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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020122/informality-and-employment-vulnerability-application-in-sellers-with-subsistence-work
#1
María Osley Garzón-Duque, María Doris Cardona-Arango, Fabio León Rodríguez-Ospina, Angela María Segura-Cardona
OBJECTIVE: To describe the origin, evolution, and application of the concept of employment vulnerability in workers who subsist on street sales. METHODS: We have carried out an analysis of the literature in database in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, without restriction by country. This is a review of the gray literature of government reports, articles, and documents from Latin America and the Caribbean. We have analyzed information on the informal economy, social-employment vulnerability, and subsistence workers...
October 5, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016637/social-networks-market-transactions-and-reputation-as-a-central-resource-the-mercado-del-mar-a-fish-market-in-central-mexico
#2
Carmen Pedroza-Gutiérrez, Juan M Hernández
Fish consumption in Mexico is considered low (around 12 kg per person per year) and non-homogeneously distributed across the country. One of the reasons for this situation is the scarcity of wholesale selling sites. In this context, the Mercado del Mar (MM), located in Guadalajara city, Jalisco, is the second biggest wholesale fish market in Mexico, with a distribution of about 500 tons per day and a variety of about 350 different species of fish. In this paper, we argue that MM has accumulated social capital, which is formed from two main resources: buyer and seller relationships, and reputation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980856/cryogel-scaffolds-from-patient-specific-3d-printed-molds-for-personalized-tissue-engineered-bone-regeneration-in-pediatric-cleft-craniofacial-defects
#3
Katherine R Hixon, Alexa M Melvin, Alexander Y Lin, Andrew F Hall, Scott A Sell
Bone defects are extremely common in children with cleft-craniofacial conditions, especially those with alveolar cleft defects and cranial defects. This study used patient-specific 3D-printed molds derived from computed tomography and cryogel scaffold fabrication as a proof of concept for the creation of site-specific implants for bone reconstruction. Cryogel scaffolds are unique tissue-engineered constructs formed at sub-zero temperatures. When thawed, the resulting structure is macroporous, sponge-like, and mechanically durable...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833836/assessing-the-infection-risk-of-enteropathogens-from-consumption-of-raw-vegetables-washed-with-contaminated-water-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#4
Shankar Shrestha, Eiji Haramoto, Junko Shindo
AIMS: To assess diarrheal risks from enteropathogenic E. coli, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium from consuming raw spinach, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. METHODS AND RESULTS: The annual infection risk was quantified using the probabilistic Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment approach, which considered 12 vegetable washing combinations. A new model was used to estimate dose of pathogens per exposure comprising parameters such as pathogen concentration in vegetable wash water before selling and eating, vegetable consumption rate, remaining pathogen ratio after washing, remaining water on vegetables after washing, and water treatment removal efficiency...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812222/ethics-and-phishing-experiments
#5
David B Resnik, Peter R Finn
Phishing is a fraudulent form of email that solicits personal or financial information from the recipient, such as a password, username, or social security or bank account number. The scammer may use the illicitly obtained information to steal the victim's money or identity or sell the information to another party. The direct costs of phishing on consumers are exceptionally high and have risen substantially over the past 12 years. Phishing experiments that simulate real world conditions can provide cybersecurity experts with valuable knowledge they can use to develop effective countermeasures and prevent people from being duped by phishing emails...
August 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807658/self-reported-participation-in-voluntary-nonprescription-syringe-sales-in-california-s-central-valley
#6
Robin A Pollini
OBJECTIVES: California Senate Bill 41 (SB41), effective January 2012, is a human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus prevention measure designed to expand syringe access among injection drug users (IDUs) by allowing pharmacies to sell syringes without a prescription. This study assesses self-reported implementation of SB41 and characterizes barriers amenable to intervention. DESIGN: Interviewer-administered survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Fresno and Kern Counties, CA...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716928/support-for-redistribution-is-shaped-by-compassion-envy-and-self-interest-but-not-a-taste-for-fairness
#7
Daniel Sznycer, Maria Florencia Lopez Seal, Aaron Sell, Julian Lim, Roni Porat, Shaul Shalvi, Eran Halperin, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby
Why do people support economic redistribution? Hypotheses include inequity aversion, a moral sense that inequality is intrinsically unfair, and cultural explanations such as exposure to and assimilation of culturally transmitted ideologies. However, humans have been interacting with worse-off and better-off individuals over evolutionary time, and our motivational systems may have been naturally selected to navigate the opportunities and challenges posed by such recurrent interactions. We hypothesize that modern redistribution is perceived as an ancestral scene involving three notional players: the needy other, the better-off other, and the actor herself...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716290/yarsagumba-fungus-health-problems-in-the-himalayan-gold-rush
#8
Pranawa Koirala, Bidur Pandit, Pratibha Phuyal, Ken Zafren
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal migration of people in search of Yarsagumba fungus creates a population of collectors that faces hardship and health risks in austere high-altitude settings. METHODS: In 2016, our 4-person team performed a 2-day health-needs survey of people collecting Yarsagumba fungus near the village of Yak Kharka (4020 m) in the Manang District of Nepal. RESULTS: There were approximately 800 people, both male and female, from age 10 to over 60, collecting Yarsagumba fungus...
July 14, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698998/does-organ-selling-violate-human-dignity
#9
Zümrüt Alpinar-Şencan, Holger Baumann, Nikola Biller-Andorno
Shortages in the number of donated organs after death and the growing number of end-stage organ failure patients on waiting lists call for looking at alternatives to increase the number of organs that could be used for transplantation purposes. One option that has led to a legal and ethical debate is to have regulated markets in human organs. Opponents of a market in human organs offer different arguments that are mostly founded on contingent factors that can be adjusted. However, some authors have asked the question whether we still have a reason to believe that there is something wrong with offering human organs for sale for transplantation purposes, even if the circumstances under which the practice takes place are improved...
July 11, 2017: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697765/deregulation-of-sale-of-over-the-counter-drugs-outside-of-pharmacies-in-the-republic-of-korea-interrupted-time-series-analysis-of-outpatient-visits-before-and-after-the-policy
#10
Sung-Youn Chun, Hye-Ki Park, Kyu-Tae Han, Woorim Kim, Hyo-Jung Lee, Eun-Cheol Park
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effectiveness of a policy allowing for the sale of over-the-counter drugs outside of pharmacies by examining its effect on number of monthly outpatient visits for acute upper respiratory infections, dyspepsia, and migraine. METHOD: We used medical claims data extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance Cohort Database from 2009 to 2013. The Korean National Health Insurance Cohort Database comprises a nationally representative sample of claims - about 2% of the entire population - obtained from the medical record data held by the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation (which has data on the entire nation)...
July 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668649/the-grammar-of-anger-mapping-the-computational-architecture-of-a-recalibrational-emotion
#11
Aaron Sell, Daniel Sznycer, Laith Al-Shawaf, Julian Lim, Andre Krauss, Aneta Feldman, Ruxandra Rascanu, Lawrence Sugiyama, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby
According to the recalibrational theory of anger, anger is a computationally complex cognitive system that evolved to bargain for better treatment. Anger coordinates facial expressions, vocal changes, verbal arguments, the withholding of benefits, the deployment of aggression, and a suite of other cognitive and physiological variables in the service of leveraging bargaining position into better outcomes. The prototypical trigger of anger is an indication that the offender places too little weight on the angry individual's welfare when making decisions, i...
November 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608829/providing-a-clean-environment-for-adolescents-evaluation-of-the-tobacco-hazards-prevention-act-in-taiwan
#12
Min-Li Chen, Li-Na Chou, Ya-Cheng Zheng
Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1) to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2) to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582948/the-big-sell-managing-stigma-and-workplace-discrimination-following-moderate-to-severe-brain-injury
#13
Mary Stergiou-Kita, Alisa Grigorovich, Thecla Damianakis, Guylaine Le Dorze, Christine David, Carolyn Lemsky, Debbie Hebert
BACKGROUND: Misperceptions regarding persons with brain injuries (PWBI) can lead to stigmatization, workplace discrimination and, in turn, influence PWBIs full vocational integration. OBJECTIVE: In this study we explored how stigma may influence return-to-work processes, experiences of stigma and discrimination at the workplace for persons with (moderate to severe) brain injuries, and strategies that can be employed to manage disclosure. METHODS: Exploratory qualitative study; used in-depth interviews and an inductive thematic analytical approach in data analysis...
June 1, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554602/the-relationship-between-diversion-related-attitudes-and-sharing-and-selling-buprenorphine
#14
Shannon R Kenney, Bradley J Anderson, Genie L Bailey, Michael D Stein
OBJECTIVE: Buprenorphine medication-assisted treatment (B-MAT) is an efficacious and popular outpatient treatment for opioid use disorder. However, the likelihood of buprenorphine diversion is a public health concern. We examined the relationship between attitudes toward diversion as predictors of both sharing and selling buprenorphine. METHOD: Participants (n=476) were patients undergoing short-term inpatient opioid detoxification. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of sharing and selling buprenorphine with demographics, substance use behaviors, and attitudes toward sharing and selling buprenorphine...
July 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480485/long-term-lithium-treatment-in-bipolar-disorder-effects-on-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-other-metabolic-parameters
#15
Leonardo Tondo, Maria Abramowicz, Martin Alda, Michael Bauer, Alberto Bocchetta, Lorenza Bolzani, Cynthia V Calkin, Caterina Chillotti, Diego Hidalgo-Mazzei, Mirko Manchia, Bruno Müller-Oerlinghausen, Andrea Murru, Giulio Perugi, Marco Pinna, Giuseppe Quaranta, Daniela Reginaldi, Andreas Reif, Philipp Ritter, Janusz K Rybakowski, David Saiger, Gabriele Sani, Valerio Selle, Thomas Stamm, Gustavo H Vázquez, Julia Veeh, Eduard Vieta, Ross J Baldessarini
BACKGROUND: Concerns about potential adverse effects of long-term exposure to lithium as a mood-stabilizing treatment notably include altered renal function. However, the incidence of severe renal dysfunction; rate of decline over time; effects of lithium dose, serum concentration, and duration of treatment; relative effects of lithium exposure vs. aging; and contributions of sex and other factors all remain unclear. METHODS: Accordingly, we acquired data from 12 collaborating international sites and 312 bipolar disorder patients (6142 person-years, 2669 assays) treated with lithium carbonate for 8-48 (mean 18) years and aged 20-89 (mean 56) years...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479158/children-s-decision-making-when-self-interest-and-moral-considerations-conflict
#16
Arber Tasimi, Marcia K Johnson, Karen Wynn
When children's self-interests are at odds with their moral considerations, what do they do? In the current study of 5- and 6-year-olds (N=160), we asked (a) whether children would select the offering of a do-gooder over a neutral individual at a personal cost, (b) whether they would reject the offering of a wrongdoer over a neutral individual at a personal cost, and (c) whether these two types of decisions involve comparable levels of conflict. In the absence of material considerations, children preferred a nice character to a neutral one, but this preference was easily overcome for material gain; children accepted a larger offering from a neutral source over a smaller offering from a nice source...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461433/living-both-well-and-sustainably-a-review-of-the-literature-with-some-reflections-on-future-research-interventions-and-policy
#17
REVIEW
Tim Kasser
The idea that human well-being (WB) can be supported and even enhanced by using, producing, buying, selling and consuming less 'stuff' is anathema to many living under consumer capitalism. Yet a growing research literature actually finds that frequent engagement in pro-ecological behaviours (PEBs) is positively correlated with personal WB. This paper reviews data relevant to three possible explanations for the apparent compatibility of PEBs and WB: (i) engaging in PEBs leads to psychological need satisfaction, which in turn causes WB; (ii) being in a good mood causes people to engage in more prosocial behaviours, including PEBs; and (iii) personal characteristics and lifestyles such as intrinsic values, mindfulness and voluntary simplicity cause both PEBs and WB...
June 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426309/lgbtq-health-surveillance-data%C3%A2-%C3%A2-power
#18
Randall L Sell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426297/note-from-the-editor-in-chief-who-wants-to-exclude-older-lgbt-persons-from-public-health-surveillance
#19
Alfredo Morabia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392252/disparities-in-tobacco-marketing-and-product-availability-at-the-point-of-sale-results-of-a-national-study
#20
Kurt M Ribisl, Heather D'Angelo, Ashley L Feld, Nina C Schleicher, Shelley D Golden, Douglas A Luke, Lisa Henriksen
OBJECTIVE: Neighborhood socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities exist in the amount and type of tobacco marketing at retail, but most studies are limited to a single city or state, and few have examined flavored little cigars. Our purpose is to describe tobacco product availability, marketing, and promotions in a national sample of retail stores and to examine associations with neighborhood characteristics. METHODS: At a national sample of 2230 tobacco retailers in the contiguous US, we collected in-person store audit data on: Availability of products (e...
April 6, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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