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Skeletal-muscular movement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471486/quantification-of-pelvic-floor-muscle-strength-in-female-urinary-incontinence-a-systematic-review-and-comparison-of-contemporary-methodologies
#1
REVIEW
Emily G Deegan, Lynn Stothers, Alex Kavanagh, Andrew J Macnab
AIMS: There remains no gold standard for quantification of voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength, despite international guidelines that recommend PFM assessment in females with urinary incontinence (UI). Methods currently reported for quantification of skeletal muscle strength across disciplines are systematically reviewed and their relevance for clinical and academic use related to the pelvic floor are described. METHODS: A systematic review via Medline, PubMed, CINHAL, and the Cochrane database using key terms for pelvic floor anatomy and function were cross referenced with skeletal muscle strength quantification from 1946 to 2016...
May 4, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444416/control-of-dna-integrity-in-skeletal-muscle-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#2
REVIEW
Yara Bou Saada, Vlada Zakharova, Boris Chernyak, Carla Dib, Gilles Carnac, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Yegor S Vassetzky
Skeletal muscle is a highly oxygen-consuming tissue that ensures body support and movement, as well as nutrient and temperature regulation. DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species is present in muscles and tends to accumulate with age. Here, we present a summary of data obtained on DNA damage and its implication in muscle homeostasis, myogenic differentiation and neuromuscular disorders. Controlled and transient DNA damage appears to be essential for muscular homeostasis and differentiation while uncontrolled and chronic DNA damage negatively affects muscle health...
April 25, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228000/c60-fullerene-as-promising-therapeutic-agent-for-the-prevention-and-correction-of-skeletal-muscle-functioning-at-ischemic-injury
#3
D M Nozdrenko, D O Zavodovskyi, T Yu Matvienko, S Yu Zay, K I Bogutska, Yu I Prylutskyy, U Ritter, P Scharff
The therapeutic effect of pristine C60 fullerene aqueous colloid solution (C60FAS) on the functioning of the rat soleus muscle at ischemic injury depending on the time of the general pathogenesis of muscular system and method of administration C60FAS in vivo was investigated. It was found that intravenous administration of C60FAS is the optimal for correction of speed macroparameters of contraction for ischemic muscle damage. At the same time, intramuscular administration of C60FAS shows pronounced protective effect in movements associated with the generation of maximum force responses or prolonged contractions, which increase the muscle fatigue level...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095141/an-old-problem-aging-and-skeletal-muscle-strain-injury
#4
Brent A Baker
Clinical Scenario: Even though chronological aging is an inevitable phenomenological consequence occurring in every living organism, it is biological aging that may be the most significant factor challenging our quality of life. Development of functional limitations, resulting from improper maintenance and restoration of various organ systems, ultimately leads to reduced health and independence. Skeletal muscle is an organ system, that when challenged, is often injured in response to varying stimuli. Overt muscle strain injury can be traumatic, clinically diagnosable, properly managed, and a remarkably common event...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048953/a-multifunction-muscle-in-squid
#5
Joseph T Thompson, Scott M Lavalva, Matthew M Loiacono
Some striated muscles are multifunctional; they serve several different roles during locomotion and movement, including acting as motors, brakes, struts, or springs. The few multifunctional muscles that have been reported occur in the cross-striated muscles of animals with complex, jointed, skeletal support systems. In the comparatively simple muscular system of a cephalopod mollusc, we identified an obliquely striated muscle, the nuchal retractor muscle, which appears to be multifunctional. The nuchal retractor is composed of two different fiber types, mitochondria-rich (MR) and mitochondria-poor (MP) fibers; shortening of these fibers retracts the head toward the mantle...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039429/limited-potential-of-genetic-predisposition-scores-to-predict-muscle-mass-and-strength-performance-in-flemish-caucasians-between-19-73-years-of-age
#6
Ruben Charlier, Maarten Caspers, Sara Knaeps, Evelien Mertens, Diether Lambrechts, Johan Lefevre, Martine Thomis
Since both muscle mass and strength performance are polygenic in nature, the current study compared four Genetic Predisposition Scores (GPS) in their ability to predict these phenotypes. Data were gathered within the framework of the first generation Flemish Policy Research Centre 'Sport, Physical Activity and Health' (2002-2004). Results are based on muscle characteristics data of 565 Flemish Caucasians (19-73 yr, 365 men). Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was determined using bioelectrical impedance. The Biodex dynamometer was used to measure isometric (PTstatic120°) and isokinetic strength (PTdynamic60° and PTdynamic240°), ballistic movement speed (S20%) and muscular endurance (Work) of the knee extensors...
December 30, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979987/altered-nuclear-dynamics-in-mdx-myofibers
#7
Shama R Iyer, Sameer B Shah, Ana P Valencia, Martin F Schneider, Erick O Hernández-Ochoa, Joseph P Stains, Silvia S Blemker, Richard M Lovering
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder in which the absence of dystrophin leads to progressive muscle degeneration and weakness. Although the genetic basis is known, the pathophysiology of dystrophic skeletal muscle remains unclear. We examined nuclear movement in wild-type (WT) and muscular dystrophy mouse model for DMD (MDX) (dystrophin-null) mouse myofibers. We also examined expression of proteins in the linkers of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, as well as nuclear transcriptional activity via histone H3 acetylation and polyadenylate-binding nuclear protein-1...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826103/longer-hypoxia-ischemia-periods-to-neonatal-rats-causes-motor-impairments-and-muscular-changes
#8
L E Durán-Carabali, E F Sanches, M R Marques, D Aristimunha, A Pagnussat, C A Netto
Prematurity and hypoxia-ischemia (HI) can lead to movement disorders in infants. Considering that mild-moderate HI induced at postnatal day (PND) 3 has failed to produce motor disabilities similar to those seen in pre-term newborns, the main goal of the present study was to verify whether longer hypoxia periods would mimic motor function impairment, brain and muscle morphological alterations. Forty-nine Wistar rat pups of both sexes were randomly assigned to surgical control (CG) and HI groups. HI animals were submitted to the Levine-Rice model at PND 3, and exposed to 120 (HI-120'), 180 (HI-180') or 210 (HI-210') minutes of hypoxia (FiO2: 0...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802164/nuclear-alignment-in-myotubes-requires-centrosome-proteins-recruited-by-nesprin-1
#9
Aude Espigat-Georger, Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Cécile Chemin, Laurent Emorine, Andreas Merdes
Myotubes are syncytial cells generated by fusion of myoblasts. Among the numerous nuclei in myotubes of skeletal muscle fibres, the majority are equidistantly positioned at the periphery, except for clusters of multiple nuclei underneath the motor endplate. The correct positioning of nuclei is thought to be important for muscle function and requires nesprin-1 (also known as SYNE1), a protein of the nuclear envelope. Consistent with this, mice lacking functional nesprin-1 show defective nuclear positioning and present aspects of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535245/collagen-homeostasis-and-metabolism
#10
S Peter Magnusson, Katja M Heinemeier, Michael Kjaer
The musculoskeletal system and its collagen rich tissue is important for ensuring architecture of skeletal muscle, energy storage in tendon and ligaments, joint surface protection, and for ensuring the transfer of muscular forces into resulting limb movement. Structure of tendon is stable and the metabolic activity is low, but mechanical loading and subsequent mechanotransduction and molecular anabolic signaling can result in some adaptation of the tendon especially during youth and adolescence. Within short time, tendon will get stiffer with training and lack of mechanical tissue loading through inactivity or immobilization of the human body will conversely result in a dramatic loss in tendon stiffness and collagen synthesis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492169/isolation-of-mouse-periocular-tissue-for-histological-and-immunostaining-analyses-of-the-extraocular-muscles-and-their-satellite-cells
#11
Pascal Stuelsatz, Zipora Yablonka-Reuveni
The extraocular muscles (EOMs) comprise a group of highly specialized skeletal muscles controlling eye movements. Although a number of unique features of EOMs including their sparing in Duchenne muscular dystrophy have drawn a continuous interest, knowledge about these hard to reach muscles is still limited. The goal of this chapter is to provide detailed methods for the isolation and histological analysis of mouse EOMs. We first introduce in brief the basic anatomy and established nomenclature of the extraocular primary and accessory muscles...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213537/effect-of-the-il-1-receptor-antagonist-kineret%C3%A2-on-disease-phenotype-in-mdx-mice
#12
Margaret E Benny Klimek, Arpana Sali, Sree Rayavarapu, Jack H Van der Meulen, Kanneboyina Nagaraju
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked muscle disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The pathology of DMD manifests in patients with progressive muscle weakness, loss of ambulation and ultimately death. One of the characteristics of DMD is muscle inflammation, and dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscles produce higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in response to toll like receptor (TLR) stimulation compared to controls; therefore, blocking the IL-1β pathway could improve the disease phenotype in mdx mice, a mouse model of DMD...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173448/muscle-moment-arms-and-sensitivity-analysis-of-a-mouse-hindlimb-musculoskeletal-model
#13
James P Charles, Ornella Cappellari, Andrew J Spence, Dominic J Wells, John R Hutchinson
Musculoskeletal modelling has become a valuable tool with which to understand how neural, muscular, skeletal and other tissues are integrated to produce movement. Most musculoskeletal modelling work has to date focused on humans or their close relatives, with few examples of quadrupedal animal limb models. A musculoskeletal model of the mouse hindlimb could have broad utility for questions in medicine, genetics, locomotion and neuroscience. This is due to this species' position as a premier model of human disease, having an array of genetic tools for manipulation of the animal in vivo, and being a small quadruped, a category for which few models exist...
2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26961694/age-related-decline-in-muscle-mass-and-muscle-function-in-flemish-caucasians-a-10-year-follow-up
#14
Ruben Charlier, Sara Knaeps, Evelien Mertens, Evelien Van Roie, Christophe Delecluse, Johan Lefevre, Martine Thomis
Aging is a complex process that is accompanied with changes in both muscle mass and muscle function (strength and performance). Therefore, the current longitudinal study aimed to provide a better insight in 10-year aging-related changes in whole-body muscle mass and strength performance of the leg extensors during the adult life span. Data were gathered within the framework of the first- (2002-2004: baseline) and third-generation Flemish Policy Research Center Sport (2012-2014: follow-up). Results are based on muscle characteristics data of 591 Flemish Caucasian adults (19-73 years, 381 men)...
April 2016: Age (2005-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925401/the-musculature-of-coleoid-cephalopod-arms-and-tentacles
#15
REVIEW
William M Kier
The regeneration of coleoid cephalopod arms and tentacles is a common occurrence, recognized since Aristotle. The complexity of the arrangement of the muscle and connective tissues of these appendages make them of great interest for research on regeneration. They lack rigid skeletal elements and consist of a three-dimensional array of muscle fibers, relying on a type of skeletal support system called a muscular hydrostat. Support and movement in the arms and tentacles depends on the fact that muscle tissue resists volume change...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26697948/amelioration-of-apoptotic-events-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-intra-nigrally-rotenone-infused-parkinsonian-rats-by-morinda-citrifolia-up-regulation-of-bcl-2-and-blockage-of-cytochrome-c-release
#16
Kishore Kumar S Narasimhan, Liya Paul, Yogesh Kanna Sathyamoorthy, Ashokkumar Srinivasan, Lakshmi Narasimhan Chakrapani, Abhilasha Singh, Divya Bhavani Ravi, Thulasi Raman Krishnan, Prema Velusamy, Kathiravan Kaliappan, Rameshkumar Radhakrishnan, Kalaiselvi Periandavan
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder with the cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, which lead to abnormal movements and lack of activity, which in turn cause muscular damage. Even though studies have been carried out to elucidate the causative factors that lead to muscular damage in Parkinson's disease, apoptotic events that occur in the skeletal muscle and a therapeutical approach to culminate the muscular damage have not been extensively studied...
February 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26487297/plectin-isoform-1-dependent-nuclear-docking-of-desmin-networks-affects-myonuclear-architecture-and-expression-of-mechanotransducers
#17
Ilona Staszewska, Irmgard Fischer, Gerhard Wiche
Plectin is a highly versatile cytoskeletal protein that acts as a mechanical linker between intermediate filament (IF) networks and various cellular structures. The protein is crucial for myofiber integrity. Its deficiency leads to severe pathological changes in skeletal muscle fibers of patients suffering from epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD). Skeletal muscle fibers express four major isoforms of plectin which are distinguished solely by alternative, relatively short, first exon-encoded N-terminal sequences...
December 20, 2015: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26477918/exercise-and-regulation-of-bone-and-collagen-tissue-biology
#18
REVIEW
Michael Kjaer, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Katja Heinemeier, S Peter Magnusson
The musculoskeletal system and its connective tissue include the intramuscular connective tissue, the myotendinous junction, the tendon, the joints with their cartilage and ligaments, and the bone; they all together play a crucial role in maintaining the architecture of the skeletal muscle, ensuring force transmission, storing energy, protecting joint surface and stability, and ensuring the transfer of muscular forces into resulting limb movement. The musculoskeletal connective tissue structure is relatively stable, but mechanical loading and subsequent mechanotransduction and molecular anabolic signaling can result in some adaptation of the connective tissue, its size, its strength, and its mechanical properties, whereby it can improve its capacity by 5-20% with regular physical activity...
2015: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26394432/modeling-and-identification-of-a-realistic-spiking-neural-network-and-musculoskeletal-model-of-the-human-arm-and-an-application-to-the-stretch-reflex
#19
Manish Sreenivasa, Ko Ayusawa, Yoshihiko Nakamura
This study develops a multi-level neuromuscular model consisting of topological pools of spiking motor, sensory and interneurons controlling a bi-muscular model of the human arm. The spiking output of motor neuron pools were used to drive muscle actions and skeletal movement via neuromuscular junctions. Feedback information from muscle spindles were relayed via monosynaptic excitatory and disynaptic inhibitory connections, to simulate spinal afferent pathways. Subject-specific model parameters were identified from human experiments by using inverse dynamics computations and optimization methods...
May 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26377453/representation-of-muscle-synergies-in-the-primate-brain
#20
REVIEW
Simon A Overduin, Andrea d'Avella, Jinsook Roh, Jose M Carmena, Emilio Bizzi
UNLABELLED: Evidence suggests that the CNS uses motor primitives to simplify movement control, but whether it actually stores primitives instead of computing solutions on the fly to satisfy task demands is a controversial and still-unanswered possibility. Also in contention is whether these primitives take the form of time-invariant muscle coactivations ("spatial" synergies) or time-varying muscle commands ("spatiotemporal" synergies). Here, we examined forelimb muscle patterns and motor cortical spiking data in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) handling objects of variable shape and size...
September 16, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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