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Pediatric lower respiratory infection

Susanna Esposito, Giada Di Pietro
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the most common causes of lower respiratory tract infection among infants and the elderly worldwide. Despite its long history, no licensed vaccine is available. Recently, advances in the knowledge of RSV biology and pathology as well as the development of new techniques to generate vaccine candidates have increased the number of promising vaccines. The aim of this review is to analyze RSV characteristics, to consider the history of RSV vaccines and to discuss RSV vaccines currently in development...
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
C M Wickramatilake, R A Dharmadasa, M H A D De Silva
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children are a frequent health problem and, although the majority of LRTIs are self-limiting, most of the children who develop them receive antibiotic treatment (1). The main objective of our study was to determine the pattern of antibiotic use among children with LRTIs admitted to pediatric units in a tertiary care centre in Southern Sri Lanka. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study and was conducted over a one-year period from 1 January to 31 December 2013...
October 14, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Stephanie A Grayson, Pamela S Griffiths, Miriam K Perez, Giovanni Piedimonte
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of respiratory illness in infants and young children, but this virus is also capable of re-infecting adults throughout life. Universal precautions to prevent its transmission consist of gown and glove use, but masks and goggles are not routinely required because it is believed that RSV is unlikely to be transmitted by the airborne route. Our hypothesis was that RSV is present in respirable-size particles aerosolized by patients seen in a pediatric acute care setting...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Elisabeth H Ference, Jin-Young Min, Rakesh K Chandra, James W Schroeder, Jody D Ciolino, Amy Yang, Jane Holl, Stephanie Shintani Smith
BACKGROUND: This study investigates differences in antibiotic prescribing rates for pediatric upper respiratory infections (URIs) between physicians and nurse practitioners (NPs). METHODS: Visits by children <18 years old diagnosed with URI to physicians or NPs between 2001 and 2010 were abstracted from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey. Logistic regression analyses examined variations in antibiotic prescribing rates...
October 5, 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Melissa C Bartick, Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, Brittany D Green, Briana J Jegier, Arnold G Reinhold, Tarah T Colaizy, Debra L Bogen, Andrew J Schaefer, Alison M Stuebe
The aim of this study was to quantify the excess cases of pediatric and maternal disease, death, and costs attributable to suboptimal breastfeeding rates in the United States. Using the current literature on the associations between breastfeeding and health outcomes for nine pediatric and five maternal diseases, we created Monte Carlo simulations modeling a hypothetical cohort of U.S. women followed from age 15 to age 70 years and their children from birth to age 20 years. We examined disease outcomes using (a) 2012 breastfeeding rates and (b) assuming that 90% of infants were breastfed according to medical recommendations...
September 19, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Maria Serenella Pignotti, Maria Carmela Leo, Alessandra Pugi, Salvatore De Masi, Klaus Peter Biermann, Luisa Galli, Giovanni Vitali Rosati, Giuseppe Buonocore, Alessandro Mugelli, Carlo Dani, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Francesca Bellini, Giampaolo Donzelli
Respiratory syncytial virus infection represents a clinical burden among young children under 24 months. Palivizumab is the only drug licensed in Italy for the prevention of serious lower respiratory tract disease requiring hospitalization caused by respiratory syncytial virus in children at high risk. However recommendations for palivizumab prophylaxis are heterogeneous. Not all the published documents agree about the clinical indications of palivizumab; this could lead to different clinical practices and concerns about the appropriateness of prophylaxis...
October 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Oded Scheuerman, Galia Barkai, Michal Mandelboim, Hagit Mishali, Gabriel Chodick, Itzhak Levy
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infection (URTI, LRTI) in children. The prognosis of hMPV is unclear in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of hMPV infection in immunocompromised pediatric patients and to review the literature. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study included 39 immunocompromised children (age 0-18 years) with proven hMPV infection attending two tertiary pediatric medical centers in 2004-2014...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Lien Anh Ha Do, Juliet E Bryant, Anh Tuan Tran, Bach Hue Nguyen, Thi Thu Loan Tran, Quynh Huong Tran, Quoc Bao Vo, Nguyen Anh Tran Dac, Hong Nhien Trinh, Thi Thanh Hai Nguyen, Bao Tinh Le Binh, Khanh Le, Minh Tien Nguyen, Quang Tung Thai, Thanh Vu Vo, Ngoc Quang Minh Ngo, Thi Kim Huyen Dang, Ngoc Huong Cao, Thu Van Tran, Lu Viet Ho, Jeremy Farrar, Menno de Jong, H Rogier van Doorn
BACKGROUND: Despite a high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections among children, data on demographic and clinical characteristics of RSV are scarce in low and middle income countries. This study aims to describe the viral etiologies, the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of children under two years of age who were hospitalized with a lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), focusing on RSV (prevalence, seasonality, subgroups, viral load) and its association with disease severity...
2016: PloS One
Sydney Maghendji-Nzondo, Hermann Nzoughe, Guy Joseph Lemamy, Lady Charlene Kouna, Irene Pegha-Moukandja, Faustin Lekoulou, Bertrand Mbatchi, Fousseyni Toure-Ndouo, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki
Recently, major progress has been made in controlling malaria in Africa. However, in Gabon, little information is available on the role of malaria in childhood febrile syndromes, the use and efficacy of preventive measures, and Plasmodium species distribution. Here, we characterized malaria in febrile children in Franceville, Gabon through a cross-sectional study at the pediatric unit of the Franceville Regional Hospital. We registered 940 febrile children. Their general condition was markedly altered in 11...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Angela R Branche, Ann R Falsey
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of the Paramyoviridaie family. There are four serotypes which cause respiratory illnesses in children and adults. HPIVs bind and replicate in the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the extent of the infection correlates with the location involved. Seasonal HPIV epidemics result in a significant burden of disease in children and account for 40% of pediatric hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) and 75% of croup cases...
August 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ruyan Fan, Chuping Fan, Jian Zhang, Bo Wen, Yefei Lei, Chan Liu, Lijuan Chen, Wenpei Liu, Chuan Wang, Xiaowang Qu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the leading cause of acute respiratory tract disease in children less than 5 years old. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the molecular properties and clinical characteristics of RSV infection. The study sample included 238 patients <5 years old who were hospitalized with clinical symptoms of upper or lower respiratory tract infection (URTI or LRTI) in the Pediatric Department at the First People's Hospital of Chenzhou, South China in 2014. We subjected nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) or nasal swab (NS) samples from the patients to indirect fluorescence assay screens...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Francois Marie Ngako Kadji, Michiko Okamoto, Yuki Furuse, Raita Tamaki, Akira Suzuki, Irene Lirio, Clyde Dapat, Rungnapa Malasao, Mariko Saito, Gay Anne Granada Pedrera-Rico, Veronica Tallo, Socorro Lupisan, Mayuko Saito, Hitoshi Oshitani
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading viral etiologic agent of pediatric lower respiratory infections, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Two antigenic subgroups, HRSV-A and B, each contain several genotypes. While viral load may vary among HRSV genotypes and affect the clinical course of disease, data are scarce regarding the actual differences among genotypes. Therefore, this study estimated and compared viral load among NA1 and ON1 genotypes of HRSV-A and BA9 of HRSV-B...
2016: Virology Journal
Virginia Mirra, Marco Maglione, Laida L Di Micco, Silvia Montella, Francesca Santamaria
In the past decades improved surgical techniques and better neonatal supportive care have resulted in reduced mortality of patients with esophageal atresia (EA), with or without tracheoesophageal fistula, and in increased prevalence of long-term complications, especially respiratory manifestations. This integrative review describes the techniques currently used in the pediatric clinical practice for assessing EA-related respiratory disease. We also present a novel algorithm for the evaluation and surveillance of lung disease in EA...
May 29, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Keisuke Yoshihara, Minh Nhat Le, Michiko Okamoto, Anita Carolle Akpeedje Wadagni, Hien Anh Nguyen, Michiko Toizumi, Enga Pham, Motoi Suzuki, Ai Thi Thuy Nguyen, Hitoshi Oshitani, Koya Ariyoshi, Hiroyuki Moriuchi, Masahiro Hashizume, Duc Anh Dang, Lay-Myint Yoshida
Since the initial discovery of RSV-A ON1 in Canada in 2010, ON1 has been reported worldwide, yet information regarding its clinical impact and severity has been controversial. To investigate the clinical relevance of RSV-A ON1,acute respiratory infection (ARI) cases enrolled to our population-based prospective pediatric ARI surveillance at Khanh Hoa General Hospital, Central Vietnam from January 2010 through December 2012 were studied. Clinical-epidemiological information and nasopharyngeal samples were collected...
2016: Scientific Reports
Somayeh Shatizadeh Malekshahi, Ehsan Arefian, Vahid Salimi, Talat Mokhtari Azad, Jila Yavarian
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease in the pediatric population, elderly and in immunosuppressed individuals. Respiratory syncytial virus is also responsible for bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary infections in all age groups. With this high disease burden and the lack of an effective RSV treatment and vaccine, there is a clear need for discovery and development of novel, effective and safe drugs to prevent and treat RSV disease...
April 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Jessica Kammer, Stefan Ziesing, Lukas Aguirre Davila, Eva Bültmann, Sabine Illsinger, Anibh M Das, Dieter Haffner, Hans Hartmann
Objective In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess frequency, types, and long-term outcome of neurological disease during acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods Medical records of patients hospitalized with acute M. pneumoniae infection were reviewed. Possible risk factors were analyzed by uni- and multivariate regression. Patients with neurological symptoms were followed up by expanded disability status score (EDSS) and the cognitive problems in children and adolescents (KOPKJ) scale...
October 2016: Neuropediatrics
Carolina Ortega, Carla Gonzales, Manuel E Soto-Martinez, Adriana Yock-Corrales
Hydropneumothorax is an uncommon presentation of a complicated pneumonia, and very few cases in the pediatric population have been reported. This is a case of a 5-month-old patient who presented to the emergency department (ED) with a three-day history of fever, diarrhea, and respiratory distress. His initial assessment suggested a lower respiratory tract infection and because of his respiratory distress and hypoxia a chest X-ray was performed. Other clinical information and radiologic studies will be discussed further, but his chest X-ray suggested a right-sided hydropneumothorax secondary to a complicated pneumonia...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Giulia Cangiano, Raffaella Nenna, Antonella Frassanito, Melania Evangelisti, Ambra Nicolai, Carolina Scagnolari, Alessandra Pierangeli, Guido Antonelli, Paola Papoff, Laura Petrarca, Paolo Capocaccia, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants under 12 months. Our aims were to analyze epidemiological characteristics of infants with bronchiolitis over 10 consecutive seasons and to evaluate whether there are any clinical differences between infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis during epidemic peak months and infants in non-peak months. We enrolled consecutive enrolled 723 previously healthy term infants hospitalized at the Paediatric Emergency Department, "Sapienza" University of Rome over the period 2004-2014...
May 26, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Miek C Jong, Stephen L Buskin, Lydia Ilyenko, Irina Kholodova, Julia Burkart, Stephan Weber, Thomas Keller, Petra Klement
BACKGROUND: The present study was initiated to investigate the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of complex homeopathic CalSuli-4-02 tablets on prevention of recurrent acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in children, in comparison to another complex homeopathic product. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open, clinical trial with two parallel treatment groups at four outpatient pediatric clinics in Russia...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
M Viegas, S Goya, A S Mistchenko
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the main viral cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children worldwide. In recent years, several preclinical trials with vaccine candidates have been reported. It is in this sense that molecular epidemiological studies become important. Understanding viral dispersion patterns before and after the implementation of a vaccine can provide insight into the effectiveness of the control strategies. In this work we analyzed the molecular epidemiology of HRSV-A over a period of sixteen years (1999-2014) in Buenos Aires...
September 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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