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juglans regia

D Wianowska, S Garbaczewska, A Cieniecka-Roslonkiewicz, A L Dawidowicz, A Jankowska
This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antifungal activity of extracts from walnut green husks of Lake, Koszycki, UO1, UO2 and non-grafted cultivars as well as juglone against the plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Phytophthora infestans as well as Ascosphaera apis causing chalkbrood disease in honey bees. The obtained data show that the antifungal activities of the extracts do not always depend on the antifungal activity of juglone, and that they can be modulated by their other components...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Hongmao Zhang, Wei Chu, Zhibin Zhang
It is not well investigated that cultivated trees affect seeding regeneration of their wild relatives that share similar seed dispersers of animals. Here, we investigated the differences in seed fates of cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) and wild Manchurian walnut (J. mandshurica) trees under rodent predation and dispersal. J. regia seeds have higher nutritional value (large size, mass and kernel mass) and lower mechanical defensiveness (thin endocarp) than J. mandshurica seeds. We tracked seeds of J. regia and J...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Zahra Gerivani, Elham Vashaee, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour, Mahnaz Aghdasi, Zahra-Sadat Shobbar, Majid Azimmohseni
Tree seed dormancy release by cold stratification accompanies with the embryo increased gluconeogenesis competence. Cyanide also breaks seed dormancy however, integrated information about its effects on carbon metabolism is lacking. Accordingly, the impacts of HCN on germination, lipid gluconeogenesis and sugar transport capacity of walnut (Juglans regia L.) kernels were investigated during 10-days period prior to radicle protrusion. HCN increased walnut kernel germination and within four days of kernel incubation, hastened the decline of starch, reducing and non-reducing sugars and led to greater activities of alkaline invertase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Raheleh Jahanbani, S Mahmood Ghaffari, Maryam Salami, Kourosh Vahdati, Houri Sepehri, Nazanin Namazi Sarvestani, Nader Sheibani, Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi
Walnut (Juglans regia L.) contains approximately 20-25 % protein with abundant essential amino acids. The enzymatic hydrolysate of Persian walnut (Chandler) seed proteins was prepared by incubation with three different proteases, including pancreatic chymotrypsin and trypsin, and a microbial enzyme proteinase K. The hydrolysates were found to possess excellent antioxidant capacities. The peptide fractions scavenged the 2, 2'-anizo-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radicals and inhibited the activity of reactive oxygen species...
September 27, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Nisha Panth, Keshav Raj Paudel, Rajendra Karki
Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part of J. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes mellitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J...
September 2016: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Antonia Nostro, Alessandra Guerrini, Andreana Marino, Massimo Tacchini, Mara Di Giulio, Alessandro Grandini, Methap Akin, Luigina Cellini, Giuseppe Bisignano, Hatice T Saraçoğlu
The identification of effective antimicrobial agents also active on biofilms is a topic of crucial importance in food and industrial environment. For that purpose methanol extracts of Turkish plants, Ficus carica L., Juglans regia L., Olea europaea L., Punica granatum L. and Rhus coriaria L., were investigated. Among the extracts, P. granatum L. and R. coriaria L. showed the best antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 78-625μg/ml for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and 312-1250μg/ml for Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Dongdong Bi, Yicheng Zhao, Rui Jiang, Yan Wang, Yuxin Tian, Xiaoyi Chen, Shaojuan Bai, Gaimei She
Walnuts are seeds with a hard shell from the genus Juglans (J. mandshurica, J. regia, J. sinensis, J. cathayensis, J. nigra and J. sigillata). Walnuts can nourish brain cells to improve human memory. Other parts of the plant are also employed as traditional Chinese medicines. Modern research on Juglans species has been mostly focused on the above-mentioned species, the seeds of which are all called walnuts. Juglans species have diverse chemical constituents, including diarylheptanoids, quinones, polyphenols, flavones and terpenes...
June 2016: Natural Product Communications
Gerasimia Tsasi, Tanja Milošević-Ifantis, Helen Skaltsa
Phytochemical research of different polarity extracts from green Juglans regia L. pericarps from Greece afforded 32 compounds: four pentacyclic triterpenes (1-4), three sesquiterpenes (5-7), four tetralones (8-11), two naphthoquinones (12-13), seven phenolic acids (14-20), one diarylheptanoid (21), one neo-lignan (22), seven flavonoids (23-29), two phenylethanoids (30-31) and one hydrolysed tannin (32). Compounds 4 and 29 are isolated for the first time from the species, while compounds 3, 7, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30 are reported for the first time in Juglandaceae...
July 28, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Ming-Chuan Liu, Sheng-Jie Yang, Da Hong, Jin-Ping Yang, Min Liu, Yun Lin, Chia-Hui Huang, Chao-Jih Wang
BACKGROUND: Walnut (Juglans regia L.), that belongs to the Juglandaceae family, is one of the nuts commonly found in Chinese diets. Researchers had obtained peptides from walnut protein hydrolysates, and these peptides exhibited the high antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and convenient method for a facile and reproducible preparation of antioxidant peptides from walnut protein hydrolysates. RESULTS: Walnut proteins were extracted from walnut kernels using continuous countercurrent extraction process, and were separately hydrolyzed with six types of proteases (neutrase, papain, bromelain, alcalase, pepsin, and pancreatin)...
2016: Chemistry Central Journal
Jin Wang, Shuangjie Liang, Huiling Ma, Pingping Zhang, Weina Shi
Fresh walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are in demand due to their high nutrition value and unique flavor of the kernel. In this study the effects of ethephon on decay control and kernel quality of fresh walnuts and its possible relationship with phenolic metabolism were investigated. Fresh in-husk walnuts treated with 0, 10, 500, and 800 mg/L ethephon were stored at 0 ± 0.5 °C for 42 d. Decay incidence, total phenolic (TP) compounds, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), polyphenol-oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) activities of green husks, and acid values (AV) and peroxide values (PV) of kernels were assessed at 6-d intervals...
August 2016: Journal of Food Science
Diana Labuckas, Damián Maestri, Alicia Lamarque
Aqueous ethanol extraction of partially defatted walnut flours provides a simple and reliable method to obtain extracts with high content of polyphenolic compounds. These were characterized by means of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analytical techniques and molecular parameters. Considering the whole set of polyphenolic compounds identified, a high average number of phenolic-OH groups was found. Although these represent potential hydrogen-atom transfer sites, which are associated with high free-radical scavenging capacity, results show that such a property could be strongly limited by the low lipophilicity of polyphenols affecting the accessibility of these molecules to lipid substrates...
May 2016: Natural Product Communications
Guodong Rao, Jinkai Sui, Jianguo Zhang
The content of walnut metabolites is related to its nutritive value and physiological characteristics, however, comprehensive information concerning the metabolome of walnut kernels is limited. In this study we analyzed the metabolites of walnut kernels at five developmental stages from filling to ripening using GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics; of a total 252 peaks identified, 85 metabolites were positively identified. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 85 metabolites covered different types of metabolism pathways...
2016: Biology Open
Hain Thanda Aung, Myint Myint Sein, Mya Mu Aye, Zaw Min Thu
Medicinal plants are a vital source of medication in developing countries. In Kachin State, Northern Myanmar, the people have a long history of the use of traditional plants for medicinal purposes. This article deals with the 25 most used medicinal plants in Kachin State. They are: Drynariafortunei, Tetrastigma serrulatum, Bauhinia championii, Goniothalamus cheliensis, Juglans regia, Houttuynia cordata, Osmanthus fragrans, Pothos chinensis, Tabemaemontana coronaria, Eryngiumfoetidum, Chloranthus spicatus, Peperomia pellucida, Zanthoxylum armatum, Polygonumfagopyrum, Cymbidiumfloribundum, Amomum kravanh, Coscinium fenestratum, Solanum nigrum, Gnetum parvifolium, Desmodium triquetum, Begonia augustinec, Mappianthus iodoides, Erycibe obtusifolia, Schefflera venulosa, Holarrhena antidysenterica...
March 2016: Natural Product Communications
Pedro J Martínez-García, Marc W Crepeau, Daniela Puiu, Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas, Jeanne Whalen, Kristian A Stevens, Robin Paul, Timothy S Butterfield, Monica T Britton, Russell L Reagan, Sandeep Chakraborty, Sriema L Walawage, Hans A Vasquez-Gross, Charis Cardeno, Randi A Famula, Kevin Pratt, Sowmya Kuruganti, Mallikarjuna K Aradhya, Charles A Leslie, Abhaya M Dandekar, Steven L Salzberg, Jill L Wegrzyn, Charles H Langley, David B Neale
The Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.), a diploid species native to the mountainous regions of Central Asia, is the major walnut species cultivated for nut production and is one of the most widespread tree nut species in the world. The high nutritional value of J. regia nuts is associated with a rich array of polyphenolic compounds, whose complete biosynthetic pathways are still unknown. A J. regia genome sequence was obtained from the cultivar 'Chandler' to discover target genes and additional unknown genes...
September 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
D Dzidziguri, M Rukhadze, I Modebadze, E Bakuradze, M Kurtanidze, V Giqoshvili
From the positive effects of the drugs prepared from various parts of walnut described for a wide variety of diseases, their antitumor effect is remarkable. This feature can be used for treatment of leukopenia caused by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Therefore, to study the immunocorrective properties of Greek walnut, the walnut septa were selected, aqueous extract of which has been studied on experimental model of leukopenia in white mice caused by a single injection of cyclophosphamide. The material of the study were the blood and bone marrow smears from intact and tested adult mice stained by Giemsa's dye...
March 2016: Georgian Medical News
Mohsin Ahmad Mir, R K Sharma, Ankur Rastogi, Keshab Barman
AIM: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incorporation of different level of walnut cake in concentrate mixture on in vitro dry matter degradation in order to determine its level of supplementation in ruminant ration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Walnut cake was used @ 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% level to formulate an iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixtures and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively. The different formulae of concentrate mixtures were used for in vitro gas production studies using goat rumen liquor with wheat straw in 40:60 ratio...
October 2015: Veterinary World
Nidal Amin Jaradat, Ola Ibrahim Ayesh, Cynthia Anderson
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Folk herbal medicine knowledge and its utilization by aboriginal cultures are not only useful for conservation of cultural traditions and biodiversity, but also useful for community healthcare and drug discovery in the present and in the future. AIM OF THE STUDY: Using a semi-structured questionnaire, an ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea in the West Bank/Palestine was investigated. RESULTS: Information about fifty medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea, including the names of plants, parts used, mode and methods of preparation was obtained from 100 traditional healers and herbalists...
April 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sandeep Chakraborty, Monica Britton, P J Martínez-García, Abhaya M Dandekar
Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level...
March 2016: AMB Express
Tian-Peng Yin, Le Cai, Yang Chen, Ying Li, Ya-Rong Wang, Chuan-Shui Liu, Zhong-Tao Ding
The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the acetone extract and derived fractions from the walnut (Juglans regia) pellicle were estimated. The BuOH fraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with the highest phenolic content. A phytochemical investigation of this fraction led to the isolation of three tannins, 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose (1), pedunculagin (2) and 2,3,4,6-tetragalloylglucose (3). Pedunculagin showed high content and powerful activity, which implied that this compound plays an important role in the antioxidant activity of the walnut pellicle...
December 2015: Natural Product Communications
Sophie Cesbron, Martial Briand, Salwa Essakhi, Sophie Gironde, Tristan Boureau, Charles Manceau, Marion Fischer-Le Saux, Marie-Agnès Jacques
The bacterial species Xanthomonas arboricola contains plant pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. It includes the pathogen X. arboricola pv. juglandis, causing the bacterial blight of Juglans regia. The emergence of a new bacterial disease of J. regia in France called vertical oozing canker (VOC) was previously described and the causal agent was identified as a distinct genetic lineage within the pathovar juglandis. Symptoms on walnut leaves and fruits are similar to those of a bacterial blight but VOC includes also cankers on trunk and branches...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
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