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inflammation + cytokines

H-O Chen, L Zhang, Z-Y Tang, Z-M Gong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether microRNA-485-5p (miR-485-5p) can participate in osteoarthritis by inhibiting chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and promoting the secretion of inflammatory factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BMSCs were obtained from mouse bone marrow samples and identified by flow cytometry. The expression of specific genes and miR-485-5p in the differentiation of BMSCs was detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Enrico Maggi
OBJECTIVES: In the last decades the knowledge on pathogenetic mechanisms of allergic diseases extraordinarily improved with relevant clinical outputs. From the '90yrs we know that Th2 cells are essential for allergic inflammation, since they produce type 2 cytokines, recognise allergens, induce IgE switch on B cells and recruit mastcells and eosinophils into tissues for maintaining the flogosis. METHODS: Recently a new subset of innate immunity (ILC2) have been shown to amplify the allergic inflammation...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Kübra Can, Uğur Aksu, Osman Şadi Yenen
Background/aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PhiKZ phage therapy and meropenem alone or combined treatments in a pneumonia mouse model induced by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 strain. The cross-talk between lungs and kidneys was also determined. Materials and methods: The systemic, lung-specific, and kidney-specific inflammation levels and the bacterial load in lung tissue and biochemical parameters were investigated after PhiKZ phage therapy and meropenem alone or combined treatments in a pneumonia mouse model induced by the P...
June 14, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Ana Ortiz-Rodriguez, Estefania Acaz-Fonseca, Patricia Boya, Maria Angeles Arevalo, Luis M Garcia-Segura
Obesity is associated with an increase in the brain levels of saturated free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid (PA). Previous studies have shown that PA exerts proinflammatory actions and reduces cell viability in astrocyte cultures. In this study, we have assessed whether an alteration in autophagy is involved in the effects of PA on astrocytes. Primary astrocytes were obtained from the cerebral cortex of male and female CD1 mouse pups and were incubated for 4.5 or 24 h with 250-500 μM PA. PA increased the levels of LC3-II, an autophagosome marker, and reduced LC3-II flux in astrocytes, suggesting a blockade of autophagy...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Bharat Bajantri, Dmitry Lvovsky
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a disorder of sleep breathing that is a result of recurrent and intermittent hypoxia during sleep induced by the repeated partial or complete collapse of the upper airway, eventually causing chronic intermittent hypoxia. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is divided into non-alcoholic fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Animal and human studies showed that obesity is associated with chronic liver hypoxia, even in the presence of systemic normoxia causing inflammation and release of cytokines...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini, Marta Di Nicola, Italo Porfilio, Clara de Andrés, Lidia Fernández-Paredes, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Livia Pasquali
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in which inflammation plays a key role in the induction, development, and progression. Most of the MS patients present with relapsing-remitting (RR) form, characterized by flare-ups followed by periods of recovery. Many inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been proposed as backers in MS pathogenesis, and the balance between these differing cytokines can regulate MS severity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jun Deng, Chaofan Fan, Xin Gao, Qunxiong Zeng, Ruru Guo, Yunbo Wei, Zhian Chen, Yanan Chen, Dongcheng Gong, Jia Feng, Yan Xia, Shifei Xiang, Shushi Gong, Lin Yuan, Wei Shen, Wenyan Shen, Lin Lin, Ting Jiang, Dongyi He, Liangjing Lu, Xiaoxiang Chen, Di Yu
Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are the specialized CD4+ T cell subset that supports B cells to produce high-affinity antibodies and generate humoral memory. Not only is the function of Tfh cells instrumental to mount protect antibodies but also to support autoantibody production and promote systemic inflammation in autoimmune diseases. However, it remains unclear how the activation of Tfh cells is driven in autoimmune diseases. Here, we report that in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), excessive generation of CXCR5+ PD-1+ memory Tfh cells was observed and the frequency of memory Tfh cells correlated with disease activity score calculator for RA (DAS28)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mieke Gouwy, Mieke De Buck, Sara Abouelasrar Salama, Jennifer Vandooren, Sofie Knoops, Noëmie Pörtner, Lotte Vanbrabant, Nele Berghmans, Ghislain Opdenakker, Paul Proost, Jo Van Damme, Sofie Struyf
Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) is a prototypic acute phase protein, induced to extremely high levels by physical insults, including inflammation and infection. Human SAA and its NH2 -terminal part have been studied extensively in the context of amyloidosis. By contrast, little is known about COOH-terminal fragments of SAA. Intact SAA1 chemoattracts leukocytes via the G protein-coupled receptor formyl peptide receptor like 1/formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). In addition to direct leukocyte activation, SAA1 induces chemokine production by signaling through toll-like receptor 2...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
L A Abdulkhaleq, M A Assi, Rasedee Abdullah, M Zamri-Saad, Y H Taufiq-Yap, M N M Hezmee
The inflammatory response is a crucial aspect of the tissues' responses to deleterious inflammogens. This complex response involves leukocytes cells such as macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, also known as inflammatory cells. In response to the inflammatory process, these cells release specialized substances which include vasoactive amines and peptides, eicosanoids, proinflammatory cytokines, and acute-phase proteins, which mediate the inflammatory process by preventing further tissue damage and ultimately resulting in healing and restoration of tissue function...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Shu-Huei Wang, Tse-Ya Yu, Chi-Sheng Hung, Chung-Yi Yang, Mao-Shin Lin, Chien-Yin Su, Yuh-Lien Chen, Hsien-Li Kao, Lee-Ming Chuang, Feng-Chiao Tsai, Hung-Yuan Li
Inflammation, oxidative stress, and the formation of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs) are important components of atherosclerosis. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) participates in inflammation. Its enzymatic activity, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), can catalyze oxidative deamination reactions to produce hydrogen peroxide and aldehydes, leading to the subsequent generation of AGEs. This study aimed to investigate the effect of VAP-1/SSAO inhibition on atherosclerosis. In our study, immunohistochemical staining showed that atherosclerotic plaques displayed higher VAP-1 expression than normal arterial walls in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, cholesterol-fed New Zealand White rabbits and humans...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jonathan B Rothbard, Jesse J Rothbard, Luis Soares, C Garrison Fathman, Lawrence Steinman
Although certain dogma portrays amyloid fibrils as drivers of neurodegenerative disease and neuroinflammation, we have found, paradoxically, that amyloid fibrils and small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). They reduce clinical paralysis and induce immunosuppressive pathways, diminishing inflammation. A key question was the identification of the target for these molecules. When sHsps and amyloid fibrils were chemically cross-linked to immune cells, a limited number of proteins were precipitated, including the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 NAChR)...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Glen M Scholz, Jacqueline E Heath, Jiamin Aw, Eric C Reynolds
IL-36 cytokines are important regulators of mucosal homeostasis and inflammation. We have previously established that oral epithelial cells upregulate IL-36γ expression in response to the bacterial pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis Here, we have established that IL-36γ can stimulate the gene expression of mechanistically-distinct antimicrobial proteins, including the peptidoglycan amidase PGLYRP2, in oral epithelial cells (e.g. TIGK cells). PGLYRP2 gene expression was not stimulated by either IL-17 or IL-22, and thus demonstrating selectivity in the regulation of PGLYRP2 by IL-36γ...
June 18, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Hadi Khodabandehloo, ShadiSadat Seyyedebrahimi, Ensieh Nasli Esfahani, Farideh Razi, Reza Meshkani
Chronic low-grade inflammation is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although in vitro and animal studies have shown that resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory effects, clinical trials addressing these effects in patients with T2D are limited. Therefore, in the present study, we hypothesized that supplementation of resveratrol might improve inflammatory markers in patients with T2D in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 45 T2D patients were supplemented with either of 800 mg/d resveratrol or placebo capsules for 8 weeks...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
Taraneh Moini Zanjani, Masoumeh Sabetkasaei, Behnaz Karimian, Farzaneh Labibi, Babak Farokhi, Nariman Mossafa
Background Evidence for a role of immune system in hyperalgesic pain states is increasing. Recent work in neuroimmunology suggests that the immune system does more than simply perform its well known functions of recognizing and removing invading pathogens and tumors. Interest in neuroinflammation and neuroimmune activation has grown rapidly in recent years with the recognition of the role of central nervous system inflammatiom and immune responses in the aetiology of pain states. Among various theories, the role of inflammatory responses of the injured nerve has recently received attention...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Elisabeth Hansson
Nociceptive and neuropathic pain signals are known to result from noxious stimuli, which are converted into electrical impulses within tissue nociceptors. There is a complex equilibrium of pain-signalling and pain-relieving pathways connecting PNS and CNS. Drugs against long-term pain are today directed against increased neuronal excitability, mostly with less success. An injury often starts with acute physiological pain, which becomes inflammatory, nociceptive, or neuropathic, and may be transferred into long-term pain...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Elisabeth Hansson, Linda Block, Johan Forshammar, Christopher Lundborg, Björn Biber
Background Long-term or chronic pain represents a major health problem and is associated with significant socio-economic costs. During injury, pain can be dissociated from its normal physiological role. It can persist for a longer period of time, even after the primary noxious stimulus has more or less subsided. Analgesic drugs, with predominant neuronal sites of actions, seem to be relatively ineffective. Chronic pain is probably partly a consequence of ongoing neuroinflammation. The mechanisms behind these phenomena, and how the neuronal and non-neuronal activities evoked by painful stimuli and inflammation are processed in the brain and throughout the CNS, are not well understood...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
E Hansson, L Block, U Björklund, B Biber
Aims In inflammation-reactive astrocytes the cell parameters, Ca2+ signalling, Na+ transporters, cytoskeleton, and release of proinflammatory cytokines are affected. We want to re-establish these parameters with agents, which might have a potential to restore the cells back to a normal non-inflammatory level. Methods Astrocytes in primary cultures were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 ng/ml) for 24 h to become inflammation-reactive. Different parameters were analysed to verify this inflammation: Ca2+ signalling, Na+/K+-ATPase expression, actin filament organization, and interleukin-1beta release (IL-1β)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Jung Sook Yeom, Young Hye Cho, Chung Mo Koo, Jin Su Jun, Ji Sook Park, Eun Sil Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Jae-Young Lim, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn
Cerebral vasculitis is thought to be a possible underlying mechanism of severe neurological complications of Kawasaki's disease (KD), such as cerebral infarct or aneurysm rupture. To evaluate the intracranial inflammatory response in patients with acute-stage KD, we measured the levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with KD ( n  = 7) and compared the levels to those of the age- and sex-matched febrile control patients (bacterial meningitis [ n  = 5], enteroviral meningitis [ n  = 10], nonspecific viral illness without central nervous system involvement [ n  = 10])...
June 18, 2018: Neuropediatrics
Chao Wu, Zujin Luo, Baosen Pang, Wenyi Wang, Mingqin Deng, Rong Jin, Xirennayi Muhataer, Yafang Li, Qifeng Li, Xiaohong Yang
Background/Aims Pigeon breeder's lung (PBL) results from Th1/Th2 cell imbalance. B cells inhibit the immune activity of Th1, and EBF3 is a key B cell factor. This study explored the relationship between EBF3 and Th1/Th2 imbalance in chronic PBL cases complicated with pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Methods Twenty Uygur PBL+PF patients, 20 pigeon breeders without PBL or PF, and 20 healthy individuals without pigeon breeding history constituted the patient I, negative control, and normal control groups, respectively...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Pang-Hu Zhou, Bo Qiu, Rong-Hui Deng, Hua-Jie Li, Xiong-Feng Xu, Xi-Fu Shang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interleukin (IL)-1β plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) can prevent the generation of active IL-1β. This study aimed to explore the chondroprotective effects of hyaluronic acid-chitosan nanoparticles containing plasmid DNA encoding CrmA (HA/CS-CrmA) in a rat OA model. METHODS: HA/CS-CrmA nanoparticles were synthesized through the complex coacervation of cationic polymers. The characteristics, toxicity, and transfection of the nanoparticles were investigated...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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