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Adhd dopamine

Hanan E Shamseldin, Ikuo Masuho, Ahmed Alenizi, Suad Alyamani, Dipak N Patil, Niema Ibrahim, Kirill A Martemyanov, Fowzan S Alkuraya
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric disorders are common forms of disability in humans. Despite recent progress in deciphering the genetics of these disorders, their phenotypic complexity continues to be a major challenge. Mendelian neuropsychiatric disorders are rare but their study has the potential to unravel novel mechanisms that are relevant to their complex counterparts. RESULTS: In an extended consanguineous family, we identified a novel neuropsychiatric phenotype characterized by severe speech impairment, variable expressivity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and motor delay...
September 27, 2016: Genome Biology
Panayotis K Thanos, Jianmin Zhuo, Lisa Robison, Ronald Kim, Mala Ananth, Ilon Choai, Adam Grunseich, Nicola M Grissom, Robert George, Foteini Delis, Teresa M Reyes
Birthweight is a marker for suboptimal fetal growth and development in utero. Offspring can be born large for gestational age (LGA), which is linked to maternal obesity or excessive gestational weight gain, as well as small for gestational age (SGA), arising from nutrient or calorie deficiency, placental dysfunction, or other maternal conditions (hypertension, infection). In humans, LGA and SGA babies are at an increased risk for certain neurodevelopmental disorders, including Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, schizophrenia, and social and mood disorders...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Bruce Steinberg, Kenneth Blum, Thomas McLaughlin, Joel Lubar, Marcelo Febo, Eric R Braverman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often continues into adulthood. Recent neuroimaging studies found lowered baseline dopamine tone in the brains of affected individuals that may place them at risk for Substance Use Disorder (SUD). This is an observational case study of the potential for novel management of Adult ADHD with a non-addictive glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex KB200z. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to evaluate the effects of KB220z on a 72-year-old male with ADHD, at baseline and one hour following administration...
2016: Open Journal of Clinical & Medical Case Reports
Jana Drgonova, Donna Walther, G Luke Hartstein, Mohammad O Bukhari, Michael H Baumann, Jonathan Katz, Frank Scott Hall, Elizabeth R Arnold, Shaun Flax, Anthony Riley, Olga Rivero-Martin, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Juan Troncoso, Barbara Ranscht, George R Uhl
The cadherin 13 (CDH13) gene encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development and connections of brain circuits that modulate addiction, locomotion and cognition, including those that involve midbrain dopamine neurons. Human CDH13 mRNA expression differs by more than 80% in postmortem cerebral cortical samples from individuals with different CDH13 genotypes, supporting examination of mice with altered Cdh13 expression as models for common human variation at this locus. Constitutive cdh13 knockout mice display evidence for changed cocaine reward: shifted dose response relationship in tests of cocaine-conditioned place preference using doses that do not alter cocaine conditioned taste aversion...
August 18, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Refilwe Gloria Pila-Nemutandani, Anneke Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To compare planning behaviour (frontal lobe functioning) in children with and without symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A total of 90 children (45 with symptoms of ADHD and 45 matched controls without ADHD symptoms) of both genders, who were medication naïve, from the Balobedu culture (Limpopo province, South Africa), aged 7-13 years, participated in the study. The performance of the two groups was compared on a test of planning and problem solving, the Tower of London (ToL) task...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Anouk Schrantee, Hyke G H Tamminga, Cheima Bouziane, Marco A Bottelier, Esther E Bron, Henk-Jan M M Mutsaerts, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Inge R Groote, Serge A R B Rombouts, Ramon J L Lindauer, Stefan Klein, Wiro J Niessen, Brent C Opmeer, Frits Boer, Paul J Lucassen, Susan L Andersen, Hilde M Geurts, Liesbeth Reneman
IMPORTANCE: Although numerous children receive methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the effects of methylphenidate on the dopaminergic system are modified by age and to test the hypothesis that methylphenidate treatment of young but not adult patients with ADHD induces lasting effects on the cerebral blood flow response to dopamine challenge, a noninvasive probe for dopamine function...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Marieke Klein, Stefanie Berger, Martine Hoogman, Janneke Dammers, Remco Makkinje, Angelien J G A M Heister, Tessel E Galesloot, Lambertus A L M Kiemeney, Heike Weber, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Andreas Reif, Marta Ribasés, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Bru Cormand, Tetyana Zayats, Tor-Arne Hegvik, Kaya K Jacobsen, Stefan Johansson, Jan Haavik, Nina R Mota, Claiton H D Bau, Eugenio H Grevet, Alysa Doyle, Stephen V Faraone, Alejandro Arias-Vásquez, Barbara Franke
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex genetic background. DRD5, the gene encoding the dopamine receptor D5, was recently confirmed as a candidate gene for ADHD in children through meta-analysis. In this study, we aimed at studying the association of the ADHD-associated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism upstream of DRD5 with adult ADHD. We compiled data from six sites of the International Multicentre persistent ADHD CollaboraTion (IMpACT) and reached N=6979 (3344 cases and 3635 healthy participants), the largest sample investigated so far...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Luye Qin, Wenhua Liu, Kaijie Ma, Jing Wei, Ping Zhong, Kei Cho, Zhen Yan
The human dopamine D4 receptor (hD4R) variants with long tandem repeats in the third intracellular loop have been strongly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risk taking behaviors. To understand the potential molecular mechanism underlying the connection, we have investigated the synaptic function of human D4R polymorphism by virally expressing the ADHD-linked 7-repeat allele, hD4.7, or its normal counterpart, hD4.4, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of D4R knockout mice. We found that hD4R bound to the SH3 domain of PSD-95 in a state-dependent manner...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Jungyun Kim, Heamen Park, Seong-Lan Yu, Sungju Jee, Keun-Ah Cheon, Dong Ho Song, Seung Jun Kim, Woo-Young Im, Jaeku Kang
The current treatment of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is pharmacotherapy. A search for new treatment options is underway, however, as the wide application of drugs to the general population of patients with ADHD is limited by side effects and the variance of pharmacokinetic effects of the drugs in each patient. In the present study, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive treatment used in a number of other psychiatric disorders, to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD, in order to assess the efficacy of the treatment in modifying behavioural symptoms as well as levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
October 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
James T McCracken, James J McGough, Sandra K Loo, Jennifer Levitt, Melissa Del'Homme, Jennifer Cowen, Alexandra Sturm, Fiona Whelan, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine Sugar, Robert M Bilder
OBJECTIVE: Because models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) therapeutics emphasize benefits of both enhanced dopaminergic and noradrenergic signaling, strategies to enhance D1 and α2A agonism may yield enhanced clinical and cognitive responses. This study tested the hypothesis that combined effects of a dopamine and noradrenergic agonist, d-methylphenidate extended-release (DMPH) with guanfacine (GUAN), an α2A receptor agonist, would be clinically superior to either monotherapy and would have equal tolerability...
August 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Cody J Wenthur
As the first drug to see widespread use for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methylphenidate was the forerunner and catalyst to the modern era of rapidly increasing diagnosis, treatment, and medication development for this condition. During its often controversial history, it has variously elucidated the importance of dopamine signaling in memory and attention, provoked concerns about pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement, driven innovation in controlled-release technologies and enantiospecific therapeutics, and stimulated debate about the impact of pharmaceutical sales techniques on the practice of medicine...
August 17, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ying Chun Tai, Mei Hung Chi, Ching-Lin Chu, Nan Tsing Chiu, Wei Jen Yao, Po See Chen, Yen Kuang Yang
OBJECTIVE: ADHD is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder. It is highly heritable and multifactorial, but the definitive causes remain unknown. Abnormal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability has been reported, but the data are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine whether DAT availability differs between healthy parents with and without ADHD offspring. METHOD: Eleven healthy parents with ADHD offspring and 11 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without ADHD offspring were recruited...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Jodi L Lukkes, Nadja Freund, Britta S Thompson, Shirisha Meda, Susan L Andersen
Clinical and preclinical studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that juvenile males that are exposed to methylphenidate (MPH) show reduced risk for substance use later in life. In contrast, little is known about whether females have the same enduring treatment response to stimulants and how gonadal hormones influence their behavior later in life. Females received either a sham or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) microinjection in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at postnatal day (P)10. Subjects were then treated with Vehicle or MPH (2mg/kg, p...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ching-Jung Yu, Jung-Chieh Du, Hsien-Chih Chiou, Chun-Cheng Feng, Ming-Yi Chung, Winnie Yang, Ying-Sheue Chen, Ling-Chu Chien, Betau Hwang, Mei-Lien Chen
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurobehavioral conditions. Evidence of the negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on mental health has not been convincing, although a few studies have found an association between high SSB levels and attention problems in children. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that SSB consumption is associated with ADHD among children. Doctor-diagnosed ADHD cases (n = 173) and non-ADHD controls (n = 159) between age 4 to 15 were recruited...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ike Dela Peña, Wei-Xing Shi
Clinical evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is hypofunctional in disorders including schizophrenia, drug addiction, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In schizophrenia, hypofrontality has been further suggested to cause both the negative and cognitive symptoms, and overactivity of dopamine neurons that project to subcortical areas. The latter may contribute to the development of positive symptoms of the disorder. Nevertheless, what causes hypofrontality and how it alters dopamine transmission in subcortical structures remain unclear due, in part, to the difficulty in modeling hypofrontality using previous techniques (e...
August 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Arijit Karmakar, Subhamita Maitra, Barnali Chakraborti, Deepak Verma, Swagata Sinha, Kochupurackal P Mohanakumar, Usha Rajamma, Kanchan Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, excessive motor activity and impulsivity detected mostly during childhood. These traits are known to be controlled by monoamine neurotransmitters, chiefly dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and B (MAOB), two isoenzymes bound to the outer membrane of mitochondria, are involved in the degradation of monoamines and were explored for association with ADHD in different ethnic groups...
2016: BMC Genetics
Glaucia C Akutagava-Martins, Angelica Salatino-Oliveira, Christian Kieling, Julia P Genro, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Luciana Anselmi, Ana M B Menezes, Helen Gonçalves, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Fernando C Barros, Sidia M Callegari-Jacques, Luis A Rohde, Mara H Hutz
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are dimensionally distributed in the population. This study aimed to assess the role of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes on ADHD symptoms in the general population. METHODS: We investigated 4101 individuals from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at ages 11 and 15 years...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Javier Íbias, Miguel Miguéns, Ricardo Pellón
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been proposed as an animal model for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically develops excessive patterns of response under most behavioural protocols. Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is the excessive water consumption that occurs as a schedule effect when food is intermittently delivered and animals are partially food- but not water-deprived. SIP has been used as a model of excessive behaviour, and considerable evidence has involved the dopaminergic system in its development and maintenance...
September 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Shruti Tewar, Peggy Auinger, Joseph M Braun, Bruce Lanphear, Kimberly Yolton, Jeffery N Epstein, Shelley Ehrlich, Tanya E Froehlich
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to changes in the dopamine system and development of an Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) phenotype in animal models, with differing effects in males compared to females. We examined the association between urinary BPA concentrations and ADHD in a national sample of U.S. children, and whether this association differs by child sex. METHODS: We used data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of the U...
October 2016: Environmental Research
Subhamita Maitra, Kanyakumarika Sarkar, Swagata Sinha, Kanchan Mukhopadhyay
The objective was to investigate contribution of the dopamine receptor 5 (DRD5) gene variants in the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) probands since brain regions identified to be affected in these group of patients have higher expression of the DRD5 receptor. Out of 22 exonic variants, 19 were monomorphic in the Indo-Caucasoid individuals. rs6283 "C" and rs113828117 "A" exhibited significant higher occurrence in families with ADHD probands. Several haplotypes showed biased occurrence in the probands...
September 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
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