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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097219/key-role-of-the-dopamine-d4-receptor-in-the-modulation-of-corticostriatal-glutamatergic-neurotransmission
#1
Jordi Bonaventura, César Quiroz, Ning-Sheng Cai, Marcelo Rubinstein, Gianluigi Tanda, Sergi Ferré
Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) have been repeatedly associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, the functional role of the D4 receptor and the functional differences of the products of DRD4 polymorphic variants remained enigmatic. Immunohistochemical and optogenetic-microdialysis experiments were performed in knock-in mice expressing a D4 receptor with the long intracellular domain of a human DRD4 polymorphic variant associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#2
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959462/hj%C3%A3-rnan-ger-f%C3%A3-rdjupad-f%C3%A3-rst%C3%A3-else-f%C3%A3-r-personlighetssyndrom-kan-p%C3%A3-verka-framtida-diagnoss%C3%A3-ttning-och-behandlingar
#3
Predrag Petrovic
Neurobiological aspects of personality disorders and emotional instability ADHD and mental disorders encompassing emotional instability such as emotionally unstable personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder can potentially be explained by a suboptimal regulation of information processing in the brain. ADHD involves suboptimal function of non-emotional attentional regulatory processes and emotional instability involves suboptimal emotional regulation. A network including prefrontal areas, anterior cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and specific neuromodulatory systems such as the dopamine system are dysfunctional in both ADHD and emotional instability...
December 6, 2016: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942455/the-age-dependent-effects-of-a-single-dose-methylphenidate-challenge-on-cerebral-perfusion-in-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
A Schrantee, Hjmm Mutsaerts, C Bouziane, Hgh Tamminga, M A Bottelier, L Reneman
Methylphenidate (MPH) is a stimulant drug and an effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in both children and adults. Pre-clinical studies suggest that the response to stimulants is dependent on age, which may reflect the ontogeny of the dopamine (DA) system, which continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the modulating effect of age on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to MPH in stimulant treatment-naive children and adults with ADHD...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914615/poor-performance-of-fine-motor-activity-among-biological-parents-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Ni Chun Hung, Shih-Hsien Lin, Mei Hung Chi, Chien-Ho Lin, Po See Chen, I Hui Lee, Kao Chin Chen, Yen Kuang Yang
It has been proposed that the dopaminergic system and heritability may play roles in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We assessed the performance of healthy parents of children with ADHD in the finger tapping test (FTT) in this study, which is a reliable test and sensitive to central dopamine activity. A total of 16 parents of children with ADHD and 32 controls were enrolled. The FTT was conducted. The 16 healthy parents of children with ADHD exhibited a significantly poorer performance in the FTT, using the nondominant hand, than the 32 healthy controls...
December 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910862/methylphenidate-enhances-early-stage-sensory-processing-and-rodent-performance-of-a-visual-signal-detection-task
#6
Rachel L Navarra, Brian D Clark, Andrew T Gargiulo, Barry D Waterhouse
Methylphenidate (MPH) is used clinically to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and off-label as a performance enhancing agent in healthy individuals. MPH enhances catecholamine transmission via blockade of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake transporters. However, it is not clear how this action impacts neural circuits performing cognitive and sensorimotor functions driving performance enhancement. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the primary thalamic relay for visual information from the retina to the cortex and is densely innervated by NE-containing fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC), a pathway known to modulate state-dependent sensory processing...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902448/rasgrp1-promotes-amphetamine-induced-motor-behavior-through-a-rhes-interaction-network-rhesactome-in-the-striatum
#7
Neelam Shahani, Supriya Swarnkar, Vincenzo Giovinazzo, Jenny Morgenweck, Laura M Bohn, Catherina Scharager-Tapia, Bruce Pascal, Pablo Martinez-Acedo, Kshitij Khare, Srinivasa Subramaniam
The striatum of the brain coordinates motor function. Dopamine-related drugs may be therapeutic to patients with striatal neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but these drugs have unwanted side effects. In addition to stimulating the release of norepinephrine, amphetamines, which are used for narcolepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), trigger dopamine release in the striatum. The guanosine triphosphatase Ras homolog enriched in the striatum (Rhes) inhibits dopaminergic signaling in the striatum, is implicated in HD and L-dopa-induced dyskinesia, and has a role in striatal motor control...
November 15, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873141/the-contribution-of-maternal-adhd-symptomatology-maternal-dat1-and-home-atmosphere-to-child-adhd-symptomatology-at-7%C3%A2-years-of-age
#8
Judith G Auerbach, Yael Zilberman-Hayun, Naama Atzaba-Poria, Andrea Berger
Children of mothers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased genetic and environmental risk for ADHD. The unique and interactive contributions of a maternal dopamine receptor gene (DAT1), maternal ADHD symptoms (hyperactive- impulsive, inattentive), and home atmosphere to the prediction of ADHD symptoms (hyperactive- impulsive, inattentive) in 7- year-old boys (N = 96) were examined using data from a longitudinal study of familial risk for ADHD. During the first 6 months of the study, mothers and their spouses completed a questionnaire about the mother's ADHD symptoms...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853928/d1-and-d2-specific-dopamine-antagonist-modulate-the-caudate-nucleus-neuronal-responses-to-chronic-methylphenidate-exposure
#9
Sidish Venkataraman, Catherine Claussen, Nachum Dafny
The psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPD), is the first line treatment as a pharmacotherapy to treat behavioral disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MPD is commonly misused in non-ADHD (normal) youth and young adults both as a recreational drug and for cognitive enhancing effects to improve their grades. MPD is known to act on the reward circuit; including the caudate nucleus (CN). The CN is comprised of medium spiny neurons containing largely dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821512/dopamine-d4-receptor-gene-polymorphism-in-a-sample-of-egyptian-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#10
Farida ElBaz Mohamed, Tarek Mostafa Kamal, Sally Soliman Zahra, Mona Abdel Hakiem Khfagy, Azza Mohamed Youssef
This study aimed to detect DRD4 receptor gene polymorphisms in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children and to correlate their phenotype-genotype. Fifty children with ADHD were diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, criteria and were subjected to Conners Parent Rating Scale. All cases and controls were subjected to history taking, physical examination, IQ assessment, and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon 3 genotyping. The 7-repeat allele was present only in controls, whereas 2-repeat allele was present in the ADHD children (heterozygous 2-repeat allele in 16% and homozygous in 26% of cases)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813651/a-systematic-review-of-the-use-of-bupropion-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents
#11
Qin Xiang Ng
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. Stimulants are usually the first choice of drug; however, as many as 20% of patients do not respond to them. Stimulants may also worsen comorbid sleep, mood, and anxiety disorders, and they are associated with problems of misuse and diversion. Bupropion, a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is a promising nonstimulant alternative with reports of positive outcomes for ADHD management in both adolescent and adult populations...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677260/gnb5-mutation-causes-a-novel-neuropsychiatric-disorder-featuring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-severely-impaired-language-development-and-normal-cognition
#12
Hanan E Shamseldin, Ikuo Masuho, Ahmed Alenizi, Suad Alyamani, Dipak N Patil, Niema Ibrahim, Kirill A Martemyanov, Fowzan S Alkuraya
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric disorders are common forms of disability in humans. Despite recent progress in deciphering the genetics of these disorders, their phenotypic complexity continues to be a major challenge. Mendelian neuropsychiatric disorders are rare but their study has the potential to unravel novel mechanisms that are relevant to their complex counterparts. RESULTS: In an extended consanguineous family, we identified a novel neuropsychiatric phenotype characterized by severe speech impairment, variable expressivity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and motor delay...
September 27, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666382/suboptimal-maternal-diets-alter-mu-opioid-receptor-and-dopamine-type-1-receptor-binding-but-exert-no-effect-on-dopamine-transporters-in-the-offspring-brain
#13
Panayotis K Thanos, Jianmin Zhuo, Lisa Robison, Ronald Kim, Mala Ananth, Ilon Choai, Adam Grunseich, Nicola M Grissom, Robert George, Foteini Delis, Teresa M Reyes
Birthweight is a marker for suboptimal fetal growth and development in utero. Offspring can be born large for gestational age (LGA), which is linked to maternal obesity or excessive gestational weight gain, as well as small for gestational age (SGA), arising from nutrient or calorie deficiency, placental dysfunction, or other maternal conditions (hypertension, infection). In humans, LGA and SGA babies are at an increased risk for certain neurodevelopmental disorders, including Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, schizophrenia, and social and mood disorders...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610420/low-resolution-electromagnetic-tomography-loreta-of-changed-brain-function-provoked-by-pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220z-in-one-adult-adhd-case
#14
Bruce Steinberg, Kenneth Blum, Thomas McLaughlin, Joel Lubar, Marcelo Febo, Eric R Braverman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often continues into adulthood. Recent neuroimaging studies found lowered baseline dopamine tone in the brains of affected individuals that may place them at risk for Substance Use Disorder (SUD). This is an observational case study of the potential for novel management of Adult ADHD with a non-addictive glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex KB200z. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to evaluate the effects of KB220z on a 72-year-old male with ADHD, at baseline and one hour following administration...
2016: Open Journal of Clinical & Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579475/cadherin-13-human-cis-regulation-and-selectively-altered-addiction-phenotypes-and-cerebral-cortical-dopamine-in-knockout-mice
#15
Jana Drgonova, Donna Walther, G Luke Hartstein, Mohammad O Bukhari, Michael H Baumann, Jonathan Katz, Frank Scott Hall, Elizabeth R Arnold, Shaun Flax, Anthony Riley, Olga Rivero-Martin, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Juan Troncoso, Barbara Ranscht, George R Uhl
The cadherin 13 (CDH13) gene encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development and connections of brain circuits that modulate addiction, locomotion and cognition, including those that involve midbrain dopamine neurons. Human CDH13 mRNA expression differs by more than 80% in postmortem cerebral cortical samples from individuals with different CDH13 genotypes, supporting examination of mice with altered Cdh13 expression as models for common human variation at this locus. Constitutive cdh13 knockout mice display evidence for changed cocaine reward: shifted dose response relationship in tests of cocaine-conditioned place preference using doses that do not alter cocaine conditioned taste aversion...
August 18, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561999/behaviour-planning-and-problem-solving-deficiencies-in-children-with-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-from-the-balobedu-culture-limpopo-province-south-africa
#16
Refilwe Gloria Pila-Nemutandani, Anneke Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To compare planning behaviour (frontal lobe functioning) in children with and without symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A total of 90 children (45 with symptoms of ADHD and 45 matched controls without ADHD symptoms) of both genders, who were medication naïve, from the Balobedu culture (Limpopo province, South Africa), aged 7-13 years, participated in the study. The performance of the two groups was compared on a test of planning and problem solving, the Tower of London (ToL) task...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487479/age-dependent-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-the-human-dopaminergic-system-in-young-vs-adult-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Anouk Schrantee, Hyke G H Tamminga, Cheima Bouziane, Marco A Bottelier, Esther E Bron, Henk-Jan M M Mutsaerts, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Inge R Groote, Serge A R B Rombouts, Ramon J L Lindauer, Stefan Klein, Wiro J Niessen, Brent C Opmeer, Frits Boer, Paul J Lucassen, Susan L Andersen, Hilde M Geurts, Liesbeth Reneman
IMPORTANCE: Although numerous children receive methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the effects of methylphenidate on the dopaminergic system are modified by age and to test the hypothesis that methylphenidate treatment of young but not adult patients with ADHD induces lasting effects on the cerebral blood flow response to dopamine challenge, a noninvasive probe for dopamine function...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27480019/meta-analysis-of-the-drd5-vntr-in-persistent-adhd
#18
Marieke Klein, Stefanie Berger, Martine Hoogman, Janneke Dammers, Remco Makkinje, Angelien J G A M Heister, Tessel E Galesloot, Lambertus A L M Kiemeney, Heike Weber, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Andreas Reif, Marta Ribasés, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Bru Cormand, Tetyana Zayats, Tor-Arne Hegvik, Kaya K Jacobsen, Stefan Johansson, Jan Haavik, Nina R Mota, Claiton H D Bau, Eugenio H Grevet, Alysa Doyle, Stephen V Faraone, Alejandro Arias-Vásquez, Barbara Franke
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex genetic background. DRD5, the gene encoding the dopamine receptor D5, was recently confirmed as a candidate gene for ADHD in children through meta-analysis. In this study, we aimed at studying the association of the ADHD-associated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism upstream of DRD5 with adult ADHD. We compiled data from six sites of the International Multicentre persistent ADHD CollaboraTion (IMpACT) and reached N=6979 (3344 cases and 3635 healthy participants), the largest sample investigated so far...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475724/the-adhd-linked-human-dopamine-d4-receptor-variant-d4-7-induces-over-suppression-of-nmda-receptor-function-in-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Luye Qin, Wenhua Liu, Kaijie Ma, Jing Wei, Ping Zhong, Kei Cho, Zhen Yan
The human dopamine D4 receptor (hD4R) variants with long tandem repeats in the third intracellular loop have been strongly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risk taking behaviors. To understand the potential molecular mechanism underlying the connection, we have investigated the synaptic function of human D4R polymorphism by virally expressing the ADHD-linked 7-repeat allele, hD4.7, or its normal counterpart, hD4.4, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of D4R knockout mice. We found that hD4R bound to the SH3 domain of PSD-95 in a state-dependent manner...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469434/effects-of-high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-on-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-an-animal-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Jungyun Kim, Heamen Park, Seong-Lan Yu, Sungju Jee, Keun-Ah Cheon, Dong Ho Song, Seung Jun Kim, Woo-Young Im, Jaeku Kang
The current treatment of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is pharmacotherapy. A search for new treatment options is underway, however, as the wide application of drugs to the general population of patients with ADHD is limited by side effects and the variance of pharmacokinetic effects of the drugs in each patient. In the present study, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive treatment used in a number of other psychiatric disorders, to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD, in order to assess the efficacy of the treatment in modifying behavioural symptoms as well as levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
October 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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