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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544689/class-ii-obese-and-healthy-pregnant-controls-exhibit-indistinguishable-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-immune-responses-to-caesarian-section
#1
Caroline Graham, Mullein Thorleifson, William P Stefura, Duane J Funk, Kent T HayGlass
INTRODUCTION: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with meta-inflammation and an increased likelihood of clinical complications. Surgery results in intense, acute inflammatory responses in any individual. Because obese individuals exhibit constitutive inflammatory responses and high rates of Caesarian section, it is important to understand the impact of surgery in such populations. Whether more pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and/or counterbalancing changes in anti-inflammatory immune modulators occurs is unknown...
May 25, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544542/conditional-macrophage-depletion-increases-inflammation-and-does-not-inhibit-the-development-of-osteoarthritis-in-obese-mafia-mice
#2
Chia-Lung Wu, Jenna McNeill, Kelsey Goon, Dianne Little, Kelly Kimmerling, Janet Huebner, Virginia Kraus, Farshid Guilak
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages are believed to play a critical role in the inflammation associated with the development of osteoarthritis (OA) in obesity. The objective of the study was to investigate whether short-term, systemic depletion of macrophages would mitigate OA following injury in obese mice. METHODS: CSF-1R-GFP(+) Macrophage Fas-Induced Apoptosis (MaFIA) transgenic mice that allow conditional depletion of macrophages were placed on a high-fat diet and underwent surgery to induce knee OA...
May 23, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544341/synthesized-enone-fatty-acids-resembling-metabolites-from-gut-microbiota-suppress-macrophage-mediated-inflammation-in-adipocytes
#3
Ha-Eun Yang, Yongjia Li, Akira Nishimura, Huei-Fen Jheng, Ana Yuliana, Ryuji Kitano-Ohue, Wataru Nomura, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Chu-Sook Kim, Rina Yu, Nahoko Kitamura, Si-Bum Park, Shigenobu Kishino, Jun Ogawa, Teruo Kawada, Tsuyoshi Goto
SCOPE: Recent reports indicate that gut microbiota and their metabolite may regulate inflammatory conditions, including the chronic inflammation of obese adipose tissues, in the host. In this study, we investigated whether specific synthesized fatty acids, identical to the metabolites generated by gut microbiota, act as anti-inflammatory factors in inflammation-induced obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We first used lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of fatty acids synthesized to resemble representative polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites from gut microbiota...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543436/prenatal-environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-increases-allergic-asthma-risk-with-methylation-changes-in-mice
#4
Sonja Christensen, Zeina Jaffar, Elizabeth Cole, Virginia Porter, Maria Ferrini, Britten Postma, Kent E Pinkerton, Mihi Yang, Yang Jee Kim, Luke Montrose, Kevan Roberts, Andrij Holian, Yoon Hee Cho
Allergic asthma remains an inadequately understood disease. In utero exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been identified as an environmental exposure that can increase an individual's asthma risk. To improve our understanding of asthma onset and development, we examined the effect of in utero ETS exposure on allergic disease susceptibility in an asthmatic phenotype using a house dust mite (HDM) allergen-induced murine model. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either filtered air or ETS during gestation, and their offspring were further exposed to HDM at 6-7 weeks old to induce allergic inflammation...
May 25, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543409/synergic-and-antagonistic-relationship-between-mmp-2-and-mmp-9-with-fibrosis-and-inflammation-in-chagas-cardiomyopathy
#5
REVIEW
Nayara I Medeiros, Juliana A S Gomes, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira
Cardiomyopathy is the most important clinical manifestation in the chronic phase of Chagas disease because of its frequency, severity and impact on morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix degradation during cardiac remodeling in Trypanosoma cruzi infection is driven by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), primarily the MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinases. MMPs also regulate some molecules related to inflammation, such as growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. The involvement of MMP-2 and MMP-9 is not yet fully understood in Chagas disease...
May 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543283/targeting-pp2a-and-proteasome-activity-ameliorates-features-of-allergic-airway-disease-in-mice
#6
Prema M Nair, Malcolm R Starkey, Tatt Jhong Haw, Gang Liu, Jay C Horvat, Jonathan C Morris, Nikki M Verrills, Andrew R Clark, Alaina J Ammit, Philip M Hansbro
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an allergic airway disease (AAD) caused by aberrant immune responses to allergens. Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase with anti-inflammatory activity. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) controls many cellular processes, including the initiation of inflammatory responses by protein degradation. We assessed if enhancing PP2A activity with Fingolimod (FTY720) or 2-amino-4-(4-(heptyloxy) phenyl)-2-methylbutan-1-ol (AAL(S) ), or inhibiting proteasome activity with Bortezomib (BORT) could suppress experimental AAD...
May 24, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543170/specific-activation-of-cd4-cd8-double-negative-t-cells-by-t-cruzi-derived-glycolipids-induces-a-pro-inflammatory-profile-associated-with-cardiomyopathy-in-chagas-patients
#7
Lívia Silva Araújo Passos, Luísa Mourão Dias Magalhães, Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Alexandre F Marques, Maria do Carmo Pereira Nunes, Kenneth J Gollob, Walderez Ornelas Dutra
Cardiomyopathy is the most severe outcome of Chagas disease, causing over 12,000 deaths/year. Immune cells participate in cardiomyopathy development either by direct tissue destruction, or by driving inflammation. We have shown that CD4-CD8- (double negative - DN) T cells are major sources of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, associated with the cardiac (CARD) and indeterminate (IND) forms of Chagas disease, respectively. Here, we sought to identify Trypanosoma cruzi derived components that lead to activation of DN T cells in Chagas patients...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542929/the-immune-response-to-prevotella-bacteria-in-chronic-inflammatory-disease
#8
REVIEW
Jeppe Madura Larsen
The microbiota plays a central role in human health and disease by shaping immune development, immune responses, metabolism, and protecting from invading pathogens. Technical advances that allow comprehensive characterization of microbial communities by genetic sequencing have sparked the hunt for disease modulating bacteria. Emerging studies in humans have linked increased abundance of Prevotella species at mucosal sites to localized and systemic disease, including periodontitis, bacterial vaginosis, rheumatoid arthritis, metabolic disorders, and low-grade systemic inflammation...
May 19, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542719/ibuprofen-and-diclofenac-treatments-reduce-proliferation-of-pancreatic-acinar-cells-upon-inflammatory-injury-and-mitogenic-stimulation
#9
Marta Bombardo, Ermanno Malagola, Rong Chen, Alina Rudnicka, Rolf Graf, Sabrina Sonda
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are administered to manage pain typically found in patients suffering from pancreatitis. NSAIDs also display anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells, however their effects in normal, untransformed cells is poorly understood. Here we evaluated whether NSAIDs inhibit proliferation of pancreatic acinar cells during the development of acute pancreatitis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The NSAIDs ibuprofen and diclofenac were administered to C57BL/6 mice after induction of pancreatitis with serial injection of cerulein...
May 19, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542626/the-relationship-between-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-pain-appetite-and-fatigue-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#10
Ørnulf Paulsen, Barry Laird, Nina Aass, Tor Lea, Peter Fayers, Stein Kaasa, Pål Klepstad
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation is associated with reduced quality of life and increased symptoms in patients with advanced cancer. The aims of this study were to examine the relationships between inflammatory biomarkers and the Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) of pain, appetite and fatigue; and to explore whether levels of baseline biomarkers were associated with changes in these PROMs following treatment with corticosteroids. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An exploratory analysis was done on a trial examining the analgesic properties of corticosteroids in patients with advanced cancer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542588/inhibition-of-hmgb1-protects-the-retina-from-ischemia-reperfusion-as-well-as-reduces-insulin-resistance-proteins
#11
Li Liu, Youde Jiang, Jena J Steinle
The role of inflammation in diabetic retinal amage is well accepted. While a number of cytokines and inflammatory mediators are responsible for these changes, upstream regulators are less well studied. Additionally, the role for these upstream mediators in retinal health is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that inhibition of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) could restore normal insulin signaling in retinal endothelial cells (REC) grown in high glucose, as well as protect the retina against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced retinal damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542438/chemically-induced-disseminated-pythiosis-in-balb-c-mice-a-new-experimental-model-for-pythium-insidiosum-infection
#12
Juliana S M Tondolo, Érico S Loreto, Pauline C Ledur, Francielli P K Jesus, Taiara M Silva, Glaucia D Kommers, Sydney H Alves, Janio M Santurio
Pythiosis is a severe and life-threatening disease that affects humans and various animal species. We report a model of vascular/disseminated pythiosis occurring after subcutaneous inoculation of 2 x 104 Pythium insidiosum zoospores/mL in immunocompromised BALB/c mice. For this model, we carried out two rounds of experiments. First, we evaluated two protocols of immunosuppression before inoculation: cyclophosphamide at 150 mg/kg (CYP group) and cyclophosphamide 200 mg/kg plus hydrocortisone acetate at 250 mg/kg (CYP+HCA group)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542419/in-vivo-oxidized-albumin-a-pro-inflammatory-agent-in-hypoalbuminemia
#13
Faiga Magzal, Shifra Sela, Andrea Szuchman-Sapir, Snait Tamir, Regina Michelis, Batya Kristal
Hypoalbuminemia of Hemodialysis (HD) patients is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, however, there is no mechanistic explanation between hypoalbuminemia and vascular injury. In the event of oxidative stress and inflammation to which HD patients are exposed, albumin is oxidized and undetected by common laboratory methods, rendering an apparent hypoalbuminemia. We wanted to show that these circulating modified oxidized albumin molecules cause direct vascular damage, mediating inflammation. Once these in-vivo albumin modifications were reduced in- vitro, the apparent hypoalbuminemia concomitantly with its inflammatory effects, were eliminated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542410/gla-rich-protein-function-as-an-anti-inflammatory-agent-in-monocytes-macrophages-implications-for-calcification-related-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#14
Carla S B Viegas, Rúben M Costa, Lúcia Santos, Paula A Videira, Zélia Silva, Nuna Araújo, Anjos L Macedo, António P Matos, Cees Vermeer, Dina C Simes
Calcification-related chronic inflammatory diseases are multifactorial pathological processes, involving a complex interplay between inflammation and calcification events in a positive feed-back loop driving disease progression. Gla-rich protein (GRP) is a vitamin K dependent protein (VKDP) shown to function as a calcification inhibitor in cardiovascular and articular tissues, and proposed as an anti-inflammatory agent in chondrocytes and synoviocytes, acting as a new crosstalk factor between these two interconnected events in osteoarthritis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542361/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-blockade-enables-dexamethasone-to-inhibit-lipopolysaccharide-induced-murine-lung-neutrophils
#15
Jesus Banuelos, Yun Cao, Soon Cheon Shin, Bruce S Bochner, Pedro Avila, Shihong Li, Xin Jiang, Mark W Lingen, Robert P Schleimer, Nick Z Lu
Glucocorticoids promote neutrophilic inflammation, the mechanisms of which are poorly characterized. Using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute murine lung injury model, we determined the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mouse lung neutrophil numbers in the absence and presence of dexamethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. G-CSF was blocked using a neutralizing antibody. Airway neutrophil numbers, cytokine levels, and lung injury parameters were measured. Glucocorticoid treatment maintained LPS-induced airway G-CSF while suppressing TNF and IL-6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542159/clonorchis-sinensis-antigens-alter-hepatic-macrophage-polarization-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Eun-Min Kim, You Shine Kwak, Myung-Hee Yi, Ju Yeong Kim, Woon-Mok Sohn, Tai-Soon Yong
Clonorchis sinensis infection elicits hepatic inflammation, which can lead to cholangitis, periductal hepatic fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatic macrophages are an intrinsic element of both innate and acquired immunity. This study was conducted to demonstrate the dynamics of hepatic macrophage polarization during C. sinensis infection in mice and to identify factors regulating this polarization. Treatment of hepatic macrophages isolated from normal mice with C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESPs) resulted in the preferential generation of classically activated hepatic macrophages (M1 macrophages) and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
May 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541488/the-role-of-il-12-23-in-t-cell-related-chronic-inflammation-implications-of-immunodeficiency-and-therapeutic-blockade
#17
Anna Schurich, Charles Raine, Vanessa Morris, Coziana Ciurtin
In this review we discuss the divergent role of two closely related cytokines, IL-12 and IL-23, in shaping immune responses. In light of current therapeutic developments using biologic agents to block these two pathways, a better understanding of the immunological function of these cytokines is pivotal.
May 24, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540823/the-effects-of-hyperthermia-on-the-immunomodulatory-properties-of-human-umbilical-cord-vein-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs
#18
Shilan Hesami, Mehdi Mohammadi, Mohamad Ali Rezaee, Ali Jalili, Mohammad Reza Rahmani
PURPOSE: Hyperthermia can modulate inflammation and the immune response. Based on the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to inflamed tissues and the immunomodulatory properties of these cells, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of hyperthermia on the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Passages 4-6 of human umbilical cord vein mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured in a two-way MLR...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540715/the-role-of-endothelial-lipase-in-lipid-metabolism-inflammation-and-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Justine E Yu, Shu-Yan Han, Benjamin Wolfson, Qun Zhou
Endothelial lipase (LIPG) plays a critical role in lipoprotein metabolism, cytokine expression, and the lipid composition of cells. Thus far, the extensive investigations of LIPG have focused on its mechanisms and involvement in metabolic syndromes such as atherosclerosis. However, recent developments have found that LIPG plays a role in cancer. This review summarizes the field of LIPG study. We focus on the role of LIPG in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response, and highlight the recent insights in its involvement in tumor progression...
May 25, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540539/involvements-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-lymphocytes-in-acute-and-chronic-skin-wound-repair
#20
Peng Xu, Xiujun Fu, Nin Xiao, Yuanyuan Guo, Qing Pei, Yinbo Peng, Yifan Zhang, Min Yao
Wound healing involves three stages including inflammation, proliferation, and tissue remodeling. The underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. The inflammation is characterized by spatially and temporally changing patterns of various leukocyte subsets. It is regarded as the most crucial stage since the inflammatory response is instrumental to supplying various factors and cytokines that orchestrate healing events. As a subtype of T lymphocytes, γδ T cells play an important role in skin homeostasis, tumor immunosurveillance, and wound repair...
May 25, 2017: Inflammation
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