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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116873/the-effect-of-experimental-supplementation-with-the-klamath-algae-extract-klamin-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Maurizio Cremonte, Davide Sisti, Ilaria Maraucci, Simona Giribone, Evelin Colombo, Marco Bruno Luigi Rocchi, Stefano Scoglio
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological condition with onset in childhood. The disorder is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and/or motor hyperactivity, which often affect the development and social integration of affected subjects. Phenylethylamine (PEA), naturally contained in the Klamath Lake microalgae and concentrated in the Klamin(®) extract, is an endogenous molecule with a general neuromodulatory activity. It functions as an activator for the neurotransmission of dopamine and other catecholamines, and very low concentrations of PEA may be associated with specific psychological disorders such as ADHD...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105113/striatal-neurons-get-a-kick-out-of-dopamine
#2
Kenneth Lindegaard Madsen, Jakob Kisbye Dreyer
Dopamine (DA) is critically involved in reinforcement learning and malfunction in dopamine signalling is associated with numerable brain disorders, including ADHD, Parkinson's disease, drug abuse and schizophrenia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099955/screening-for-adult-adhd-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia-syndrome
#3
Roland van Rensburg, Helgard Pieter Meyer, Sonia Anne Hitchcock, Christian Edward Schuler
Objective: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a common chronic pain disorder associated with altered activity of neurotransmitters involved in pain sensitivity such as dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline. FMS may significantly impact an individual's functioning due to the presence of chronic pain, fatigue, and cognitive impairment. Dyscognition may be more disabling than the chronic pain but is mostly under-recognized. This study aimed to assess the potential co-occurrence of FMS and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder also associated with impaired cognition and dopaminergic function...
November 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067802/ultrasensitive-and-selective-organic-fet-type-nonenzymatic-dopamine-sensor-based-on-platinum-nanoparticles-decorated-reduced-graphene-oxide
#4
Jungkyun Oh, Jun Seop Lee, Jaemoon Jun, Sung Gun Kim, Jyongsik Jang
Dopamine (DA), a catecholamine hormone, is an important neurotransmitter that controls renal and cardiovascular organizations and regulates physiological activities. Abnormal concentrations of DA cause unfavorable neuronal illnesses such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder. However, the DA concentration is exceedingly low in patients and difficult to detect with existing biosensors. In this study, we developed an organic field-effect-transistor-type (OFET) nonenzyme biosensor using platinum nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pt_rGO) for ultrasensitive and selective DA detection...
November 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061424/dopamine-transporter-gene-polymorphism-in-children-with-adhd-a-pilot-study-in-indonesian-samples
#5
Tjhin Wiguna, Raden Irawati Ismail, Noorhana Setyawati Winarsih, Fransiska Kaligis, Anggia Hapsari, Lina Budiyanti, Rini Sekartini, Susan Rahayu, Anthony P S Guerrero
INTRODUCTION: Several studies showed that DAT1 polymorphism closed related with ADHD although the results were not consistently found. Studies in China, South Korea, Japan revealed that 10-repeat allele gave a risk for ADHD. Based on that understanding, this study tried to identify whether the similar polymorphism of DAT1 was also apparent in Indonesian children with ADHD. METHOD: This was a case - control study. Case was 50 Indonesian origin children with ADHD and without any other mental disorders and metal retardation...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058689/deficiency-of-tumor-suppressor-ndrg2-leads-to-attention-deficit-and-hyperactive-behavior
#6
Yan Li, Anqi Yin, Xin Sun, Ming Zhang, Jianfang Zhang, Ping Wang, Rougang Xie, Wen Li, Ze Fan, Yuanyuan Zhu, Han Wang, Hailong Dong, Shengxi Wu, Lize Xiong
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children. Although an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs has been proposed as contributing to this disorder, the mechanisms underlying this highly heterogeneous disease remain largely unknown. Here, we show that N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) deficiency is involved in the development of ADHD in both mice and humans. Ndrg2-knockout (Ndrg2-/-) mice exhibited ADHD-like symptoms characterized by attention deficits, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and impaired memory...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054088/the-interactions-among-organophosphate-pesticide-exposure-oxidative-stress-and-genetic-polymorphisms-of-dopamine-receptor-d4-increase-the-risk-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children
#7
Chia-Huang Chang, Ching-Jung Yu, Jung-Chieh Du, Hsien-Chih Chiou, Hsin-Chang Chen, Winnie Yang, Ming-Yi Chung, Ying-Sheue Chen, Betau Hwang, I-Fang Mao, Mei-Lien Chen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify the association between organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) related to oxidative stress and genetic polymorphisms. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled 93 children with ADHD and 112 control children in north Taiwan. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OPs and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed. Polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) were identified...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032769/amphetamine-modestly-improves-conners-continuous-performance-test-performance-in-healthy-adults
#8
David A MacQueen, Arpi Minassian, Brook L Henry, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young, William Perry
OBJECTIVES: Amphetamine improves vigilance as assessed by continuous performance tests (CPT) in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Less is known, however, regarding amphetamine effects on vigilance in healthy adults. Thus, it remains unclear whether amphetamine produces general enhancement of vigilance or if these effects are constrained to the remediation of deficits in patients with ADHD. METHODS: We tested 69 healthy adults (35 female) on a standardized CPT (Conner's CPT-2) after receiving 10- or 20-mg d-amphetamine or placebo...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016850/mice-lacking-cyclin-dependent-kinase-like-5-manifest-autistic-and-adhd-like-behaviors
#9
Cian-Ling Jhang, Tzyy-Nan Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh, Wenlin Liao
Neurodevelopmental disorders frequently share common clinical features and appear high rate of comorbidity, such as those present in patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While characterizing behavioral phenotypes in the mouse model of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene encoding CDKL5, we found that these mice manifested behavioral phenotypes mimicking multiple key features of ASD, such as impaired social interaction and communication, as well as increased stereotypic digging behaviors...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982350/pilot-study-indicate-role-of-preferentially-transmitted-monoamine-oxidase-gene-variants-in-behavioral-problems-of-male-adhd-probands
#10
Arijit Karmakar, Rishov Goswami, Tanusree Saha, Subhamita Maitra, Anirban Roychowdhury, Chinmay Kumar Panda, Swagata Sinha, Anirban Ray, Kochupurackal P Mohanakumar, Usha Rajamma, Kanchan Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an etiologically complex childhood onset neurobehavioral disorder characterized by age-inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Symptom severity varies widely and boys are diagnosed more frequently than girls. ADHD probands were reported to have abnormal transmissions of dopamine, serotonin, and/or noradrenaline. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and B (MAOB), mitochondrial outer membrane bound two isoenzymes, mediate degradation of these neurotransmitters and thus regulating their circulating levels...
October 5, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964912/functional-coding-variation-in-the-presynaptic-dopamine-transporter-associated-with-neuropsychiatric-disorders-drives-enhanced-motivation-and-context-dependent-impulsivity-in-mice
#11
Gwynne L Davis, Adele Stewart, Gregg D Stanwood, Raajaram Gowrishankar, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Recent genetic analyses have provided evidence that clinical commonalities associated with different psychiatric diagnoses often have shared mechanistic underpinnings. The development of animal models expressing functional genetic variation attributed to multiple disorders offers a salient opportunity to capture molecular, circuit and behavioral alterations underlying this hypothesis. In keeping with studies suggesting dopaminergic contributions to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), subjects with these diagnoses have been found to express a rare, functional coding substitution in the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), Ala559Val...
January 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948080/interaction-effects-of-git1-and-drd4-gene-variants-on-continuous-performance-test-variables-in-patients-with-adhd
#12
Hyojin Kim, Johanna Inhyang Kim, Haebin Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Bung-Nyun Kim
INTRODUCTION: The G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 1 gene (GIT1) has been proposed to be a risk gene for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and it regulates the endocytosis of G protein-coupled receptors like dopamine receptors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of GIT1 and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene variants on variables of the continuous performance test (CPT). METHODS: This study recruited 255 ADHD patients and 98 healthy controls (HC) who underwent CPT and genetic analyses...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878639/differential-associations-between-cortical-thickness-and-striatal-dopamine-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-with-adhd-vs-healthy-controls
#13
Mariya V Cherkasova, Nazlie Faridi, Kevin F Casey, Kevin Larcher, Gillian A O'Driscoll, Lily Hechtman, Ridha Joober, Glen B Baker, Jennifer Palmer, Alan C Evans, Alain Dagher, Chawki Benkelfat, Marco Leyton
Alterations in catecholamine signaling and cortical morphology have both been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, possible links between the two remain unstudied. Here, we report exploratory analyses of cortical thickness and its relation to striatal dopamine transmission in treatment-naïve adults with ADHD and matched healthy controls. All participants had one magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and two [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography scans...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863139/gut-microbiome-in-adhd-and-its-relation-to-neural-reward-anticipation
#14
Esther Aarts, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Sanne P Smeekens, Mihai G Netea, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Alejandro Arias Vasquez
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms in the human intestine (i.e. the gut microbiome) have an increasingly recognized impact on human health, including brain functioning. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission and deficits in reward processing and its underlying neuro-circuitry including the ventral striatum. The microbiome might contribute to ADHD etiology via the gut-brain axis. In this pilot study, we investigated potential differences in the microbiome between ADHD cases and undiagnosed controls, as well as its relation to neural reward processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842414/the-atypical-map-kinase-swip-13-erk8-regulates-dopamine-transporters-through-a-rho-dependent-mechanism
#15
Daniel P Bermingham, J Andrew Hardaway, Osama Refai, Christian R Marks, Sam L Snider, Sarah M Sturgeon, William C Spencer, Roger J Colbran, David M Miller, Randy D Blakely
The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) regulates multiple behaviors across phylogeny, with disrupted DA signaling in humans associated with addiction, attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. The DA transporter (DAT) imposes spatial and temporal limits on DA action, and provides for presynaptic DA recycling to replenish neurotransmitter pools. Molecular mechanisms that regulate DAT expression, trafficking, and function, particularly in vivo, remain poorly understood, though recent studies have implicated rho-linked pathways in psychostimulant action...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822049/potential-for-diagnosis-versus-therapy-monitoring-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-new-epigenetic-biomarker-interacting-with-both-genotype-and-auto-immunity
#16
Walter Adriani, Emilia Romano, Mariangela Pucci, Esterina Pascale, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Renata Tambelli, Paolo Curatolo, Oleg Granstrem, Mauro Maccarrone, Giovanni Laviola, Claudio D'Addario
In view of the need for easily accessible biomarkers, we evaluated in ADHD children the epigenetic status of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) in the SLC6A3 gene, coding for human dopamine transporter (DAT). We analysed buccal swabs and sera from 30 children who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD, assigned to treatment according to severity. Methylation levels at six-selected CpG sites (among which, a CGGCGGCGG and a CGCG motif), alone or in combination with serum titers in auto-antibodies against dopamine transporter (DAT aAbs), were analysed for correlation with CGAS scores (by clinicians) and Conners' scales (by parents), collected at recruitment and after 6 weeks...
August 18, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811687/a-preliminary-study-on-investigation-of-serum-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-tau-protein-levels-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity%C3%A2-disorder
#17
Ihsan Cetin, Seref Simsek
Neurodegenerative molecules play an important role in maintaining a supply for synaptic vesicles; and they are also likely to help regulate the dopamine release which is the primary mechanism of action in pharmacological treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is suggested that there could be interactions between α-synuclein and tau in cytoskeletal disorganization and synaptic dystrophy. Therefore, we aim to determine the serum levels of neurodegenerative molecules such as α-synuclein and tau in children with ADHD...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811624/pupil-size-tracks-attentional-performance-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
G Wainstein, D Rojas-Líbano, N A Crossley, X Carrasco, F Aboitiz, T Ossandón
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757337/differentiating-physicochemical-properties-between-ndris-and-snris-clinically-important-for-the-treatment-of-adhd
#19
Panpan Wang, Tingting Fu, Xiaoyu Zhang, Fengyuan Yang, Guoxun Zheng, Weiwei Xue, Yuzong Chen, Xiaojun Yao, Feng Zhu
BACKGROUND: Drugs available for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are mainly selective norepinephrine (sNRIs) and dual norepinephrine-dopamine (NDRIs) reuptake inhibitors. The major problem of sNRIs lines in their delayed onset of action and partial- or non-responses, which makes NDRIs distinguished in drug efficacy. Understanding of the differential binding modes of these 2 types of drugs to their corresponding targets can give great insights into the discovery of privileged drug-like scaffolds with improved efficacy...
November 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690202/the-impact-of-methylphenidate-and-its-enantiomers-on-dopamine-synthesis-and-metabolism-in-vitro
#20
Jasmin Bartl, Ferruccio Palazzesi, Michele Parrinello, Leif Hommers, Peter Riederer, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt
Methylphenidate (MPH), a psychostimulant, is an effective first-line treatment for the symptoms associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although most MPH formulations are composed of the racemic 1:1 mixture of the two enantiomers (d- and l-threo), converging lines of evidence indicate that d-threo MPH seems to be superior to the l-isomer. We aimed to investigate whether MPH racemic mixture or pure enantiomers influence the enzyme activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in vitro in homogenates of rat PC12 cells incubated with racemic, d- and l-threo MPH (1nM up to 100μM), or a vehicle for control...
October 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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