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Adhd dopamine

Stefano Cinque, Francesca Zoratto, Anna Poleggi, Damiana Leo, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Renata Tambelli, Enrico Alleva, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) and heterozygous (HET) mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Merlin Lange, Cynthia Froc, Hannah Grunwald, William H J Norton, Laure Bally-Cuif
Polymorphisms in the gene coding for the adhesion G-protein coupled receptor LPHN3 are a risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Transient down-regulation of latrophilin3.1 (lphn3.1), the zebrafish LPHN3 homologue, causes hyperactivity. Zebrafish injected with a lphn3.1-specific morpholino are hyperactive and display an impairment in dopaminergic neuron development. In the present study we used lphn3.1 morphants to further characterize the changes to dopaminergic signaling that trigger hyperactivity...
February 26, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Françoise Dellu-Hagedorn, Marion Rivalan, Aurélie Fitoussi, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
Several impulse control disorders such as ADHD, mania, personality disorders or substance abuse share common behavioural traits, like impulsiveness, risk-taking or inflexible behaviour. These disorders are treated with drugs targeting dopamine (DA) and/or serotonin (5-HT). However, the patient's monoamine imbalance that these neurotransmitters compensate is unclear. This study aims to investigate the patterns of DA and 5-HT metabolisms at rest within selected brain regions related to inter-individual variability in six main components of impulsivity/compulsivity (anticipatory hyperactivity, premature responses, delay discounting, risk-taking, perseveration, flexibility)...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Emmanuel Quansah, Victor Ruiz-Rodado, Martin Grootveld, Tyra S C Zetterström
Abnormalities in the cerebellar circuitry have been suggested to contribute to some of the symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is the major drug for treating this condition. Here, the effects of acute (2.0 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg) and chronic (2.0 mg/kg, twice daily for 15 days) MPH treatments were investigated in adolescent (35-40 days old) rats on monoaminergic and metabolic markers in the cerebellum. Data acquired indicates that acute MPH treatment (2...
February 22, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
C Y Shang, H Y Lin, W Y Tseng, S S Gau
BACKGROUND: The dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and visual memory deficits have been consistently reported to be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to examine whether a DAT1 haplotype affected functional and structural brain alterations in children with ADHD and whether those alterations were associated with visual memory. METHOD: We recruited a total of 37 drug-naïve children with ADHD (17 with the DAT1 rs27048 (C)/rs429699 (T) haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype) and 37 typically developing children (17 with the CT haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype)...
February 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Stephen V Faraone
Psychostimulants, including amphetamines and methylphenidate, are first-line pharmacotherapies for individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review aims to educate physicians regarding differences in pharmacology and mechanisms of action between amphetamine and methylphenidate, thus enhancing physician understanding of psychostimulants and their use in managing individuals with ADHD who may have comorbid psychiatric conditions. A systematic literature review of PubMed was conducted in April 2017, focusing on cellular- and brain system-level effects of amphetamine and methylphenidate...
February 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Annalisa Adinolfi, Cristiana Carbone, Damiana Leo, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
ADHD is a neuro-psychiatric disorder characterized by a developmentally inappropriate, pervasive and persistent pattern of severe inattention, hyper-activity and impulsivity. Despite onset in early childhood, ADHD may continue into adulthood with substantial impairment in social, academic and occupational functioning. A new animal model of this disorder was developed in rats with genetic deletion of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene (dopamine transporter knockout rats; DAT-KO rats). We analyzed the behavior of DAT-KO rats for a deeper phenotypical characterization of this model...
February 6, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Dorit Pud, Eelena Broitman, Omar Hameed, Erica Suzan, Joshua Aviram, May Haddad, Salim Hadad, Rafi Shemesh, Elon Eisenberg
Introduction: We recently showed that the psycho-stimulant norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate (MP) prolonged cold pain threshold and tolerance in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to: (1) examine whether MP has antinociceptive properties in healthy men; (2) test MP's effects on responses to aversive auditory stimuli. The underlying aim was to determine whether MP exerts antinociceptive properties or more generalized, nonspecific attenuating effects on different aversive sensory modalities...
May 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Mei Zhu, Yuan Tian, Huan Zhang, Xinxin Ma, Boxin Shang, Jiao Zhang, Yuntong Jiao, Yupeng Zhang, Jinsong Hu, Yaping Wang
AIMS: Methylphenidate (MPH) is a dopamine-reuptake inhibitor approved for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nonetheless, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of MPH are still unknown. We attempt to determine whether MPH protect neuron cells against oxidative stress by using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. MAIN METHODS: The SH-SY5Y cells were cultured in normoxic and hypoxic conditions in the presence of different doses of MPH...
January 26, 2018: Life Sciences
Nora Angyal, Erzsebet Zsofia Horvath, Zsanett Tarnok, Mara J Richman, Emese Bognar, Krisztina Lakatos, Maria Sasvari-Szekely, Zsofia Nemoda
AIMS: Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most frequently prescribed drug in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Hitherto mostly the dopamine transporter gene has been studied in MPH-response and only a few studies analyzed the norepinephrine transporter (NET, SLC6A2) gene, although MPH is a potent inhibitor of both dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. We aimed to analyze this monoamine transporter gene in relation to ADHD per se and MPH-response in particular to gain further knowledge in ADHD pharmacogenetics using a Caucasian sample...
January 24, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Damiana Leo, Ilya Sukhanov, Francesca Zoratto, Placido Illiano, Lucia Caffino, Fabrizio Sanna, Giulia Messa, Marco Emanuele, Alessandro Esposito, Maria Dorofeikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Liudmila Mus, Evgenia E Efimova, Marco Niello, Stefano Espinoza, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Marius C Hoener, Gianni Laviola, Fabio Fumagalli, Walter Adriani, Raul R Gainetdinov
Dopamine (DA) controls many vital physiological functions and is critically involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The major function of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is the rapid uptake of released DA into presynaptic nerve terminals leading to control of both the extracellular levels of DA and the intracellular stores of DA. Here, we present a newly developed strain of rats (DAT-knockout, DAT-KO rats) in which the gene encoding the DAT has been disrupted by using zinc finger nuclease technology (ZFN)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bülent Bilgi, Umut Mert Aksoy, Özge Şahmelikoğlu Onur, Ayşe Fulya Maner
Introduction: The aim of this study is to assess clinical characteristics and smoking profiles of individuals diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and compare their nicotine dependence status with healthy controls for better understanding the mutual and complex relationship between ADHD and smoking. Methods: We included the following participants in the study: 40 adults with the diagnosis of ADHD, 40 participants who visited the smoking cessation polyclinic without any psychiatric disorders, and 40 healthy controls...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Bruce Steinberg, Edward J Modestino, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Eric R Braverman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Background Addictive-like behaviors (e.g., hoarding and shopping) may be the result of the cumulative effects of dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter genetic variants as well as elevated stress levels. We, therefore, propose that dopamine homeostasis may be the preferred goal in combating such challenging and unwanted behaviors, when simple dopaminergic activation through potent agonists may not provide any resolution. Case presentation C.J. is a 38-year-old, single, female, living with her mother. She has a history of substance use disorder as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Heng Dai, Chad R Jackson, Gwynne L Davis, Randy D Blakely, Douglas G McMahon
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) is a critical neuromodulator in the retina. Disruption of retinal DA synthesis and signaling significantly attenuates light-adapted, electroretinogram (ERG) responses, as well as contrast sensitivity and acuity. As these measures can be detected noninvasively, they may provide opportunities to detect disease processes linked to perturbed DA signaling. Recently, we identified a rare, functional DA transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) coding substitution, Ala559Val, in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), demonstrating that DAT Val559 imparts anomalous DA efflux (ADE) with attendant physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral phenotypes...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Shaili Aggarwal, Ole V Mortensen
The dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT), and norepinephrine (NET) transporters, which are collectively referred to as monoamine transporters (MATs), play significant roles in regulating the neuronal response to these neurotransmitters. MATs terminate the action of these neurotransmitters by translocating them from the synaptic space into the presynaptic neurons. These three transmitters are responsible for controlling a number of physiological, emotional, and behavioral functions, with their transporters being the site of action of drugs employed for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, ADHD, schizophrenia, and psychostimulant abuse...
December 20, 2017: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Darya Naumova, Natalie Grizenko, Sarojini M Sengupta, Ridha Joober
OBJECTIVES: Dopamine plays an important role in modulating attention and motor behaviours, dimensions altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Numerous association studies have linked dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4) to increased risk of ADHD. This study investigated the effect of DRD4 exon 3 polymorphism on child behaviours in response to treatment with methylphenidate. METHODS: A total of 374 children diagnosed with ADHD (ages 6-12 years) were evaluated under three experimental conditions: baseline, placebo and MPH (0...
December 15, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Jong-Min Lee, Hyuk Jin Yun, Chul-Ho Sohn, Min-Sup Shin, Bongseog Kim, Jonghee Chae, Jaewoo Roh, Bung-Nyun Kim
BACKGROUND: The dopamine receptor D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and lead exposure are both thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is characterized by delay in brain maturation, most prominent in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The D2 receptor is also mainly located in the PFC, and animal studies show that lead exposure affects the dopaminergic system of the frontal lobe, indicating an overlap in neural correlates of ADHD, DRD2, and lead exposure...
March 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Ke Nie, Kun Wang, Deng-Feng Huang, Yu-Bin Huang, Wu Yin, Da-Long Ren, Han Wang, Bing Hu
The circadian clock is an endogenous and entrainable time-keeping mechanism with a period of approximately 24 h, operated by transcription/translation feedback loops composed of circadian clock genes and their proteins. The visual system displays robust circadian changes. Relatively little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying visual circadian rhythmicity. Zebrafish period1b (per1b), as a canonical circadian clock gene, is involved in circadian regulation. Here, we observed that zebrafish per1b mutants exhibit visual defects including reduced behavioral contrast sensitivity and significant retinal dopaminergic deficiency...
November 20, 2017: Chronobiology International
Maurizio Cremonte, Davide Sisti, Ilaria Maraucci, Simona Giribone, Evelin Colombo, Marco Bruno Luigi Rocchi, Stefano Scoglio
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological condition with onset in childhood. The disorder is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and/or motor hyperactivity, which often affect the development and social integration of affected subjects. Phenylethylamine (PEA), naturally contained in the Klamath Lake microalgae and concentrated in the Klamin® extract, is an endogenous molecule with a general neuromodulatory activity. It functions as an activator for the neurotransmission of dopamine and other catecholamines, and very low concentrations of PEA may be associated with specific psychological disorders such as ADHD...
December 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
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