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Adhd trace amine

Stefano Cinque, Francesca Zoratto, Anna Poleggi, Damiana Leo, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Renata Tambelli, Enrico Alleva, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) and heterozygous (HET) mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Damiana Leo, Ilya Sukhanov, Francesca Zoratto, Placido Illiano, Lucia Caffino, Fabrizio Sanna, Giulia Messa, Marco Emanuele, Alessandro Esposito, Mariia Dorofeikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Liudmila Mus, Evgenia V Efimova, Marco Niello, Stefano Espinoza, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Marius C Hoener, Giovanni Laviola, Fabio Fumagalli, Walter Adriani, Raul R Gainetdinov
Dopamine (DA) controls many vital physiological functions and is critically involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The major function of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is the rapid uptake of released DA into presynaptic nerve terminals leading to control of both the extracellular levels of DA and the intracellular stores of DA. Here, we present a newly developed strain of rats in which the gene encoding DAT knockout Rats (DAT-KO) has been disrupted by using zinc finger nuclease technology...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Antonio Molina-Carballo, Ana Checa-Ros, Antonio Muñoz-Hoyos
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a syndrome that affects children prior to 12 years of age. ADHD manifests as inappropriate behavior and learning difficulties and, in many cases, it persists into adulthood. In most cases, pharmacological treatment is sufficient; however, this approach frequently does not address all symptomatology of comorbidities and also affects the risk of secondary side effects that may influence compliance. AREAS COVERED: This review emphasizes the recent progress in ADHD treatment, which was published in the patent literature from 2005-2015...
July 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Marco Bortolato, Jean C Shih
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) isoenzymes A and B are mitochondrial-bound proteins, catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamine neurotransmitters as well as xenobiotic amines. Although they derive from a common ancestral progenitor gene, are located at X-chromosome and display 70% structural identity, their substrate preference, regional distribution, and physiological role are divergent. In fact, while MAO-A has high affinity for serotonin and norepinephrine, MAO-B primarily serves the catabolism of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA) and contributes to the degradation of other trace amines and dopamine...
2011: International Review of Neurobiology
William B Vanti, Pierandrea Muglia, Tuan Nguyen, Regina Cheng, James L Kennedy, Susan R George, Brian F O'Dowd
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important mediators of signal transduction, and mutations in GPCR-encoding genes can lead to disease states. Here we describe a null mutation in an orphan GPCR-encoding gene that is predicted to inactivate completely the encoded receptor. The TA(3) receptor is a putative member of the recently described mammalian trace amine receptor family, and it is expressed in the pituitary gland and skeletal muscle. We tested for the presence of the mutant form of TA(3) (named TA(3)-TR) in a normal population, as well as in two disease groups (ADHD and bipolar affective disorder)...
November 2003: Genomics
Akira Kusaga
beta-phenylethylamine (PEA), a biogenic trace amine, acts as a neuromodulator in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and stimulates the release of dopamine. To clarify the mechanism of neurochemical metabolism in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we measured the urine levels of PEA using gas chromatography-chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. The urinary levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl glycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography...
May 2002: No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development
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