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Pediatric lower respiratory infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894729/procalcitonin-for-diagnostics-and-treatment-decisions-in-pediatric-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#1
Philipp Baumann, Gurli Baer, Jessica Bonhoeffer, Aline Fuchs, Verena Gotta, Ulrich Heininger, Nicole Ritz, Gabor Szinnai, Jan Bonhoeffer
Mortality and morbidity remain high in pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) despite progress in research and implementation of global diagnostic and treatment strategies in the last decade. Still, 120 million annual episodes of pneumonia affect children younger than 5 years each year leading to 1.3 million fatalities with the major burden of disease carried by low- and middle-income countries (95%). The definition of pneumonia is still challenging. Traditional diagnostic measures (i.e., chest radiographs, C-reactive protein) are unable to distinguish viral and from bacterial etiology...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#2
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844075/hrct-findings-of-childhood-follicular-bronchiolitis
#3
Jason P Weinman, David A Manning, Deborah R Liptzin, Amanda J Krausert, Lorna P Browne
BACKGROUND: Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis...
August 26, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842971/the-impact-of-pediatric-obesity-on-hospitalized-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-united-states
#4
Yusuke Okubo, Kotaro Nochioka, Marcia A Testa
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is the most common public health problem and is a clinically complicating risk factor among hospitalized children. The impact of pediatric obesity on the severity and morbidity of lower respiratory tract infections remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of bronchitis and pneumonia among children aged 2-20 years using hospital discharge records. The data were obtained from the Kid's Inpatient Database in 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012, and were weighted to estimate the number of hospitalizations in the United States...
August 26, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834413/accessory-lobed-accessory-cardiac-bronchus-presentation-and-treatment-in-a-pediatric-patient
#5
Andrea Volpe, Sara Bozzetto, Eugenio Baraldi, Piergiorgio Gamba
Accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) is a supernumerary bronchus usually arising from right main or intermediate bronchus. We report the case of a 9-year-old male who presented a 6-month history characterized by two right pneumonia episodes followed by persistent productive cough, recurrent bloody sputum, and chest x-ray persistence of a segmental thickening of right inferior lobe. Bronchoscopy revealed no abnormalities. Computed tomography documented an accessory-lobed ACB originating from right lower brochus...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792716/a-3-month-old-child-with-acute-gastroenteritis-with-enterovirus-d68-detected-from-stool-specimen
#6
Ngan T K Pham, Aksara Thongprachum, Tsuneyoshi Baba, Shoko Okitsu, Quang D Trinh, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is known to be causative agent of mild to severe upper and lower respiratory illnesses in sporadic cases and outbreaks. We present a case report of a 3-month-old child with acute gastroenteritis who visited a pediatric clinic in Kyushu area in Japan in 2015. A stool sample collected from the patient was screened for diarrheal viruses by multiplex RT-PCR. The result showed that the sample was positive only for enterovirus, and EV-D68 clade B3 was identified by sequence analysis of the viral protein 1 gene...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771405/pediatric-readmissions-after-hospitalizations-for-lower-respiratory-infections
#7
Mari M Nakamura, Alan M Zaslavsky, Sara L Toomey, Carter R Petty, Maria C Bryant, Alexandra T Geanacopoulos, Ashish K Jha, Mark A Schuster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lower respiratory infections (LRIs) are among the most common reasons for pediatric hospitalization and among the diagnoses with the highest number of readmissions. Characterizing LRI readmissions would help guide efforts to prevent them. We assessed variation in pediatric LRI readmission rates, risk factors for readmission, and readmission diagnoses. METHODS: We analyzed 2008-2009 Medicaid Analytic eXtract data for patients <18 years of age in 26 states...
August 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749854/risk-stratification-in-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-multicenter-observational-study
#8
Judith Ju-Ming Wong, Huu Phuc Phan, Suwannee Phumeetham, Jacqueline Soo May Ong, Yek Kee Chor, Suyun Qian, Rujipat Samransamruajkit, Nattachai Anantasit, Chin Seng Gan, Feng Xu, Rehena Sultana, Tsee Foong Loh, Jan Hau Lee
OBJECTIVES: The Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference developed a pediatric specific definition for acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS). In this definition, severity of lung disease is stratified into mild, moderate, and severe groups. We aim to describe the epidemiology of patients with PARDS across Asia and evaluate whether the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference risk stratification accurately predicts outcome in PARDS. DESIGN: A multicenter, retrospective, descriptive cohort study...
July 26, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747496/parainfluenza-virus-5-piv5-expressing-wild-type-or-pre-fusion-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-protein-protect-mice-and-cotton-rats-from-rsv-challenge
#9
Shannon I Phan, James R Zengel, Huiling Wei, Zhuo Li, Dai Wang, Biao He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pediatric bronchiolitis and hospitalizations. RSV can also cause severe complications in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. There is no licensed vaccine. We previously generated a PIV5-vectored vaccine candidate expressing the RSV fusion protein (F) that was immunogenic and protective in mice. In this work, our goal was to improve the original vaccine candidate by modifying the PIV5 vector or by modifying the RSV-F antigen. We previously demonstrated that inserting a foreign gene at the PIV5 SH-HN junction or deleting PIV5 SH increased vaccine efficacy...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723886/prolonged-viral-replication-and-longitudinal-viral-dynamic-differences-among-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infected-infants
#10
Monica E Brint, Joshua M Hughes, Aditya Shah, Chelsea R Miller, Lisa G Harrison, Elizabeth A Meals, Jacqueline Blanch, Charlotte R Thompson, Stephania A Cormier, John P DeVincenzo
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal RSV dynamics have not been well-studied despite existence of factors favoring prolonged RSV replication including: high mutation rates allowing rapid evolution and potential escape from immune control. We therefore measured viral load in previously RSV-naïve infants over prolonged time-spans. METHODS: During 2014-2015, quantitative nasal aspirates were collected from 51 RSV-PCR+ infants. Multiple parallel assessments of viral loads were quantified at each collected time point using a well-validated real-time qRT-PCR assay...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702311/the-evidence-for-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-as-a-causative-agent-of-childhood-pneumonia
#11
EDITORIAL
Mary P E Slack
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was a major cause of bacterial pneumonia in children prior to the introduction of Hib-conjugate vaccines. The widespread use of Hib-conjugate vaccines has resulted in a significant decline in the number of cases of invasive Hib disease, including bacteraemic pneumonia, in areas where the vaccine has been implemented. In many countries, non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHI) is now the most common cause of invasive haemophilus infection in all ages. NTHI are a recognized cause of bacteraemic and non-bacteraemic pneumonia in children and in adults...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697827/-effects-of-huaiqihuang-granules-on-immune-function-in-children-with-severe-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia
#12
Jin Liu, Hong Yan, Xiao-Geng Chen, Ya-Ping Mu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Huaiqihuang granules on the immune function in children with severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. METHODS: Pediatric inpatients with severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia were randomly divided into Huaiqihuang granule treatment group (n=51) and conventional treatment group (n=47). The Huaiqihuang granule treatment group was orally administered Huaiqihuang granules in addition to the conventional treatment, while the conventional treatment group received conventional treatment only...
July 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692318/misconceptions-and-malpractices-toward-antibiotic-use-in-childhood-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-among-a-cohort-of-lebanese-parents
#13
Ghada El Khoury, Elsy Ramia, Pascale Salameh
Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health threat. Misuse and abuse of antibiotics are of particular concern in the pediatric population. Since management of childhood illnesses depends considerably on parents' perceptions, the objectives of this study were to report parents' perspectives and assess their practices toward antibiotics used for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in children. Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 1,037 parents in public and private schools across Lebanon's largest governorate...
January 1, 2017: Evaluation & the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678771/vitamin-d-status-is-associated-with-treatment-failure-and-duration-of-illness-in-nepalese-children-with-severe-pneumonia
#14
Johanne Haugen, Sudha Basnet, Ingrid M Hardang, Arun Sharma, Maria Mathisen, Prakash Shrestha, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Tor A Strand
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on optimal Vitamin D status. The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which vitamin D status predicts illness duration and treatment failure in children with severe pneumonia by using different cut-offs for vitamin D concentration. METHODS: We measured the plasma-concentration of 25(OH)D in 568 children hospitalized with WHO-defined severe pneumonia. The associations between vitamin D status, using the most frequently used cut-offs of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH)D <50 and <75 nmol/l) and risk of treatment failure and time until recovery were analysed in multiple logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively...
July 5, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667380/variants-in-the-non-coding-region-of-the-tlr2-gene-associated-with-infectious-subphenotypes-in-pediatric-sickle-cell-anemia
#15
Susana David, Pedro Aguiar, Liliana Antunes, Alexandra Dias, Anabela Morais, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, João Lavinha
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is characterized by chronic hemolysis, severe vasoocclusive crises (VOCs), and recurrent often severe infections. A cohort of 95 SCA pediatric patients was the background for genotype-to-phenotype association of the patient's infectious disease phenotype and three non-coding polymorphic regions of the TLR2 gene, the -196 to -174 indel, SNP rs4696480, and a (GT)n short tandem repeat. The infectious subphenotypes included (A) recurrent respiratory infections and (B) severe bacterial infection at least once during the patient's follow-up...
June 30, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629795/epidemiological-features-and-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-of-haemophilus-influenzae-originating-from-respiratory-tract-and-vaginal-specimens-in-pediatric-patients
#16
Jian-Ping Li, Chun-Zhen Hua, Li-Ying Sun, Hong-Jiao Wang, Zhi-Min Chen, Shi-Qiang Shang
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a common pathogen of respiratory tract infections in children, however, as a possible cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, its epidemiological features, antibiotic-resistance patterns, and treatment are seldom noted. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Specimens obtained from patients were inoculated on Haemophilus selective medium; and drug-sensitivities tests were determined using the disk diffusion method...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604069/novel-human-metapneumovirus-with-a-180-nucleotide-duplication-in-the-g-gene
#17
María Piñana, Jorgina Vila, Laura Gimferrer, María Valls, Cristina Andrés, María Gema Codina, Javier Ramón, María Carmen Martín, Francisco Fuentes, Rosario Saiz, Pilar Alcubilla, Carlos Rodrigo, Tomàs Pumarola, Andrés Antón
AIM: To describe the circulation, genetic diversity and clinical features of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in pediatric patients that attended the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Spain from 2014 to 2016. MATERIALS & METHODS: Partial G gene was sequenced from laboratory-confirmed HMPV respiratory specimens for subsequent phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 121 different samples were HMPV laboratory-confirmed out of 6658 specimens received...
June 12, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598593/intravenous-palivizumab-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-children
#18
Juan Pablo Torres, Lorena I Tapia, Paula Catalán, Verónica De la Maza, Asunción Mejías
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause lower respiratory tract disease and mortality in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. We report two children who underwent HSCT and developed RSV infection simultaneously at the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit. The treatment with intravenous palivizumab was provided and sequential viral loads were measured in nasopharyngeal (NP) and whole blood samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report where RSV loads were measured in parallel (NP and blood), before and after palivizumab, in correlation with a favorable clinical outcome in both cases...
June 9, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588119/high-flow-nasal-cannula-utilization-in-pediatric-critical-care
#19
Kristen D Coletti, Dayanand N Bagdure, Linda K Walker, Kenneth E Remy, Jason W Custer
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly utilized in pediatrics, delivering humidified air and oxygen for respiratory conditions causing hypoxia and distress. In the neonatal ICU, it has been associated with better tolerance, lower complications, and lower cost. Few data exist regarding indications for use and the epidemiology of disease/pathology that warrants HFNC in the pediatric ICU. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a tertiary children's hospital pediatric ICU and placed on HFNC from October 1, 2011 to October 31, 2013...
August 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578344/the-comparison-of-procalcitonin-guidance-administer-antibiotics-with-standard-guidelines-on-antibiotic-therapy-in-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-a-retrospective-study-in-china
#20
Guo Wu, Gao Wu, Shuxie Wu, Hanbin Wu
OBJECTIVE: To establish the efficacy of an algorithm based on the biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) to reduce antibiotic exposure in pediatric patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical data of 357 patients (age of <14 years) who were discharged home with lower respiratory tract infections(LRTI) from Jan 1, 2010 to Jul 31, 2016, were analyzed. The antibiotic exposure, antibiotic prescription rate, length of hospital stay and antibiotic-associated adverse effects were compared between PCT group (n=183) and standard group (n=174) using SAS 9...
June 1, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
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