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Pediatric lower respiratory infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128553/pediatric-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-patients-who-survive-critical-illness-frequently-have-significant-but-recoverable-decline-in-functional-status
#1
M S Zinter, R Holubkov, M A Steurer, C C Dvorak, C N Duncan, A Sapru, R F Tamburro, P S McQuillen, M M Pollack
BACKGROUND: The number of pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients who survive pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission is increasing, yet little is known about their functional morbidity after PICU discharge. We hypothesized that relative to controls, pediatric HCT patients who survive PICU admission would have greater rates of new functional morbidity at the time of PICU discharge, and only a minority of these patients would return to their functional baseline by the end of the hospitalization...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116124/monocytes-from-patients-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-show-enhanced-inflammatory-properties-and-produce-higher-levels-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines
#2
M Cockx, M Gouwy, P Ruytinx, I Lodewijckx, A Van Hout, S Knoops, N Pörtner, I Ronsse, L Vanbrabant, V Godding, K De Boeck, J Van Damme, M Boon, S Struyf
Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) suffer from recurrent upper and lower airway infections due to defects in the cilia present on the respiratory epithelium. Since chronic inflammatory conditions can cause changes in innate immune responses, we investigated whether monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of pediatric PCD patients respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, compared to monocytes from healthy children and adults. The receptor for C5a (C5aR) was upregulated in PCD, whereas expression levels of the leukocyte chemoattractant receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, BLT1 and FPR1 on PCD monocytes were similar to those on monocytes from healthy individuals...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106589/a-multicenter-consortium-to-define-the-epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-inpatient-respiratory-viral-infections-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#3
Brian T Fisher, Lara Danziger-Isakov, Leigh R Sweet, Flor M Munoz, Gabriela Maron, Elaine Tuomanen, Alistair Murray, Janet A Englund, Daniel Dulek, Natasha Halasa, Michael Green, Marian G Michaels, Rebecca Pellett Madan, Betsy C Herold, William J Steinbach
Background: Respiratory virus infections (RVIs) pose a threat to children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this era of sensitive molecular diagnostics, the incidence and outcome of HSCT recipients who are hospitalized with RVI (H-RVI) are not well described. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort of pediatric HSCT recipients (between January 2010 and June 2013) was assembled from 9 US pediatric transplant centers. Their medical charts were reviewed for H-RVI events within 1 year after their transplant...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096010/macrolides-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-panacea-or-placebo
#4
Christopher C Blyth, Jeffrey S Gerber
Pneumonia, most often caused by a respiratory virus, is common in childhood. Mycoplasma pneumoniae also is detected frequently, particularly in older children in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Despite recommendations for β-lactam antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, including erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, are prescribed frequently to children with acute lower respiratory infection. However, the significance of detecting "atypical" pathogens, including M pneumoniae, in children remains contentious...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094018/comparison-of-nasal-cytokine-profiles-of-human-metapneumovirus-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#5
Jin-Sung Park, Young-Ho Kim, Eunmi Kwon, Zak Callaway, Takao Fujisawa, Chang-Keun Kim
Background: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) share some epidemiological and clinical characteristics; however, few studies have examined the mechanisms by which these viruses induce airway inflammation. Objective: This study was undertaken to compare cytokine profiles in hMPV and RSV patients to investigate possible differences in inflammatory pathways. Methods: Nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens were collected from 1,008 pediatric patients hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection with wheezing and 20 normal healthy controls...
October 2017: Asia Pacific Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071854/-interpretation-of-chinese-clinical-guidelines-for-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-children
#6
Li Li, Xing Liao, Jing Zhao, Yan-Ming Xie
Acute upper respiratory tract infection(AURI) in pediatrics is the most common disease in children, often caused by a variety of pathogens. The incidence of clinic patients accounts for over 60%. The domestic organizations and institutes have issued 5 agnostic and therapeutic clinical guidelines about AURI in children. This article briefly reviewed and interpreted the contents and qualities of the relevant guidelines. There are fewer problems with them,such us smaller quantities, lower quality, slower update...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066468/choosing-wisely-campaign-report-card-and-achievable-benchmarks-of-care-for-children-s-hospitals
#7
Mario Reyes, Evan Paulus, Carla Hronek, Veronica Etinger, Matt Hall, Joyee Vachani, Jennifer Lusk, Christopher Emerson, Patty Huddleson, Ricardo A Quinonez
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, the Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) released 5 pediatric recommendations for the Choosing Wisely Campaign (CWC). Our goals were to develop a report card on the basis of those recommendations, calculate achievable benchmarks of care (ABCs), and analyze performance among hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System. METHODS: Children hospitalized between January 2013 and September 2015 from 32 Pediatric Health Information System hospitals were studied...
October 24, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042834/improving-palivizumab-compliance-rough-a-pharmacist-managed-rsv-prevention-clinic
#8
Jennifer W Chow, Michael F Chicella, Anthony M Christensen, Carolyn S Moneymaker, John Harrington, James E Dice
OBJECTIVES: Palivizumab is a monoclonal antibody approved for the prevention of serious lower respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in high-risk pediatric patients. While palivizumab is more effective if used correctly, compliance with the monthly dosing is suboptimal. We established a pharmacist-managed RSV prevention clinic in an effort to improve compliance. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of a pharmacist-managed RSV prevention clinic on palivizumab compliance...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031787/assessing-prediction-accuracy-for-outcomes-of-ventilator-associated-events-and-infections-in-critically-ill-children-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Yolanda Peña-López, Montserrat Pujol, Magda Campins, Leonel Lagunes, Joan Balcells, Jordi Rello
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prediction accuracy of 2008 Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)/ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT), 2013-CDC definitions for ventilator-associated events (VAE) and a new VAE algorithm (Ped-VAE) in children. METHODS: Prospective 13-month cohort study at a multidisciplinary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Primary end-points were duration of ventilation episode, PICU/hospitalization length of stay from episode (LOS), and episode mortality...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021302/development-of-a-high-throughput-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fluorescent-foci-based-microneutralization-assay
#10
Cindy Shambaugh, Sarieh Azshirvani, Li Yu, Jared Pache, Stacie L Lambert, Fengrong Zuo, Mark T Esser
Neutralizing antibodies specific for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) represent a major protective mechanism against RSV infection as demonstrated by the efficacy of the immune-prophylactic monoclonal antibody, Palivizumab, in preventing RSV associated lower respiratory tract infections in premature infants. Accordingly, the RSV neutralization assay has become a key functional method to assess the neutralizing activity of serum antibodies in pre-clinical animal models, epidemiology studies and clinical trials...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975628/predictors-of-prolonged-length-of-hospital-stay-or-readmissions-for-acute-viral-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-among-infants-with-a-history-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#11
Carlos E Rodríguez-Martínez, Ranniery Acuña-Cordero, Monica P Sossa-Briceño
BACKGROUND: Length of hospital stay and readmissions are outcome measures that have been largely overlooked in many studies that have evaluated the clinical evolution of pediatric patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of prolonged hospitalizations or readmissions for acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) in infants with BPD. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we determined independent predictors of prolonged hospitalizations or readmissions for ALRIs during the first two years of life in a population of infants with BPD living in Bogota, Colombia...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968668/rhinovirus-viremia-in-patients-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#12
Xiaoyan Lu, Eileen Schneider, Seema Jain, Anna M Bramley, Weston Hymas, Chris Stockmann, Krow Ampofo, Sandra R Arnold, Derek J Williams, Wesley H Self, Anami Patel, James D Chappell, Carlos G Grijalva, Evan J Anderson, Richard G Wunderink, Jonathan A McCullers, Kathryn M Edwards, Andrew T Pavia, Dean D Erdman
Background: Rhinoviruses (RVs) are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens that often cause mild or subclinical infections. Molecular detection of RV from the upper respiratory tract can be prolonged, complicating etiologic association in persons with severe lower respiratory tract infections. Little is known about RV viremia and its value as a diagnostic indicator in persons hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: Sera from RV-positive children and adults hospitalized with CAP were tested for RV by real-time RT-PCR...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964298/implementation-of-a-perioperative-surgical-home-protocol-for-pediatric-patients-presenting-for-adenoidectomy
#13
Vidya T Raman, Dmitry Tumin, Joshua Uffman, Arlyne K Thung, Candice Burrier, Kris R Jatana, Charles Elmaraghy, Joseph D Tobias
INTRODUCTION: The perioperative surgical home (PSH) is a patient-centered model designed to improve health, streamline the delivery of health care, and reduce the cost of care. Following the national introduction of PSH in 2014 by the ASA, adult hospitals have reported success with this model, with studies validating the benefits of PSH including reducing length of stay, lowering costs, and improving patient satisfaction. METHODS: Eligible patients, ranging in age from 16-35 months of age, were identified by the pre-admission testing (PAT) registered nurses (RNs) and faculty anesthesiologists upon review of the patient history...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963878/human-parainfluenza-virus-surveillance-in-pediatric-patients-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-a-special-view-of-parainfluenza-type-4
#14
Luciano M Thomazelli, Danielle B L de Oliveira, Giuliana S Durigon, Brett Whitaker, Shifaq Kamili, Eitan N Berezin, Edison L Durigon
OBJECTIVE: Characterize the role of human parainfluenza virus and its clinical features in Brazilian children under 2 years of age presenting with acute lower respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Real-time assays were used to identify strains of human parainfluenza virus and other common respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates. One thousand and two children presenting with acute lower respiratory tract illnesses were enrolled from February 2008 to August 2010...
September 27, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957358/drivers-of-antibiotic-prescribing-in-children-and-adolescents-with-febrile-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#15
Verena Gotta, Philipp Baumann, Nicole Ritz, Aline Fuchs, Gurli Baer, Jessica M Bonhoeffer, Ulrich Heininger, Gabor Szinnai, Jan Bonhoeffer
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of key drivers for antibiotic prescribing in pediatric lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) could support rational antibiotic use. Thus, we aimed to determine the impact of clinical and laboratory factors on antibiotic prescribing in children and adolescents with febrile LRTI. METHODS: Pediatric patients from the standard care control group of a randomized controlled trial (ProPAED) investigating procalcitonin guided antibiotic treatment in febrile LRTI were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis to evaluate the impact of laboratory and clinical factors on antibiotic prescribing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894729/procalcitonin-for-diagnostics-and-treatment-decisions-in-pediatric-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#16
Philipp Baumann, Gurli Baer, Jessica Bonhoeffer, Aline Fuchs, Verena Gotta, Ulrich Heininger, Nicole Ritz, Gabor Szinnai, Jan Bonhoeffer
Mortality and morbidity remain high in pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) despite progress in research and implementation of global diagnostic and treatment strategies in the last decade. Still, 120 million annual episodes of pneumonia affect children younger than 5 years each year leading to 1.3 million fatalities with the major burden of disease carried by low- and middle-income countries (95%). The definition of pneumonia is still challenging. Traditional diagnostic measures (i.e., chest radiographs, C-reactive protein) are unable to distinguish viral and from bacterial etiology...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#17
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844075/hrct-findings-of-childhood-follicular-bronchiolitis
#18
Jason P Weinman, David A Manning, Deborah R Liptzin, Amanda J Krausert, Lorna P Browne
BACKGROUND: Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis...
August 26, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842971/the-impact-of-pediatric-obesity-on-hospitalized-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-united-states
#19
Yusuke Okubo, Kotaro Nochioka, Marcia A Testa
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is the most common public health problem and is a clinically complicating risk factor among hospitalized children. The impact of pediatric obesity on the severity and morbidity of lower respiratory tract infections remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of bronchitis and pneumonia among children aged 2-20 years using hospital discharge records. The data were obtained from the Kid's Inpatient Database in 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012, and were weighted to estimate the number of hospitalizations in the United States...
August 26, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834413/accessory-lobed-accessory-cardiac-bronchus-presentation-and-treatment-in-a-pediatric-patient
#20
Andrea Volpe, Sara Bozzetto, Eugenio Baraldi, Piergiorgio Gamba
Accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) is a supernumerary bronchus usually arising from right main or intermediate bronchus. We report the case of a 9-year-old male who presented a 6-month history characterized by two right pneumonia episodes followed by persistent productive cough, recurrent bloody sputum, and chest x-ray persistence of a segmental thickening of right inferior lobe. Bronchoscopy revealed no abnormalities. Computed tomography documented an accessory-lobed ACB originating from right lower brochus...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
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