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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494748/the-novelty-of-bupropion-as-a-dopaminergic-antidepressant-for-the-treatment-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder
#1
Kanit Tha Deang, Hatta Sidi, Hazli Zakaria, Raja Lope Adam, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Muhammad Hatta, Kok Wei Wee
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a hyperactivity disorder that is prevalent among children may continue as an adulthood attention deficit. To date, treating an individual with an adult ADHD may be an arduous task as it involved numerous challenges, such as a need for high index of suspicion to diagnose this medical condition. Many psychiatric disorders masquerade as ADHD and delayed the necessary assessment and proper treatment for the debilitating medical condition. Adult ADHD would also be misdiagnosed (or under diagnosed) due to the facts that this medical condition is being masked by his or her high level of intellectuality achievement...
May 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458039/glucocorticoids-glucocorticoid-receptors-effect-on-dopaminergic-neurotransmitters-in-adhd-rats
#2
Yanhui Chen, Xiaolan Zheng, Linqi Xie, Liang Huang, Zhongling Ke, Jie Zheng, Hongzhu Lu, Jun Hu
Dexamethaone (DEX, glucocorticoid receptor agonist) and RU486 (glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor) may affect the behavior of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rats, by changing the level of dopamine and noradrenaline and dopamine transporter in different regions of their brain. In this study, we have investigated the effect and the underlying mechanism of Glucocorticoids/Glucocorticoid receptors on dopaminergic neurotransmitters in ADHD Rats. Thirty male Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and 30 male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were respectively divided into 3 groups randomly as follows: a GR agonist group (DEX), a GR inhibitor group (RU486) and a control group (CON)...
April 27, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454982/dopamine-transporter-dat-genetic-hypofunction-in-mice-produces-alterations-consistent-with-adhd-but-not-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder
#3
M Mereu, G Contarini, E F Buonaguro, G Latte, F Managò, F Iasevoli, A de Bartolomeis, F Papaleo
ADHD, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are psychiatric diseases with a strong genetic component which share dopaminergic alterations. Dopamine transporter (DAT) genetics might be potentially implicated in all these disorders. However, in contrast to DAT absence, the effects of DAT hypofunction especially in developmental trajectories have been scarcely addressed. Thus, we comprehensively studied DAT hypofunctional mice (DAT+/-) from adolescence to adulthood to disentangle DAT-dependent alterations in the development of psychiatric-relevant phenotypes...
April 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428702/drd4-and-dat1-vntr-genotyping-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Ashley Stanley, K Chavda, A Subramanian, S V Prabhu, T F Ashavaid
The dopamine receptor-D4 and the dopamine transporter have been investigated for their role in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Reports of their genetic association with ADHD have shown mixed results. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) of the DRD4 and DAT1 genes with ADHD in children. A pilot 1:1 case control study, with 44 clinically confirmed ADHD cases and 44 age/gender matched healthy controls, was conducted at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392322/manipulation-of-dopamine-metabolism-contributes-to-attenuating-innate-high-locomotor-activity-in-icr-mice
#5
Takeshi Yamaguchi, Mao Nagasawa, Hiromi Ikeda, Momoko Kodaira, Kimie Minaminaka, Vishwajit S Chowdhury, Shinobu Yasuo, Mitsuhiro Furuse
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as attention deficiency, restlessness and distraction. The main characteristics of ADHD are hyperactivity, impulsiveness and carelessness. There is a possibility that these abnormal behaviors, in particular hyperactivity, are derived from abnormal dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. To elucidate the mechanism of high locomotor activity, the relationship between innate activity levels and brain monoamines and amino acids was investigated in this study. Differences in locomotor activity between ICR, C57BL/6J and CBA/N mice were determined using the open field test...
April 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376888/daily-administration-of-yokukansan-and-keishito-prevents-social-isolation-induced-behavioral-abnormalities-and-down-regulation-of-phosphorylation-of-neuroplasticity-related-signaling-molecules-in-mice
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hironori Fujiwara, Yaoyu Han, Ken Ebihara, Suresh Awale, Ryota Araki, Takeshi Yabe, Kinzo Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies demonstrated that post-weaning social isolation (ISO) in mice induces behavior abnormalities such as deficits of sociability- and attention-like behaviors. These deficits can be attenuated by methylphenidate (MPH), a drug used for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that ISO mice offer a potential animal model of comorbid developmental disorder with ADHD and autism spectrum disorder symptoms. This study investigated the effects of Kampo formulae, yokukansan (YKS) and keishito (KST), on the neuropsychiatric symptoms of ISO mice to clarify the therapeutic or preventive/delaying potential of these formulae for the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders...
April 4, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375718/trait-impulsivity-and-the-externalizing-spectrum
#7
Theodore P Beauchaine, Aimee R Zisner, Colin L Sauder
This article reviews evidence that trait impulsivity-expressed early in life as the hyperactive-impulsive and combined presentations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-is a bottom-up, subcortically mediated vulnerability to all externalizing disorders. This vulnerability arises from deficient mesolimbic dopamine responding, which imbues psychological states (irritability, discontentment) that motivate excessive approach behavior (hyperactivity, impulsivity). Through complex interactions with (a) aversive motivational states that arise from largely independent subcortical systems, (b) emotion regulatory mechanisms that arise from top-down, cortical modulation of subcortical neural function, and (c) environmental risk factors that shape and maintain emotion dysregulation, trait impulsivity confers vulnerability to increasingly severe externalizing behaviors across development...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321605/long-term-effects-of-stimulant-exposure-on-cerebral-blood-flow-response-to-methylphenidate-and-behavior-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Anouk Schrantee, C Bouziane, E E Bron, S Klein, M A Bottelier, J J S Kooij, S A R B Rombouts, L Reneman
Stimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the DA system. We here assessed the long-term modifying effects of age-of-first-stimulant treatment on the human brain and behavior. 81 male adult ADHD patients were stratified into three groups: 1) early stimulant treatment (EST; <16 years of age) 2) late stimulant treatment (LST: ≥23 years of age) and 3) stimulant treatment naive (STN; no history of stimulant treatment)...
March 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293263/saikosaponin-a-alleviates-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-through-downregulation-of-dat-and-enhancing-bdnf-expression-in-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats
#9
Sun Jichao, Han Xinmin, Ren Xianguo, Yin Dongqi, Zhou Rongyi, Lei Shuang, You Yue, Song Yuchen, Ying Jingnan
The disturbed dopamine availability and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression are due in part to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we investigated the therapeutical effect of saikosaponin a (SSa) isolated from Bupleurum Chinese DC, against spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Methylphenidate and SSa were orally administered for 3 weeks. Activity was assessed by open-field test and Morris water maze test. Dopamine (DA) and BDNF were determined in specific brain regions...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282463/family-based-association-study-of-drd4-gene-in-methylphenidate-responded-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Patrick Wing-Leung Leung, Janice Ka Yan Chan, Lu Hua Chen, Chi Chiu Lee, Se Fong Hung, Ting Pong Ho, Chun Pan Tang, Robert K Moyzis, James M Swanson
The 48-basepair (48-bp) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, ADHD in European-ancestry population is associated with an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the exon 3 VNTR. However, it is intriguing to note that the 7R allele has been found to be of very low prevalence in the Chinese general population. In a previous case-control study, our research team had found that the 7R allele was similarly absent in Chinese ADHD children in Hong Kong...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268188/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-neurochemical-alterations-in-the-brain-of-adolescent-rats-following-acute-methylphenidate-administration
#11
Emmanuel Quansah, Victor Ruiz-Rodado, Martin Grootveld, Fay Probert, Tyra S C Zetterström
The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is increasingly used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is little evidence for common brain pathology in ADHD, some studies suggest a right hemisphere dysfunction among people diagnosed with the condition. However, in spite of the high usage of MPH in children and adolescents, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Given that MPH blocks the neuronal transporters for dopamine and noradrenaline, most research into the effects of MPH on the brain has largely focused on these two monoamine neurotransmitter systems...
March 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258362/the-effects-of-grin2b-and-drd4-gene-variants-on-local-functional-connectivity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Jae Hyun Yoo, Dohyun Kim, Bumseok Jeong, Bung-Nyun Kim
Based on the interplay between dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems, N-Methyl-D-Asparate (NMDA) receptor genes are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. However, the phenotypical correlates of brain functions associated with NMDA receptor genes and dopamine receptor genes in ADHD are yet to be investigated. We examined the diagnosis, genotype and the diagnosis-genotype interaction effects of GRIN2B and DRD4 variants on the local functional connectivity (by using the mean of static regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the mean and standard deviation (SD) of dynamic ReHo) in 67 ADHD subjects and 44 controls (aged 6-17 years)...
March 3, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236851/infant-acetylcholine-dopamine-and-melatonin-dysregulation-neonatal-biomarkers-and-causal-factors-for-asd-and-adhd-phenotypes
#13
Kahl Hellmer, Pär Nyström
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and ADHD are common neurodevelopmental disorders that benefit from early intervention but currently suffer from late detection and diagnosis: neurochemical dysregulations are extant already at birth but clinical phenotypes are not distinguishable until preschool age or later. The vast heterogeneity between subjects' phenotypes relates to interaction between multiple unknown factors, making research on factor causality insurmountable. To unlock this situation we pose the hypothesis that atypical pupillary light responses from rods, cones, and the recently discovered ipRGC system reflect early acetylcholine, melatonin, and dopamine dysregulation that are sufficient but not necessary factors for developing ASD and/or ADHD disorders...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228718/current-concepts-on-the-physiopathological-relevance-of-dopaminergic-receptors
#14
REVIEW
Ada Ledonne, Nicola B Mercuri
Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter modulating essential functions of the central nervous system (CNS), like voluntary movement, reward, several cognitive functions and goal-oriented behaviors. The factual relevance of DAergic transmission can be well appreciated by considering that its dysfunction is recognized as a core alteration in several devastating neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and associated movement disorders, as well as, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212944/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-adolescent-methylphenidate-on-decision-making-and-dopamine-receptor-mrna-expression-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#15
Leslie R Amodeo, Eliza Jacobs-Brichford, Matthew S McMurray, Jamie D Roitman
Though commonly used as a treatment for ADHD, the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is also misused and abused in adolescence in both clinical and general populations. Although MPH acts via pathways activated by other drugs of abuse, the short- and long-term effects of MPH on reward processing in learning and decision-making are not clearly understood. We examined the effect of adolescent MPH treatment on a battery of reward-directed behaviors both in adolescence during its administration and in adulthood after its discontinuation...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176786/disrupted-glutamatergic-transmission-in-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-behavioral-abnormality-in-an-animal-model-of-adhd
#16
Jia Cheng, Aiyi Liu, Michael Y Shi, Zhen Yan
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are the most widely used animal model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we sought to reveal the neuronal circuits and molecular basis of ADHD and its potential treatment using SHR. Combined electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological, chemicogenetic and behavioral approaches were utilized. We found that AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC) was diminished in SHR, which was correlated with the decreased surface expression of AMPAR subunits...
February 8, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176268/no-genetic-association-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-parkinson-s-disease-in-nine-adhd-candidate-snps
#17
Julia M Geissler, Marcel Romanos, Manfred Gerlach, Daniela Berg, Claudia Schulte
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) involve pathological changes in brain structures such as the basal ganglia, which are essential for the control of motor and cognitive behavior and impulsivity. The cause of ADHD and PD remains unknown, but there is increasing evidence that both seem to result from a complicated interplay of genetic and environmental factors affecting numerous cellular processes and brain regions. To explore the possibility of common genetic pathways within the respective pathophysiologies, nine ADHD candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes were tested for association with PD in 5333 cases and 12,019 healthy controls: one variant, respectively, in the genes coding for synaptosomal-associated protein 25 k (SNAP25), the dopamine (DA) transporter (SLC6A3; DAT1), DA receptor D4 (DRD4), serotonin receptor 1B (HTR1B), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the norepinephrine transporter SLC6A2 and three SNPs in cadherin 13 (CDH13)...
February 7, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159610/brain-imaging-genetics-in-adhd-and-beyond-mapping-pathways-from-gene-to-disorder-at-different-levels-of-complexity
#18
REVIEW
Marieke Klein, Marten Onnink, Marjolein van Donkelaar, Thomas Wolfers, Benjamin Harich, Yan Shi, Janneke Dammers, Alejandro Arias-Va Squez, Martine Hoogman, Barbara Franke
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and often persistent neurodevelopmental disorder. Beyond gene-finding, neurobiological parameters, such as brain structure, connectivity, and function, have been used to link genetic variation to ADHD symptomatology. We performed a systematic review of brain imaging genetics studies involving 62 ADHD candidate genes in childhood and adult ADHD cohorts. Fifty-one eligible research articles described studies of 13 ADHD candidate genes. Almost exclusively, single genetic variants were studied, mostly focussing on dopamine-related genes...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154545/influence-of-the-slc6a3-dat1-gene-on-multifaceted-measures-of-self-regulation-in-preschool-children
#19
Lina M Cómbita, Pascale Voelker, Alicia Abundis-Gutiérrez, Joan P Pozuelos, M Rosario Rueda
Development of self-regulation, the capacity to voluntarily modulate thoughts, emotions and actions is strongly related to the maturation of the dopamine-mediated executive attention network (EAN). The attention control processes associated with the EAN greatly overlap with efficiency of the executive functions and are correlated with measures of effortful control. Regulation of dopamine levels within the EAN, particularly in the basal ganglia is carried out by the action of dopamine transporters. In humans, the SLC6A3/DAT1 gene carries out the synthesis of the DAT protein...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154152/oral-administration-of-methylphenidate-ritalin-differentially-affects-dopamine-release-between-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-striatum-a-microdialysis-study-in-the-monkey
#20
Tohru Kodama, Takashi Kojima, Yoshiko Honda, Takayuki Hosokawa, Ken-Ichiro Tsutsui, Masataka Watanabe
Methylphenidate (MPH: Ritalin) is a widely used drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and is often used as a cognitive enhancer. Since MPH increases dopamine (DA) release by blocking the DA transporter in the human striatum, MPH is supposed to work on attention and cognition through a DA increase in the striatum. However, ADHD patients show impaired prefrontal cortex (PFC) function, and MPH administration is associated with increased neural activity in the PFC. Although MPH is indicated to increase DA release in the rat PFC, there has been no study to examine MPH-induced DA changes in the human PFC because of technical difficulties associated with the low level of PFC DA receptors...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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