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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369383/effective-altruists-ought-to-be-allowed-to-sell-their-kidneys
#1
Ryan Tonkens
Effective altruists aim to do the most good that they can do with the resources available to them, without causing themselves or their dependents significant harm thereby. The argument presented in this paper demonstrates that there are no morally relevant dissimilarities between living kidney donation and living kidney selling for effective altruistic reasons. Thus, since the former is allowed, the latter ought to be allowed as well. And, there are important moral differences between living kidney selling for effective altruistic reasons and other reasons for kidney vending (e...
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330031/mental-health-disorders-mediate-association-of-sexual-minority-identity-with-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Lezhou Wu, Randy L Sell, Alexis M Roth, Seth L Welles
BACKGROUND: Little is known about cardiovascular health disparities for lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) persons and whether these disparities are mediated by mental health disorders due to sexual minority stress. We hypothesize LGB identity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and that major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) may mediate this association. METHODS: The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions is a longitudinal, nationally-representative study of non-institutionalized U...
January 9, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323863/at-a-glance-a-tough-sell-findings-from-a-qualitative-analysis-on-the-provision-of-healthy-foods-in-recreation-and-sports-settings
#3
Jessie-Lee D McIsaac, Sherry L Jarvis, Rebecca Spencer, Sara Fl Kirk
Recreation and sport settings (RSS) typically promote health in the form of physical activity, but the healthfulness of their food environment is often neglected. We explored stakeholder perspectives on barriers to healthy food provision in RSS through telephone interviews with ten representatives from RSS across Nova Scotia. Three key barriers were identified: 1) cultural norms associated with food in RSS and the broader environment, 2) the persisting notion of personal choice and responsibility, and 3) financial implications of healthy food provision...
January 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314458/quality-of-omeprazole-purchased-via-the-internet-and-personally-imported-into-japan-comparison-with-products-sampled-in-other-asian-countries
#4
Mohammad Sofiqur Rahman, Naoko Yoshida, Sakura Sugiura, Hirohito Tsuboi, Tep Keila, Heng Bun Kiet, Theingi Zin, Tsuyoshi Tanimoto, Kazuko Kimura
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of omeprazole personally imported into Japan via the internet and to compare the quality of these samples with previously collected samples from two other Asian countries. METHODS: The samples were evaluated by observation, authenticity investigation, and pharmacopoeial quality analysis. Quality comparison of some selected samples was carried out by dissolution profiling, Raman spectroscopy, and principle component analysis (PCA)...
January 5, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249609/lessons-from-the-domestic-ebola-response-improving-health-care-system-resilience-to-high-consequence-infectious-diseases
#5
Diane Meyer, Tara Kirk Sell, Monica Schoch-Spana, Matthew P Shearer, Hannah Chandler, Erin Thomas, Dale A Rose, Eric G Carbone, Eric Toner
BACKGROUND: The domestic response to the West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic from 2014-2016 provides a unique opportunity to distill lessons learned about health sector planning and operations from those individuals directly involved. This research project aimed to identify and integrate these lessons into an actionable checklist that can improve health sector resilience to future high-consequence infectious disease (HCID) events. METHODS: Interviews (N = 73) were completed with individuals involved in the domestic EVD response in 4 cities (Atlanta, Dallas, New York, and Omaha), and included individuals who worked in academia, emergency management, government, health care, law, media, and public health during the response...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214965/is-paid-surrogacy-a-form-of-reproductive-prostitution-a-kantian-perspective
#6
Tatiana Patrone
This article reexamines the "prostitution objection" to paid surrogacy, and argues that rebuttals to this objection fail to focus on surrogates as embodied persons. This failure is based on the false distinction between "selling one's reproductive services" and "selling one's body." To ground the analysis of humans as embodied persons, this article uses Kant's late ethical theory, which develops the conceptual framework for understanding human beings as embodied selves. Literature on surrogacy commonly emphasizes that all Kantian duties heed to the categorical prohibition to treat persons as mere means...
January 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057379/the-associations-between-yelp-online-reviews-and-vape-shops-closing-or-remaining-open-one-year-later
#7
Grace Kong, Jennifer Unger, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Steve Sussman
INTRODUCTION: Vape shops are popular brick-and-mortar stores that sell e-cigarette products but are not understood well. Previous analysis of Yelp reviews of vape shops located in various ethnic neighborhoods in Los Angeles, California in 2014 identified characteristics of vape shop as delineated by consumers. In this study, we assessed the associations between these characteristics and vape shops going out of business in 2015. METHODS: Content analysis of Yelp reviews of 72 vape shops in 2014 identified 1) general characteristics of the reviews/reviewers, 2) vape shop, staff, and marketing attributes, 3) physical environment, and 4) health claims...
2017: Tobacco Prevention & Cessation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020122/informality-and-employment-vulnerability-application-in-sellers-with-subsistence-work
#8
María Osley Garzón-Duque, María Doris Cardona-Arango, Fabio León Rodríguez-Ospina, Angela María Segura-Cardona
OBJECTIVE: To describe the origin, evolution, and application of the concept of employment vulnerability in workers who subsist on street sales. METHODS: We have carried out an analysis of the literature in database in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, without restriction by country. This is a review of the gray literature of government reports, articles, and documents from Latin America and the Caribbean. We have analyzed information on the informal economy, social-employment vulnerability, and subsistence workers...
October 5, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016637/social-networks-market-transactions-and-reputation-as-a-central-resource-the-mercado-del-mar-a-fish-market-in-central-mexico
#9
Carmen Pedroza-Gutiérrez, Juan M Hernández
Fish consumption in Mexico is considered low (around 12 kg per person per year) and non-homogeneously distributed across the country. One of the reasons for this situation is the scarcity of wholesale selling sites. In this context, the Mercado del Mar (MM), located in Guadalajara city, Jalisco, is the second biggest wholesale fish market in Mexico, with a distribution of about 500 tons per day and a variety of about 350 different species of fish. In this paper, we argue that MM has accumulated social capital, which is formed from two main resources: buyer and seller relationships, and reputation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980856/cryogel-scaffolds-from-patient-specific-3d-printed-molds-for-personalized-tissue-engineered-bone-regeneration-in-pediatric-cleft-craniofacial-defects
#10
Katherine R Hixon, Alexa M Melvin, Alexander Y Lin, Andrew F Hall, Scott A Sell
Bone defects are extremely common in children with cleft-craniofacial conditions, especially those with alveolar cleft defects and cranial defects. This study used patient-specific 3D-printed molds derived from computed tomography and cryogel scaffold fabrication as a proof of concept for the creation of site-specific implants for bone reconstruction. Cryogel scaffolds are unique tissue-engineered constructs formed at sub-zero temperatures. When thawed, the resulting structure is macroporous, sponge-like, and mechanically durable...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833836/assessing-the-infection-risk-of-enteropathogens-from-consumption-of-raw-vegetables-washed-with-contaminated-water-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#11
S Shrestha, E Haramoto, J Shindo
AIMS: To assess diarrhoeal risks from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Giardia and Cryptosporidium from consuming raw spinach, cabbage, carrots and tomatoes in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. METHODS AND RESULTS: The annual infection risk was quantified using the probabilistic Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment approach, which considered 12 vegetable washing combinations. A new model was used to estimate dose of pathogens per exposure comprising parameters such as pathogen concentration in vegetable wash water before selling and eating, vegetable consumption rate, remaining pathogen ratio after washing, remaining water on vegetables after washing and water treatment removal efficiency...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812222/ethics-and-phishing-experiments
#12
David B Resnik, Peter R Finn
Phishing is a fraudulent form of email that solicits personal or financial information from the recipient, such as a password, username, or social security or bank account number. The scammer may use the illicitly obtained information to steal the victim's money or identity or sell the information to another party. The direct costs of phishing on consumers are exceptionally high and have risen substantially over the past 12 years. Phishing experiments that simulate real world conditions can provide cybersecurity experts with valuable knowledge they can use to develop effective countermeasures and prevent people from being duped by phishing emails...
August 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807658/self-reported-participation-in-voluntary-nonprescription-syringe-sales-in-california-s-central-valley
#13
Robin A Pollini
OBJECTIVES: California Senate Bill 41 (SB41), effective January 2012, is a human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus prevention measure designed to expand syringe access among injection drug users (IDUs) by allowing pharmacies to sell syringes without a prescription. This study assesses self-reported implementation of SB41 and characterizes barriers amenable to intervention. DESIGN: Interviewer-administered survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Fresno and Kern Counties, CA...
November 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716928/support-for-redistribution-is-shaped-by-compassion-envy-and-self-interest-but-not-a-taste-for-fairness
#14
Daniel Sznycer, Maria Florencia Lopez Seal, Aaron Sell, Julian Lim, Roni Porat, Shaul Shalvi, Eran Halperin, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby
Why do people support economic redistribution? Hypotheses include inequity aversion, a moral sense that inequality is intrinsically unfair, and cultural explanations such as exposure to and assimilation of culturally transmitted ideologies. However, humans have been interacting with worse-off and better-off individuals over evolutionary time, and our motivational systems may have been naturally selected to navigate the opportunities and challenges posed by such recurrent interactions. We hypothesize that modern redistribution is perceived as an ancestral scene involving three notional players: the needy other, the better-off other, and the actor herself...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716290/yarsagumba-fungus-health-problems-in-the-himalayan-gold-rush
#15
Pranawa Koirala, Bidur Pandit, Pratibha Phuyal, Ken Zafren
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal migration of people in search of Yarsagumba fungus creates a population of collectors that faces hardship and health risks in austere high-altitude settings. METHODS: In 2016, our 4-person team performed a 2-day health-needs survey of people collecting Yarsagumba fungus near the village of Yak Kharka (4020 m) in the Manang District of Nepal. RESULTS: There were approximately 800 people, both male and female, from age 10 to over 60, collecting Yarsagumba fungus...
July 14, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698998/does-organ-selling-violate-human-dignity
#16
Zümrüt Alpinar-Şencan, Holger Baumann, Nikola Biller-Andorno
Shortages in the number of donated organs after death and the growing number of end-stage organ failure patients on waiting lists call for looking at alternatives to increase the number of organs that could be used for transplantation purposes. One option that has led to a legal and ethical debate is to have regulated markets in human organs. Opponents of a market in human organs offer different arguments that are mostly founded on contingent factors that can be adjusted. However, some authors have asked the question whether we still have a reason to believe that there is something wrong with offering human organs for sale for transplantation purposes, even if the circumstances under which the practice takes place are improved...
July 11, 2017: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697765/deregulation-of-sale-of-over-the-counter-drugs-outside-of-pharmacies-in-the-republic-of-korea-interrupted-time-series-analysis-of-outpatient-visits-before-and-after-the-policy
#17
Sung-Youn Chun, Hye-Ki Park, Kyu-Tae Han, Woorim Kim, Hyo-Jung Lee, Eun-Cheol Park
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effectiveness of a policy allowing for the sale of over-the-counter drugs outside of pharmacies by examining its effect on number of monthly outpatient visits for acute upper respiratory infections, dyspepsia, and migraine. METHOD: We used medical claims data extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance Cohort Database from 2009 to 2013. The Korean National Health Insurance Cohort Database comprises a nationally representative sample of claims - about 2% of the entire population - obtained from the medical record data held by the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation (which has data on the entire nation)...
July 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668649/the-grammar-of-anger-mapping-the-computational-architecture-of-a-recalibrational-emotion
#18
Aaron Sell, Daniel Sznycer, Laith Al-Shawaf, Julian Lim, Andre Krauss, Aneta Feldman, Ruxandra Rascanu, Lawrence Sugiyama, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby
According to the recalibrational theory of anger, anger is a computationally complex cognitive system that evolved to bargain for better treatment. Anger coordinates facial expressions, vocal changes, verbal arguments, the withholding of benefits, the deployment of aggression, and a suite of other cognitive and physiological variables in the service of leveraging bargaining position into better outcomes. The prototypical trigger of anger is an indication that the offender places too little weight on the angry individual's welfare when making decisions, i...
November 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608829/providing-a-clean-environment-for-adolescents-evaluation-of-the-tobacco-hazards-prevention-act-in-taiwan
#19
Min-Li Chen, Li-Na Chou, Ya-Cheng Zheng
Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1) to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2) to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582948/the-big-sell-managing-stigma-and-workplace-discrimination-following-moderate-to-severe-brain-injury
#20
Mary Stergiou-Kita, Alisa Grigorovich, Thecla Damianakis, Guylaine Le Dorze, Christine David, Carolyn Lemsky, Debbie Hebert
BACKGROUND: Misperceptions regarding persons with brain injuries (PWBI) can lead to stigmatization, workplace discrimination and, in turn, influence PWBIs full vocational integration. OBJECTIVE: In this study we explored how stigma may influence return-to-work processes, experiences of stigma and discrimination at the workplace for persons with (moderate to severe) brain injuries, and strategies that can be employed to manage disclosure. METHODS: Exploratory qualitative study; used in-depth interviews and an inductive thematic analytical approach in data analysis...
June 1, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
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