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Skeletal-muscular movement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938418/androgens-support-male-acrobatic-courtship-behavior-by-enhancing-muscle-speed-and-easing-the-severity-of-its-trade-off-with-force
#1
Matthew J Fuxjager, Meredith C Miles, Franz Goller, John Petersen, Julia Yancey
Steroid hormone action in the brain regulates many animals' elaborate social displays used for courtship and competition, but it is increasingly recognized that the periphery may also be a site for potent steroidal modulation of complex behavior. However, the mechanisms of such "bottom up" regulation of behavioral outflow are largely unclear. To study this problem, we examine how androgenic sex hormones act through the skeletal muscular system to mediate elaborate courtship acrobatics in a tropical bird called the golden-collared manakin...
August 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919103/alterations-of-musculoskeletal-models-for-a-more-accurate-estimation-of-lower-limb-joint-contact-forces-during-normal-gait-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
F Moissenet, L Modenese, R Dumas
Musculoskeletal modelling is a methodology used to investigate joint contact forces during a movement. High accuracy in the estimation of the hip or knee joint contact forces can be obtained with subject-specific models. However, construction of subject-specific models remains time consuming and expensive. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature was to identify what alterations can be made on generic (i.e. literature-based, without any subject-specific measurement other than body size and weight) musculoskeletal models to obtain a better estimation of the joint contact forces...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871568/a-mini-overview-of-single-muscle-fibre-mechanics-the-effects-of-age-inactivity-and-exercise-in-animals-and-humans
#3
Hyunseok Jee, Jong-Hee Kim
Many basic movements of living organisms are dependent on muscle function. Muscle function allows for the coordination and harmonious integrity of movement that is necessary for various biological processes. Gross and fine motor skills are both regulated at the micro-level (single muscle fibre level), controlled by neuronal regulation, and it is therefore important to understand muscle function at both micro- and macro-levels to understand the overall movement of living organisms. Single muscle mechanics and the cellular environment of muscles fundamentally allow for the harmonious movement of our bodies...
September 5, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857454/anatomy-education-in-occupational-therapy-curricula-perspectives-of-practitioners-in-the-united-states
#4
Katherine A Schofield
The study of human anatomy is an integral component in the education of future occupational therapists, yet there is a paucity of research that explores the anatomy needs of students and new practitioners. As a follow up from a pilot study that surveyed a small cohort of practicing therapists, this article aimed to determine occupational therapy (OT) practitioners' views on anatomy course structure and content deemed important to include in OT curricula, entry level practitioners' anatomy knowledge, and application of anatomy in current practice...
August 30, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799578/nusinersen-antisense-oligonucleotide-to-increase-smn-protein-production-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#5
D M Paton
Patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have an autosomal recessive disease that limits their ability to produce survival motor neuron (SMN) protein in the CNS resulting in progressive wasting of voluntary muscles. Detailed studies over several years have demonstrated that phosphorothioate and 2'-O-methoxyethyl- modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting the ISS-N1 site increase SMN2 exon 7 inclusion, thus increasing levels of SMN protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner in liver, kidney and skeletal muscle, and CNS tissues only when administered intrathecally...
June 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557061/classification-of-involuntary-movements-in-dogs-myoclonus-and-myotonia
#6
REVIEW
M Lowrie, L Garosi
Myoclonus is a sudden brief, involuntary muscle jerk. Of all the movement disorders, myoclonus is the most difficult to encapsulate into any simple framework. On the one hand, a classification system is required that is clinically useful to aid in guiding diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, there is need for a system that organizes current knowledge regarding biological mechanisms to guide scientific research. These 2 needs are distinct, making it challenging to develop a robust classification system suitable for all purposes...
July 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555754/expression-patterns-of-sema3a-in-developing-amniote-limbs-with-reference-to-the-diversification-of-peripheral-nerve-innervation
#7
Kanami Noguchi, Ryota Ishikawa, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Kanako Miyoshi, Takahiko Kawasaki, Tatsumi Hirata, Makiko Fukui, Shigeru Kuratani, Mikiko Tanaka, Yasunori Murakami
Paired limbs were acquired in the ancestor of tetrapods and their morphology has been highly diversified in amniotes in relation to the adaptive radiation to the terrestrial environment. These morphological changes may have been induced by modification of the developmental program of the skeletal or muscular system. To complete limb modification, it is also important to change the neuronal framework, because the functions of the limbs rely on neural circuits that involve coordinated movement. Previous studies have shown that class 3 semaphorins (Sema3 semaphorins), which act as repulsive axonal guidance cues, play a crucial role in the formation of the peripheral nerves in mice...
May 29, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471486/quantification-of-pelvic-floor-muscle-strength-in-female-urinary-incontinence-a-systematic-review-and-comparison-of-contemporary-methodologies
#8
REVIEW
Emily G Deegan, Lynn Stothers, Alex Kavanagh, Andrew J Macnab
AIMS: There remains no gold standard for quantification of voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength, despite international guidelines that recommend PFM assessment in females with urinary incontinence (UI). Methods currently reported for quantification of skeletal muscle strength across disciplines are systematically reviewed and their relevance for clinical and academic use related to the pelvic floor are described. METHODS: A systematic review via Medline, PubMed, CINHAL, and the Cochrane database using key terms for pelvic floor anatomy and function were cross referenced with skeletal muscle strength quantification from 1946 to 2016...
May 4, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444416/control-of-dna-integrity-in-skeletal-muscle-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#9
REVIEW
Yara Bou Saada, Vlada Zakharova, Boris Chernyak, Carla Dib, Gilles Carnac, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Yegor S Vassetzky
Skeletal muscle is a highly oxygen-consuming tissue that ensures body support and movement, as well as nutrient and temperature regulation. DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species is present in muscles and tends to accumulate with age. Here, we present a summary of data obtained on DNA damage and its implication in muscle homeostasis, myogenic differentiation and neuromuscular disorders. Controlled and transient DNA damage appears to be essential for muscular homeostasis and differentiation while uncontrolled and chronic DNA damage negatively affects muscle health...
April 25, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228000/c60-fullerene-as-promising-therapeutic-agent-for-the-prevention-and-correction-of-skeletal-muscle-functioning-at-ischemic-injury
#10
D M Nozdrenko, D O Zavodovskyi, T Yu Matvienko, S Yu Zay, K I Bogutska, Yu I Prylutskyy, U Ritter, P Scharff
The therapeutic effect of pristine C60 fullerene aqueous colloid solution (C60FAS) on the functioning of the rat soleus muscle at ischemic injury depending on the time of the general pathogenesis of muscular system and method of administration C60FAS in vivo was investigated. It was found that intravenous administration of C60FAS is the optimal for correction of speed macroparameters of contraction for ischemic muscle damage. At the same time, intramuscular administration of C60FAS shows pronounced protective effect in movements associated with the generation of maximum force responses or prolonged contractions, which increase the muscle fatigue level...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095141/an-old-problem-aging-and-skeletal-muscle-strain-injury
#11
Brent A Baker
Clinical Scenario: Even though chronological aging is an inevitable phenomenological consequence occurring in every living organism, it is biological aging that may be the most significant factor challenging our quality of life. Development of functional limitations, resulting from improper maintenance and restoration of various organ systems, ultimately leads to reduced health and independence. Skeletal muscle is an organ system, that when challenged, is often injured in response to varying stimuli. Overt muscle strain injury can be traumatic, clinically diagnosable, properly managed, and a remarkably common event...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048953/a-multifunction-muscle-in-squid
#12
Joseph T Thompson, Scott M Lavalva, Matthew M Loiacono
Some striated muscles are multifunctional; they serve several different roles during locomotion and movement, including acting as motors, brakes, struts, or springs. The few multifunctional muscles that have been reported occur in the cross-striated muscles of animals with complex, jointed, skeletal support systems. In the comparatively simple muscular system of a cephalopod mollusc, we identified an obliquely striated muscle, the nuchal retractor muscle, which appears to be multifunctional. The nuchal retractor is composed of two different fiber types, mitochondria-rich (MR) and mitochondria-poor (MP) fibers; shortening of these fibers retracts the head toward the mantle...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039429/limited-potential-of-genetic-predisposition-scores-to-predict-muscle-mass-and-strength-performance-in-flemish-caucasians-between-19-73-years-of-age
#13
Ruben Charlier, Maarten Caspers, Sara Knaeps, Evelien Mertens, Diether Lambrechts, Johan Lefevre, Martine Thomis
Since both muscle mass and strength performance are polygenic in nature, the current study compared four Genetic Predisposition Scores (GPS) in their ability to predict these phenotypes. Data were gathered within the framework of the first generation Flemish Policy Research Centre 'Sport, Physical Activity and Health' (2002-2004). Results are based on muscle characteristics data of 565 Flemish Caucasians (19-73 yr, 365 men). Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was determined using bioelectrical impedance. The Biodex dynamometer was used to measure isometric (PTstatic120°) and isokinetic strength (PTdynamic60° and PTdynamic240°), ballistic movement speed (S20%) and muscular endurance (Work) of the knee extensors...
December 30, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979987/altered-nuclear-dynamics-in-mdx-myofibers
#14
Shama R Iyer, Sameer B Shah, Ana P Valencia, Martin F Schneider, Erick O Hernández-Ochoa, Joseph P Stains, Silvia S Blemker, Richard M Lovering
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder in which the absence of dystrophin leads to progressive muscle degeneration and weakness. Although the genetic basis is known, the pathophysiology of dystrophic skeletal muscle remains unclear. We examined nuclear movement in wild-type (WT) and muscular dystrophy mouse model for DMD (MDX) (dystrophin-null) mouse myofibers. We also examined expression of proteins in the linkers of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, as well as nuclear transcriptional activity via histone H3 acetylation and polyadenylate-binding nuclear protein-1...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826103/longer-hypoxia-ischemia-periods-to-neonatal-rats-causes-motor-impairments-and-muscular-changes
#15
L E Durán-Carabali, E F Sanches, M R Marques, D Aristimunha, A Pagnussat, C A Netto
Prematurity and hypoxia-ischemia (HI) can lead to movement disorders in infants. Considering that mild-moderate HI induced at postnatal day (PND) 3 has failed to produce motor disabilities similar to those seen in pre-term newborns, the main goal of the present study was to verify whether longer hypoxia periods would mimic motor function impairment, brain and muscle morphological alterations. Forty-nine Wistar rat pups of both sexes were randomly assigned to surgical control (CG) and HI groups. HI animals were submitted to the Levine-Rice model at PND 3, and exposed to 120 (HI-120'), 180 (HI-180') or 210 (HI-210') minutes of hypoxia (FiO2: 0...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802164/nuclear-alignment-in-myotubes-requires-centrosome-proteins-recruited-by-nesprin-1
#16
Aude Espigat-Georger, Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Cécile Chemin, Laurent Emorine, Andreas Merdes
Myotubes are syncytial cells generated by fusion of myoblasts. Among the numerous nuclei in myotubes of skeletal muscle fibres, the majority are equidistantly positioned at the periphery, except for clusters of multiple nuclei underneath the motor endplate. The correct positioning of nuclei is thought to be important for muscle function and requires nesprin-1 (also known as SYNE1), a protein of the nuclear envelope. Consistent with this, mice lacking functional nesprin-1 show defective nuclear positioning and present aspects of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535245/collagen-homeostasis-and-metabolism
#17
S Peter Magnusson, Katja M Heinemeier, Michael Kjaer
The musculoskeletal system and its collagen rich tissue is important for ensuring architecture of skeletal muscle, energy storage in tendon and ligaments, joint surface protection, and for ensuring the transfer of muscular forces into resulting limb movement. Structure of tendon is stable and the metabolic activity is low, but mechanical loading and subsequent mechanotransduction and molecular anabolic signaling can result in some adaptation of the tendon especially during youth and adolescence. Within short time, tendon will get stiffer with training and lack of mechanical tissue loading through inactivity or immobilization of the human body will conversely result in a dramatic loss in tendon stiffness and collagen synthesis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492169/isolation-of-mouse-periocular-tissue-for-histological-and-immunostaining-analyses-of-the-extraocular-muscles-and-their-satellite-cells
#18
Pascal Stuelsatz, Zipora Yablonka-Reuveni
The extraocular muscles (EOMs) comprise a group of highly specialized skeletal muscles controlling eye movements. Although a number of unique features of EOMs including their sparing in Duchenne muscular dystrophy have drawn a continuous interest, knowledge about these hard to reach muscles is still limited. The goal of this chapter is to provide detailed methods for the isolation and histological analysis of mouse EOMs. We first introduce in brief the basic anatomy and established nomenclature of the extraocular primary and accessory muscles...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213537/effect-of-the-il-1-receptor-antagonist-kineret%C3%A2-on-disease-phenotype-in-mdx-mice
#19
Margaret E Benny Klimek, Arpana Sali, Sree Rayavarapu, Jack H Van der Meulen, Kanneboyina Nagaraju
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked muscle disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The pathology of DMD manifests in patients with progressive muscle weakness, loss of ambulation and ultimately death. One of the characteristics of DMD is muscle inflammation, and dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscles produce higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in response to toll like receptor (TLR) stimulation compared to controls; therefore, blocking the IL-1β pathway could improve the disease phenotype in mdx mice, a mouse model of DMD...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173448/muscle-moment-arms-and-sensitivity-analysis-of-a-mouse-hindlimb-musculoskeletal-model
#20
James P Charles, Ornella Cappellari, Andrew J Spence, Dominic J Wells, John R Hutchinson
Musculoskeletal modelling has become a valuable tool with which to understand how neural, muscular, skeletal and other tissues are integrated to produce movement. Most musculoskeletal modelling work has to date focused on humans or their close relatives, with few examples of quadrupedal animal limb models. A musculoskeletal model of the mouse hindlimb could have broad utility for questions in medicine, genetics, locomotion and neuroscience. This is due to this species' position as a premier model of human disease, having an array of genetic tools for manipulation of the animal in vivo, and being a small quadruped, a category for which few models exist...
October 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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