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Skeletal-muscular movement

L E Durán-Carabali, E F Sanches, M R Marques, D Aristimunha, A Pagnussat, C A Netto
Prematurity and hypoxia-ischemia (HI) can lead to movement disorders in infants. Considering that mild-moderate HI induced at postnatal day (PND) 3 has failed to produce motor disabilities similar to those seen in pre-term newborns, the main goal of the present study was to verify whether longer hypoxia periods would mimic motor function impairment, brain and muscle morphological alterations. Forty-nine Wistar rat pups of both sexes were randomly assigned to surgical control (CG) and HI groups. HI animals were submitted to the Levine-Rice model at PND 3, and exposed to 120 (HI-120'), 180 (HI-180') or 210 (HI-210') minutes of hypoxia (FiO2: 0...
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience
Aude Espigat-Georger, Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Cécile Chemin, Laurent Emorine, Andreas Merdes
Myotubes are syncytial cells generated by fusion of myoblasts. Among the numerous nuclei in myotubes of skeletal muscle fibres, the majority are equidistantly positioned at the periphery, except for clusters of multiple nuclei underneath the motor endplate. The correct positioning of nuclei is thought to be important for muscle function and requires nesprin-1 (also known as SYNE1), a protein of the nuclear envelope. Consistent with this, mice lacking functional nesprin-1 show defective nuclear positioning and present aspects of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
S Peter Magnusson, Katja M Heinemeier, Michael Kjaer
The musculoskeletal system and its collagen rich tissue is important for ensuring architecture of skeletal muscle, energy storage in tendon and ligaments, joint surface protection, and for ensuring the transfer of muscular forces into resulting limb movement. Structure of tendon is stable and the metabolic activity is low, but mechanical loading and subsequent mechanotransduction and molecular anabolic signaling can result in some adaptation of the tendon especially during youth and adolescence. Within short time, tendon will get stiffer with training and lack of mechanical tissue loading through inactivity or immobilization of the human body will conversely result in a dramatic loss in tendon stiffness and collagen synthesis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Pascal Stuelsatz, Zipora Yablonka-Reuveni
The extraocular muscles (EOMs) comprise a group of highly specialized skeletal muscles controlling eye movements. Although a number of unique features of EOMs including their sparing in Duchenne muscular dystrophy have drawn a continuous interest, knowledge about these hard to reach muscles is still limited. The goal of this chapter is to provide detailed methods for the isolation and histological analysis of mouse EOMs. We first introduce in brief the basic anatomy and established nomenclature of the extraocular primary and accessory muscles...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Margaret E Benny Klimek, Arpana Sali, Sree Rayavarapu, Jack H Van der Meulen, Kanneboyina Nagaraju
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked muscle disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The pathology of DMD manifests in patients with progressive muscle weakness, loss of ambulation and ultimately death. One of the characteristics of DMD is muscle inflammation, and dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscles produce higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in response to toll like receptor (TLR) stimulation compared to controls; therefore, blocking the IL-1β pathway could improve the disease phenotype in mdx mice, a mouse model of DMD...
2016: PloS One
James P Charles, Ornella Cappellari, Andrew J Spence, Dominic J Wells, John R Hutchinson
Musculoskeletal modelling has become a valuable tool with which to understand how neural, muscular, skeletal and other tissues are integrated to produce movement. Most musculoskeletal modelling work has to date focused on humans or their close relatives, with few examples of quadrupedal animal limb models. A musculoskeletal model of the mouse hindlimb could have broad utility for questions in medicine, genetics, locomotion and neuroscience. This is due to this species' position as a premier model of human disease, having an array of genetic tools for manipulation of the animal in vivo, and being a small quadruped, a category for which few models exist...
October 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Ruben Charlier, Sara Knaeps, Evelien Mertens, Evelien Van Roie, Christophe Delecluse, Johan Lefevre, Martine Thomis
Aging is a complex process that is accompanied with changes in both muscle mass and muscle function (strength and performance). Therefore, the current longitudinal study aimed to provide a better insight in 10-year aging-related changes in whole-body muscle mass and strength performance of the leg extensors during the adult life span. Data were gathered within the framework of the first- (2002-2004: baseline) and third-generation Flemish Policy Research Center Sport (2012-2014: follow-up). Results are based on muscle characteristics data of 591 Flemish Caucasian adults (19-73 years, 381 men)...
April 2016: Age (2005-)
William M Kier
The regeneration of coleoid cephalopod arms and tentacles is a common occurrence, recognized since Aristotle. The complexity of the arrangement of the muscle and connective tissues of these appendages make them of great interest for research on regeneration. They lack rigid skeletal elements and consist of a three-dimensional array of muscle fibers, relying on a type of skeletal support system called a muscular hydrostat. Support and movement in the arms and tentacles depends on the fact that muscle tissue resists volume change...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Kishore Kumar S Narasimhan, Liya Paul, Yogesh Kanna Sathyamoorthy, Ashokkumar Srinivasan, Lakshmi Narasimhan Chakrapani, Abhilasha Singh, Divya Bhavani Ravi, Thulasi Raman Krishnan, Prema Velusamy, Kathiravan Kaliappan, Rameshkumar Radhakrishnan, Kalaiselvi Periandavan
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder with the cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, which lead to abnormal movements and lack of activity, which in turn cause muscular damage. Even though studies have been carried out to elucidate the causative factors that lead to muscular damage in Parkinson's disease, apoptotic events that occur in the skeletal muscle and a therapeutical approach to culminate the muscular damage have not been extensively studied...
February 2016: Food & Function
Ilona Staszewska, Irmgard Fischer, Gerhard Wiche
Plectin is a highly versatile cytoskeletal protein that acts as a mechanical linker between intermediate filament (IF) networks and various cellular structures. The protein is crucial for myofiber integrity. Its deficiency leads to severe pathological changes in skeletal muscle fibers of patients suffering from epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD). Skeletal muscle fibers express four major isoforms of plectin which are distinguished solely by alternative, relatively short, first exon-encoded N-terminal sequences...
December 20, 2015: Human Molecular Genetics
Michael Kjaer, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Katja Heinemeier, S Peter Magnusson
The musculoskeletal system and its connective tissue include the intramuscular connective tissue, the myotendinous junction, the tendon, the joints with their cartilage and ligaments, and the bone; they all together play a crucial role in maintaining the architecture of the skeletal muscle, ensuring force transmission, storing energy, protecting joint surface and stability, and ensuring the transfer of muscular forces into resulting limb movement. The musculoskeletal connective tissue structure is relatively stable, but mechanical loading and subsequent mechanotransduction and molecular anabolic signaling can result in some adaptation of the connective tissue, its size, its strength, and its mechanical properties, whereby it can improve its capacity by 5-20% with regular physical activity...
2015: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Manish Sreenivasa, Ko Ayusawa, Yoshihiko Nakamura
This study develops a multi-level neuromuscular model consisting of topological pools of spiking motor, sensory and interneurons controlling a bi-muscular model of the human arm. The spiking output of motor neuron pools were used to drive muscle actions and skeletal movement via neuromuscular junctions. Feedback information from muscle spindles were relayed via monosynaptic excitatory and disynaptic inhibitory connections, to simulate spinal afferent pathways. Subject-specific model parameters were identified from human experiments by using inverse dynamics computations and optimization methods...
May 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Simon A Overduin, Andrea d'Avella, Jinsook Roh, Jose M Carmena, Emilio Bizzi
UNLABELLED: Evidence suggests that the CNS uses motor primitives to simplify movement control, but whether it actually stores primitives instead of computing solutions on the fly to satisfy task demands is a controversial and still-unanswered possibility. Also in contention is whether these primitives take the form of time-invariant muscle coactivations ("spatial" synergies) or time-varying muscle commands ("spatiotemporal" synergies). Here, we examined forelimb muscle patterns and motor cortical spiking data in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) handling objects of variable shape and size...
September 16, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bruno Cadot, Vincent Gache, Edgar R Gomes
Nuclear movement and positioning within cells has become an area of great interest in the past few years due to the identification of different molecular mechanisms and functions in distinct organisms and contexts. One extreme example occurs during skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Skeletal muscles are composed of individual multinucleated myofibers with nuclei positioned at their periphery. Myofibers are formed by fusion of mononucleated myoblasts and during their development, successive nuclear movements and positioning events have been described...
2015: Nucleus
Linda Nici, Richard ZuWallack
Physical activity (PA) and exercise are interrelated but separate concepts. PA refers to bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. Exercise is a subset of PA, in which generally higher levels of muscular activity are performed for a purpose, such as achieving physical fitness or winning a sporting contest. Higher exercise capacity is considered to be permissive of greater PA in the home and community settings. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are physically inactive when compared with healthy age-matched control subjects...
2015: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
Haiying Pan, Kinga Vojnits, Thomas T Liu, Fanwei Meng, Lei Yang, Yigang Wang, Johnny Huard, Charles S Cox, Kevin P Lally, Yong Li
Myoblast transplantation (MT) is a method to introduce healthy genes into abnormal skeletal muscle. It has been considered as a therapeutic modality in the last few decades for diseases such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). However, challenges including cell death and poor graft engraftment have limited its application. The current experiment utilizes MMP1 gene transfer to improve the efficacy of myoblast transplantation into the diseased dystrophic skeletal muscle of mdx mice. Our results indicated that MMP1 expression can promote myogenic differentiation and fusion capacities, increase migration of MMP1 expressing myoblasts in vitro, as well as improve engraftment of dystrophin positive myofibers in vivo...
2015: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Mark L L M Boumans, Markus Krings, Hermann Wagner
Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced...
2015: PloS One
Michael J A Speranza, Tim J Gabbett, Rich D Johnston, Jeremy M Sheppard
This study investigated the relationship between muscular strength and power and tackling ability in semiprofessional rugby league players. Thirty-six semiprofessional (mean ± SD age, 23.1 ± 3.6 years) rugby league players, from 3 distinct playing divisions (first grade, second grade, and under 20s), underwent tests of upper-body strength (3 repetition maximum [RM] bench press), lower-body strength (3RM squat), upper-body power (plyometric push-up [PPU]), and lower-body power (countermovement jump). Muscular strength relative to body mass was also calculated...
August 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ronald Croce, Amber Craft, John Miller, Kent Chamberlin, David Filipovic
INTRODUCTION: Surface electromyography (SEMG) and mechanomyography (SMMG) responses of the quadriceps during muscular contractions to exhaustion were computed and analyzed by analysis of variance and polynomial regression analyses. METHODS: Participants performed maximum flexion-extension movements at 180°/s until volitional exhaustion, rested for 2 minutes, and then completed a second bout of movements until exhaustion. Torque and SEMG/SMMG median frequencies and amplitudes were examined at 9 points across repetitions completed...
March 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Ruben Charlier, Evelien Mertens, Johan Lefevre, Martine Thomis
BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied with a progressive deterioration of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and muscle function, also termed sarcopenia. METHODS: The aim was to describe SMM (based on bioelectrical impedance) and muscle function of the leg extensors over the adult age span in 819 men and 578 women, aged 18-78 years. The distribution of skeletal muscle index (SMI; SMM/height(2)) groups was described and muscle force-velocity characteristics were examined between SMI-groups over the adult life span...
September 2015: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
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