer
PURPOSE: We previously reported the cases of 3 children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) in whom noncontiguous treatment-related abnormalities (NCTRAs) developed in the brain after expanded-field radiation therapy (RT). To investigate the occurrence and putative mechanism of NCTRAs, we reviewed brain magnetic resonance imaging studies of patients with DIPG treated in 2 consecutive phase I clinical trials (trials 1 and 2). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The 55 children included in these trials received small-molecule inhibitors: vandetanib in trial 1 (n=32; mean age 6...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165278/reports-on-the-death-of-whole-brain-radiation-therapy-are-greatly-exaggerated
#3
EDITORIAL
Jason Edwards, Marcus E Randall, Ronald C McGarry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165277/the-demise-of-whole-brain-radiation-therapy
#4
EDITORIAL
James J Urbanic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163773/tumor-response-of-temozolomide-in-combination-with-morphine-in-a-xenograft-model-of-human-glioblastoma
#5
Anna Lisa Iorio, Martina da Ros, Lorenzo Genitori, Maurizio Lucchesi, Fabiana Colelli, Giacomo Signorino, Francesco Cardile, Giacomo Laffi, Maurizio de Martino, Claudio Pisano, Iacopo Sardi
Despite multimodal treatments comprising, radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ), the prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains dismal and consolidated therapy yields a median survival of 14.6 months. Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) mediated chemoresistance and high dose related toxicity make necessary the development of new therapeutic approach to sensitize GBM to TMZ. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the treatment morphine plus TMZ metronmic doses (1,77 and 0,9 mg/kg) in GBM therapy...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163745/possible-reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-associated-with-eucalyptus-case-report
#6
Daniel Lapid, Mohtashim Arbaab Qureshi, Ihtesham Aatif Quresh, Mohammed Rauf Afzal, Alberto Maud, Gustavo J Rodriguez, Rakesh Khatri
Background: Reversible cerebral vasoconstrictive syndrome (RCVS) has characteristic clinical features, brain imaging and Angiographic features. The majority of RCVS cases are associated with the use of antidepressants, polysubstance abuse, and nasal decongestants. We here present a case that highlights the use of eucalyptus herbs as a possible precipitant factor for RCVS formation. Case Presentation: A 42-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a tingling sensation on the right-hand side of her body and a two-week progressive throbbing severe holocranial headache radiating to the neck, with associated nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia...
October 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163140/simultaneous-imaging-of-cerebrovascular-structure-and-function-in-hypertensive-rats-using-synchrotron-radiation-angiography
#7
Liping Wang, Zhihao Mu, Xiaojie Lin, Jieli Geng, Ti Qiao Xiao, Zhijun Zhang, Yongting Wang, Yongjing Guan, Guo-Yuan Yang
Hypertension has a profound influence on the structure and function of blood vessels. Cerebral vessels undergo both structural and functional changes in hypertensive animals. However, dynamic changes of cerebrovasculature and the factors involved in this process are largely unknown. In this study, we explored the dynamic changes of vascular structure in hypertensive rats using novel synchrotron radiation angiography. Twenty-four spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and 24 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent synchrotron radiation (SR) angiography...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162480/dual-targeting-immunoliposomes-using-angiopep-2-and-cd133-antibody-for-glioblastoma-stem-cells
#8
Jung Seok Kim, Dae Hwan Shin, Jin-Seok Kim
Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), which are identified as subpopulation of CD133(+)/ALDH1(+), are known to show resistance to the most of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, leading to the recurrence of tumor in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Also, delivery of temozolomide (TMZ), a mainline treatment of GBM, to the GBM site is hampered by various barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A dual-targeting immunoliposome encapsulating TMZ (Dual-LP-TMZ) was developed by using angiopep-2 (An2) and anti-CD133 monoclonal antibody (CD133 mAb) for BBB transcytosis and specific delivery to GSCs, respectively...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162424/injectable-hydrogels-for-localized-chemo-and-radio-therapy-in-brain-tumors
#9
Pilar de la Puente, Nicole Fettig, Micah J Luderer, Abbey Jin, Shruti Shah, Barbara Muz, Vaishali Kapoor, Sreekrishna M Goddu, Noha Nabil Salama, Christina Tsien, Dinesh Thotala, Kooresh Shoghi, Buck Rogers, Abdel Kareem Azab
PURPOSE: Overall survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) remains dismal at 16 months with state-of-the-art treatment that includes surgical resection, radiation and chemotherapy. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous and mechanisms for overcoming tumor resistance have not yet fully been elucidated. An injectable chitosan hydrogel capable of releasing chemotherapy (Temozolomide, TMZ) while retaining radioactive isotopes agents (Iodine, (131)I) was used as a vehicle for localized radiation and chemotherapy, within the surgical cavity...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161145/reply-to-occupational-radiation-exposure-in-interventional-radiology-and-the-risks-of-acquiring-a-brain-tumor
#10
Cari M Kitahara, Donald L Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161139/occupational-radiation-exposure-in-interventional-radiology-and-the-risks-of-acquiring-a-brain-tumor
#11
Anibal J Morillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158842/locoregional-confinement-and-major-clinical-benefit-of-188-re-loaded-cxcr4-targeted-nanocarriers-in-an-orthotopic-human-to-mouse-model-of-glioblastoma
#12
Delphine Séhédic, Igor Chourpa, Clément Tétaud, Audrey Griveau, Claire Loussouarn, Sylvie Avril, Claire Legendre, Nicolas Lepareur, Didier Wion, François Hindré, François Davodeau, Emmanuel Garcion
PURPOSE: Gold standard beam radiation for glioblastoma (GBM) treatment is challenged by resistance phenomena occurring in cellular populations well prepared to survive or to repair damage caused by radiation. Among signals that have been linked with radio-resistance, the SDF1/CXCR4 axis, associated with cancer stem-like cell, may be an opportune target. To avoid the problem of systemic toxicity and blood-brain barrier crossing, the relevance and efficacy of an original system of local brain internal radiation therapy combining a radiopharmaceutical with an immuno-nanoparticle was investigated...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157854/pet-and-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-in-brain-concussion
#13
REVIEW
Cyrus A Raji, Theodore A Henderson
This article offers an overview of the application of PET and single photon emission computed tomography brain imaging to concussion, a type of mild traumatic brain injury and traumatic brain injury, in general. The article reviews the application of these neuronuclear imaging modalities in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Additionally, this article frames the current literature with an overview of the basic physics and radiation exposure risks of each modality.
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153770/rats-exposed-to-2-45ghz-of-non-ionizing-radiation-exhibit-behavioral-changes-with-increased-brain-expression-of-apoptotic-caspase-3
#14
Rini Varghese, Anuradha Majumdar, Girish Kumar, Amit Shukla
In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in use of Wi-Fi devices along with mobile phones, globally. Wi-Fi devices make use of 2.4GHz frequency. The present study evaluated the impact of 2.45GHz radiation exposure for 4h/day for 45days on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in female Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests of anxiety, learning and memory were started from day 38. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in brain homogenates after sacrificing the rats on day 45. In morris water maze, elevated plus maze and light dark box test, the 2...
November 14, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152430/a-dosimetric-comparison-of-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-and-4%C3%AF-non-coplanar-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-a-patient-with-parameningeal-rhabdomyosarcoma
#15
Tiffany W Chen, Julian Sison, Becky Lee, Arthur J Olch, Andrew Chang, Annelise Giebeler, Kenneth Wong
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and manifests as two major histological subtypes: embryonal and alveolar. The five-year local failure rate for RMS at parameningeal sites (middle ear, mastoid region, nasal cavity, etc.) is around 17% despite multiple Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRS) trials conducted to determine the optimal radiation treatment regimen. This case report explores the use of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for a 10-year-old child who presented with left eye irritation, facial pain, and headaches and was found to have an alveolar parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma...
September 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149393/challenges-in-minor-tbi-and-indications-for-head-ct-in-pediatric-tbi-an-update
#16
Navneet Singh, Ash Singhal
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric head trauma is one of the commonest presentations to emergency departments. Over 90% of such head injuries are considered mild, but still present risk acute clinical deterioration and longer term morbidity. Identifying which children are at risk of clinically important brain injuries remains challenging and much of the data on minor head injuries is based on the adult population. CHALLENGES IN PEDIATRICS: Children, however, are different, both anatomically and in terms of mechanism of injury, to adults and, even within the pediatric group, there are differences with age and stage of development...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149320/organic-scintillator-for-real-time-neutron-dosimetry
#17
Kyle A Beyer, Angela Di Fulvio, Liliana Stolarczyk, Wiktor Parol, Natalia Mojzeszek, Renata Kopéc, Shaun D Clarke, Sara A Pozzi
We developed a radiation detector based on an organic scintillator for spectrometry and dosimetry of out-of-field secondary neutrons from clinical proton beams. The detector consists of an EJ-299-34 crystalline organic scintillator, coupled by fiber optic cable to a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Proof of concept measurements were taken with 137Cs and 252Cf, and corresponding simulations were performed in MCNPX-PoliMi. Despite its small size, the detector is able to discriminate between neutron and gamma-rays via pulse shape discrimination...
November 15, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146718/deep-brain-nuclei-t1-shortening-after-gadobenate-dimeglumine-in-children-influence-of-radiation-and-chemotherapy
#18
S Kinner, T B Schubert, R J Bruce, S L Rebsamen, C A Diamond, S B Reeder, H A Rowley
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intrinsic T1-hyperintense signal has recently been reported in the deep gray nuclei on brain MR imaging after multiple doses of gadolinium-based contrast agents. Most reports have included adult patients and excluded those undergoing radiation or chemotherapy. We investigated whether T1 shortening is also observed in children and tried to determine whether radiochemotherapy is a risk factor for this phenomenon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, we reviewed clinical charts and images of all patients 18 years of age or younger with ≥4 gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRIs for 6 years...
November 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146234/the-value-of-patient-directed-brain-mri-scan-with-a-diagnosis-of-migraine
#19
William J Mullally, Kathryn E Hall
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a brain MRI scan in patients with a diagnosis of migraine, who insist on the performance of imaging, is of more benefit in detecting clinically significant unsuspected structural abnormalities than would be expected by chance. METHODS: This prospective, observational, single center study was performed from January 1, 2010 to December 31,2012 and included 100 subjects with a diagnosis of migraine and a normal neurologic exam. A brain MRI scan was performed on all patients, solely at their request, to detect an unsuspected clinically significant structural lesion...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145428/abnormal-brain-white-matter-microstructure-is-associated-with-both-pre-hypertension-and-hypertension
#20
Hideaki Suzuki, He Gao, Wenjia Bai, Evangelos Evangelou, Ben Glocker, Declan P O'Regan, Paul Elliott, Paul M Matthews
OBJECTIVES: To characterize effects of chronically elevated blood pressure on the brain, we tested for brain white matter microstructural differences associated with normotension, pre-hypertension and hypertension in recently available brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 4659 participants without known neurological or psychiatric disease (62.3±7.4 yrs, 47.0% male) in UK Biobank. METHODS: For assessment of white matter microstructure, we used measures derived from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) including the intracellular volume fraction (an estimate of neurite density) and isotropic volume fraction (an index of the relative extra-cellular water diffusion)...
2017: PloS One
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