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Hypothyroidism 2016

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329380/subclinical-thyroid-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-diseases-2016-update
#1
Carmen Floriani, Baris Gencer, Tinh-Hai Collet, Nicolas Rodondi
Subclinical thyroid dysfunction comprises subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo), defined as elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by normal free thyroxine (FT4), and subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) with decreased or undetectable TSH and normal FT4. Up to 10% of the elderly have SHypo, which is usually asymptomatic. Individual participant data (IPD) analyses of prospective cohort studies from the international Thyroid Studies Collaboration show that SHypo is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1,58 for TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L, 95% CI 1...
February 27, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298278/pediatric-celiac-disease-follow-up-in-the-spotlight
#2
REVIEW
Francesco Valitutti, Chiara Maria Trovato, Monica Montuori, Salvatore Cucchiara
The follow-up of celiac disease (CD) is challenging due to the scarcity of published data and the lack of standardized evidence-based protocols. The worldwide frequency and methods of CD follow-up appear to be heavily influenced by expert opinions of the individual physicians who assess children with CD. The aim of this review was to summarize the available studies on CD follow-up in children. We conducted a literature search with the use of PubMed, Medline, and Embase (from 1900 to 15 December 2016) for terms relevant to this review, including CD, follow-up, dietary adherence or dietary compliance, nutrition, comorbidities, complications, and quality of life...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291584/clinical-safety-and-activity-of-pembrolizumab-in-patients-with-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-keynote-028-preliminary-results-from-a-non-randomised-open-label-phase-1b-trial
#3
Evan W Alley, Juanita Lopez, Armando Santoro, Anne Morosky, Sanatan Saraf, Bilal Piperdi, Emilie van Brummelen
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a highly aggressive cancer with poor prognosis and few treatment options following progression on platinum-containing chemotherapy. We assessed the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab (an anti-programmed cell death receptor 1 [PD-1] antibody) in advanced solid tumours expressing programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and report here on the interim analysis of the malignant pleural mesothelioma cohort. METHODS: Previously treated patients with PD-L1-positive malignant pleural mesothelioma were enrolled from 13 centres in six countries...
March 10, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286688/beneficial-effects-on-pregnancy-outcomes-of-thyroid-hormone-replacement-for-subclinical-hypothyroidism
#4
Norman J Blumenthal, Creswell J Eastman
Background. Hypothyroidism and raised thyroid antibody levels have been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Several studies have investigated causal associations, but results have been inconsistent and few studies have reported the effects of thyroxine replacement therapy on pregnancy outcomes in hypothyroid patients. Objective. The primary study objective was to determine the outcome of pregnancies in women diagnosed with overt and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) (serum TSH > 2.5 mIU/L) and those with elevated circulating thyroid autoantibody levels in the first trimester of pregnancy and after the institution of appropriate thyroxine replacement therapy to maintain the serum TSH ≤ 2...
2017: Journal of Thyroid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286277/extent-of-resection-visual-and-endocrinological-outcomes-for-endoscopic-endonasal-surgery-for-recurrent-pituitary-adenomas
#5
Hyunwoo Do, Varun R Kshettry, Alan Siu, Irina Belinsky, Christopher J Farrell, Gurston Nyquist, Marc Rosen, James J Evans
OBJECTIVE: To assess outcomes after endoscopic endonasal surgery for recurrent or residual pituitary adenomas. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 61 patients from 2009 - 2016 that underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery for recurrent or residual pituitary adenomas after prior microscopic or endoscopic transphenoidal operation. RESULTS: Prior surgical approach was endoscopic endonasal in 55.7% and microscopic in 44.2%. The mean preoperative maximal tumor diameter was 2...
March 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275115/safety-and-tolerability-of-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-compared-with-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#6
Tomohiro F Nishijima, Shlomit S Shachar, Kirsten A Nyrop, Hyman B Muss
BACKGROUND: Compared with chemotherapy, significant improvement in survival outcomes with the programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab and the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor atezolizumab has been shown in several types of advanced solid tumors. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare safety and tolerability between PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and chemotherapy. METHODS: PubMed and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) databases were searched 1966 to September 2016...
March 8, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271805/endocrinology-and-pediatric-exercise-science-2016
#7
Alon Eliakim
The Pediatric Exercise Science Year That Was section aims to highlight the most important (to the author's opinion) manuscripts that were published in 2016 in the field of endocrinology and pediatric exercise science. This year's selection includes studies showing that 1) Induction of T4 to T3 conversion by type 2 deiodinase following aerobic exercise in skeletal muscles was associated with concomitant increase in peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and mitochondrial oxidative capacity and therefore plays an important mechanistic role in the muscle adaptation to exercise training...
February 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267244/a-multicenter-phase-ii-study-of-nivolumab-in-japanese-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma
#8
Dai Maruyama, Kiyohiko Hatake, Tomohiro Kinoshita, Noriko Fukuhara, Ilseung Choi, Masafumi Taniwaki, Kiyoshi Ando, Yasuhito Terui, Yusuke Higuchi, Yasushi Onishi, Yasunobu Abe, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Yukari Shirasugi, Kensei Tobinai
Overexpression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) ligands contributes to an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Nivolumab is a PD-1-blocking antibody that inhibits the PD-1 pathway and showed good efficacy in several types of malignancy. This phase II study examined the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in 17 Japanese patients with refractory/relapsed classical Hodgkin lymphoma previously treated with brentuximab vedotin. Sixteen patients were included in efficacy analyses and 17 in safety analyses. The primary endpoint was the centrally assessed objective response rate (ORR)...
March 7, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260263/iodine-supplementation-for-women-during-the-preconception-pregnancy-and-postpartum-period
#9
REVIEW
Kimberly B Harding, Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Angela C Webster, Constance My Yap, Brian A Payne, Erika Ota, Luz Maria De-Regil
BACKGROUND: Iodine is an essential nutrient required for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, which are responsible for regulating growth, development and metabolism. Iodine requirements increase substantially during pregnancy and breastfeeding. If requirements are not met during these periods, the production of thyroid hormones may decrease and be inadequate for maternal, fetal and infant needs. The provision of iodine supplements may help meet the increased iodine needs during pregnancy and the postpartum period and prevent or correct iodine deficiency and its consequences...
March 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246107/comprehensive-meta-analysis-of-key-immune-related-adverse-events-from-ctla-4-and-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-cancer-patients
#10
Guillermo De Velasco, Youjin Je, Dominick Bossé, Mark M Awad, Patrick A Ott, Raphael B Moreira, Fabio A B Schutz, Joaquim Bellmunt, Guru Sonpavde, F Stephen Hodi, Toni K Choueiri
Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been described with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), but the incidence and relative risk (RR) of irAEs associated with these drugs remains unclear. We selected five key irAEs from treatments with approved cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors (ipilimumab, nivolumab or pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab, respectively) to better characterize their safety profile. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized phase II/III immunotherapy trials, with non-ICI control arms, conducted between 1996 and 2016...
February 28, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217518/a-2016-clinical-practice-pattern-in-the-management-of-primary-hypothyroidism-among-doctors-from-different-clinical-specialties-in-new-delhi
#11
Vineet Surana, Sameer Aggarwal, Deepak Khandelwal, Rajiv Singla, Saptarshi Bhattacharya, Sachin Chittawar, Sanjay Kalra, Deep Dutta
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to document practices in managing hypothyroidism among doctors in New Delhi, with special focus on subclinical hypothyroidism, pregnancy, and old age, and to compare it with global practices. METHODS: During an academic program attended by 394 doctors, all participants were given a questionnaire designed based on thyroid practices survey done by Burch et al. to evaluate the practice patterns. Questions were based on evaluating doctor's preferred choices in diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of hypothyroidism in different scenarios...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148249/what-is-the-association-of-hypothyroidism-with-risks-of-cardiovascular-events-and-mortality-a-meta-analysis-of-55-cohort-studies-involving-1-898-314-participants
#12
Yu Ning, Yun J Cheng, Li J Liu, Jaskanwal D S Sara, Zhi Y Cao, Wei P Zheng, Tian S Zhang, Hui J Han, Zhen Y Yang, Yi Zhang, Fei L Wang, Rui Y Pan, Jie L Huang, Ling L Wu, Ming Zhang, Yong X Wei
BACKGROUND: Whether hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events is still disputed. We aimed to assess the association between hypothyroidism and risks of cardiovascular events and mortality. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase from inception to 29 February 2016. Cohort studies were included with no restriction of hypothyroid states. Priori main outcomes were ischemic heart disease (IHD), cardiac mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality...
February 2, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117363/increased-risk-of-gallstone-disease-following-colectomy-for-ulcerative-colitis
#13
Anders Mark-Christensen, Søren Brandsborg, Søren Laurberg, Niels Johansen, Jørn Helmut Pachler, Ole Thorlacius-Ussing, Mie Dilling Kjær, Niels Qvist, Louise Preisler, Jens Hillingsø, Jacob Rosenberg, Peter Jepsen
OBJECTIVES: Biochemical studies suggest that patients who have had a colectomy or restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) are at an increased risk of developing gallstone disease, but epidemiological studies are lacking. We evaluated the risk of gallstone disease following colectomy and IPAA. METHODS: Individuals who had a colectomy were identified from a national cohort of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and controls without colectomy were sampled from within the same cohort, matching on gender, calendar year, and year of birth...
March 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056690/2017-guidelines-of-the-american-thyroid-association-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-thyroid-disease-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum
#14
Erik K Alexander, Elizabeth N Pearce, Gregory A Brent, Rosalind S Brown, Herbert Chen, Chrysoula Dosiou, William A Grobman, Peter Laurberg, John H Lazarus, Susan J Mandel, Robin P Peeters, Scott Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Thyroid disease in pregnancy is a common clinical problem. Since the guidelines for the management of these disorders by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) were first published in 2011, significant clinical and scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease in women during pregnancy, preconception, and the postpartum period...
March 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927272/ethnic-differences-in-preterm-birth-risks-for-pregnant-women-with-thyroid-dysfunction-or-autoimmunity-a-meta-analysis
#15
Min Li, Shao Wei Wang, Feng Li Wu, Jin Shi, Pu Lin Yu, Xiu Ling Peng, Liang Sun
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal maternal thyroid function is associated with preterm birth. However, this association stays dubious in relevant individual studies for ethnic difference reasons and lack of direct supporting data. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between preterm birth and thyroid dysfunction or autoimmunity based on ethnic differences. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified through searches of MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica, Wan Fang, China Biological Medicine disc, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from inception to June 15, 2016...
October 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906195/congenital-hypothyroidism-with-delayed-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-elevation-in-premature-infants-born-at-less-than-30-weeks-gestation
#16
D C Kaluarachchi, T T Colaizy, L M Pesce, M Tansey, J M Klein
OBJECTIVE: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) with delayed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) elevation is a common form of thyroid dysfunction among premature infants. Routine newborn screening (NBS) may miss infants with CH with delayed TSH elevation. The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of CH with delayed TSH elevation in premature infants and to identify associated risk factors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of serum thyroid function screening (TFS) at day of life 30 in premature infants <30 weeks gestation, admitted to University of Iowa Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2015...
March 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905164/correlative-study-of-dose-to-thyroid-and-incidence-of-subsequent-dysfunction-after-head-and-neck-radiation
#17
Stella Ling, Aashish D Bhatt, Nicole V Brown, Phuong Nguyen, Jennifer A Sipos, Arnab Chakravarti, Yi Rong
BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction is common after radiotherapy (RT) for patients with head and neck cancers. We attempted to discover RT dose parameters that correspond with RT-induced thyroid dysfunction. METHODS: Records of 102 patients who received RT from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed with respect to thyroid function. Abnormalities were grouped in 2 ways: (1) none, transient, or permanent; and (2) overt or subclinical. RESULTS: At median follow-up of 33...
December 1, 2016: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899849/statin-therapy-review-of-safety-and-potential-side-effects
#18
REVIEW
Satish Ramkumar, Ajay Raghunath, Sudhakshini Raghunath
BACKGROUND: Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862538/free-thyroid-transfer-short-term-results-of-a-novel-procedure-to-prevent-post-radiation-hypothyroidism
#19
Jeffrey Harris, Brittany Barber, Hani Almarzouki, Rufus Scrimger, Jacques Romney, Daniel O'Connell, Mark Urken, Hadi Seikaly
BACKGROUND: The incidence of radiation-induced hypothyroidism (RIH) in patients with head and neck cancer is >50%. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term efficacy of free thyroid transfer (FTT) for prevention of RIH in patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS: Hemithyroid dissection was completed in 10 patients with advanced head and neck cancer undergoing ablation, radial forearm free flap (RFFF) reconstruction, and postoperative radiotherapy (RT)...
November 15, 2016: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852042/toxicity-profile-of-approved-anti-pd-1-monoclonal-antibodies-in-solid-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#20
REVIEW
Ricardo Costa, Benedito A Carneiro, Mark Agulnik, Alfred W Rademaker, Sachin G Pai, Victoria M Villaflor, Massimo Cristofanilli, Jeffrey A Sosman, Francis J Giles
PURPOSE: Nivolumab and pembrolizumab are antibodies against the programmed-death-receptor- 1 (PD-1) which are associated with distinct immune related adverse effects (AEs). This meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials aims to summarize current knowledge regarding the toxicity profile of these agents. METHODS: PubMed search was conducted in February of 2016. The randomized trials needed to have at least one of the study arms consisting of nivolumab or pembrolizumab monotherapy and a control arm containing no anti-PD-1 therapy...
January 31, 2017: Oncotarget
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