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Pediatric lower respiratory infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629795/epidemiological-features-and-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-of-haemophilus-influenzae-originating-from-respiratory-tract-and-vaginal-specimens-in-pediatric-patients
#1
Jian-Ping Li, Chun-Zhen Hua, Li-Ying Sun, Hong-Jiao Wang, Zhi-Min Chen, Shi-Qiang Shang
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a common pathogen of respiratory tract infections in children, however, as a possible cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, its epidemiological features,antibiotic-resistance patterns, and treatment are seldom noted. METHODS: Specimens obtained from patients were inoculated on Haemophilus selective medium; and drug-sensitivities tests were determined with disc diffusion method. Cefinase disc was used to detect β-lactamase...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604069/novel-human-metapneumovirus-with-a-180-nucleotide-duplication-in-the-g-gene
#2
María Piñana, Jorgina Vila, Laura Gimferrer, María Valls, Cristina Andrés, María Gema Codina, Javier Ramón, María Carmen Martín, Francisco Fuentes, Rosario Saiz, Pilar Alcubilla, Carlos Rodrigo, Tomàs Pumarola, Andrés Antón
AIM: To describe the circulation, genetic diversity and clinical features of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in pediatric patients that attended the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Spain from 2014 to 2016. MATERIALS & METHODS: Partial G gene was sequenced from laboratory-confirmed HMPV respiratory specimens for subsequent phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 121 different samples were HMPV laboratory-confirmed out of 6658 specimens received...
June 12, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598593/intravenous-palivizumab-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-children
#3
Juan Pablo Torres, Lorena I Tapia, Paula Catalán, Verónica De la Maza, Asunción Mejías
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause lower respiratory tract disease and mortality in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. We report two children who underwent HSCT and developed RSV infection simultaneously at the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit. The treatment with intravenous palivizumab was provided and sequential viral loads were measured in nasopharyngeal (NP) and whole blood samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report where RSV loads were measured in parallel (NP and blood), before and after palivizumab, in correlation with a favorable clinical outcome in both cases...
June 9, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588119/high-flow-nasal-cannula-utilization-in-pediatric-critical-care
#4
Kristen D Coletti, Dayanand N Bagdure, Linda K Walker, Kenneth E Remy, Jason W Custer
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly utilized in pediatrics, delivering humidified air and oxygen for respiratory conditions causing hypoxia and distress. In the neonatal ICU, it has been associated with better tolerance, lower complications, and lower cost. Few data exist regarding indications for use and the epidemiology of disease/pathology that warrants HFNC in the pediatric ICU. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a tertiary children's hospital pediatric ICU and placed on HFNC from October 1, 2011 to October 31, 2013...
June 6, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578344/the-comparison-of-procalcitonin-guidance-administer-antibiotics-with-standard-guidelines-on-antibiotic-therapy-in-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-a-retrospective-study-in-china
#5
Guo Wu, Gao Wu, Shuxie Wu, Hanbin Wu
OBJECTIVE: To establish the efficacy of an algorithm based on the biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) to reduce antibiotic exposure in pediatric patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical data of 357 patients (age of <14 years) who were discharged home with lower respiratory tract infections(LRTI) from Jan 1, 2010 to Jul 31, 2016, were analyzed. The antibiotic exposure, antibiotic prescription rate, length of hospital stay and antibiotic-associated adverse effects were compared between PCT group (n=183) and standard group (n=174) using SAS 9...
June 1, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546380/respiratory-implications-of-pediatric-neuromuscular-disease
#6
Howard B Panitch
Children with progressive neuromuscular weakness undergo a stereotypical progression of respiratory involvement, beginning with impaired airway clearance and progressing to nocturnal and then diurnal ventilatory failure. This review examines issues related to airway clearance and mucus mobilization, sleep problems, and use of assisted ventilation in children with neuromuscular diseases. Interventions for each of these problems have been created or adapted for the pediatric population. The use of airway clearance therapies and assisted ventilation have improved survival of children with neuromuscular weakness...
June 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539444/improved-prefusion-stability-optimized-codon-usage-and-augmented-virion-packaging-enhance-the-immunogenicity-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-protein-in-a-vectored-vaccine-candidate
#7
Bo Liang, Joan O Ngwuta, Sonja Surman, Barbora Kabatova, Xiang Liu, Matthias Lingemann, Xueqiao Liu, Lijuan Yang, Richard Herbert, Joanna Swerczek, Man Chen, Syed M Moin, Azad Kumar, Jason S McLellan, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent of severe pediatric respiratory tract disease worldwide, but lacks a licensed vaccine or suitable antiviral drug. A live-attenuated chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza virus type-3 (rB/HPIV3) was developed previously as a vector expressing RSV fusion (F) protein to confer bivalent protection against RSV and HPIV3. In a previous clinical trial in virus-naïve children, rB/HPIV3 was well-tolerated but the immunogenicity of wildtype RSV F was unsatisfactory...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531552/the-role-of-next-generation-sequencing-in-infection-prevention-in-human-parainfluenza-virus-3-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients
#8
Atul Kothari, Mary J Burgess, Juan Carlos Rico Crescencio, Joshua L Kennedy, Jesse L Denson, Kurt C Schwalm, Ashley N Stoner, John C Kincaid, Faith E Davies, Darrell L Dinwiddie
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections are a significant problem in patients with hematologic malignancies. We report a cluster of HPIV 3 infections in our myeloma patients, and describe the utility of next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify transmission linkages which can assist in infection prevention. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of NGS to track respiratory viral infection outbreaks and delineate between community acquired and nosocomial infections in our cancer units...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531224/defining-the-vaccination-window-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-using-age-seroprevalence-data-for-children-in-kilifi-kenya
#9
Joyce U Nyiro, Ivy K Kombe, Charles J Sande, James Kipkoech, Patience K Kiyuka, Clayton O Onyango, Patrick K Munywoki, Timothy M Kinyanjui, D James Nokes
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in early life and a target for vaccine prevention. Data on the age-prevalence of RSV specific antibodies will inform on optimizing vaccine delivery. METHODS: Archived plasma samples were randomly selected within age strata from 960 children less than 145 months of age admitted to Kilifi County Hospital pediatric wards between 2007 and 2010. Samples were tested for antibodies to RSV using crude virus IgG ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525961/passive-and-active-immunization-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-for-the-young-and-old
#10
Tonya Villafana, Judith Falloon, M Pamela Griffin, Qing Zhu, Mark T Esser
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide and also causes significant disease in the elderly. Despite 60 years of RSV research and vaccine development, there is only one approved medicine to prevent RSV infections. Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the RSV fusion (F) protein, is indicated for preterm infants and children at high-risk for RSV infections. It is an active time in RSV vaccine and mAb development with 14 vaccines and 2 mAbs currently being tested in clinical trials as of 13 February 2017...
July 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504495/early-use-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-the-treatment-of-moderate-to-severe-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-among-patients-younger-than-2-years-old
#11
Laura Figueroa, Federico Laffaye
OBJETIVE: To analyze the characteristics of patients younger than 2 years old who had a moderate to severe acute lower respiratory tract infection and were treated early with bubble continuous positive airway pressure, and factors associated with a successful intervention. METHOD: Retrospective and descriptive study. Children younger than 2 years old admitted to the Pediatric Intermediate Care Unit of Hospital Provincial Neuquen between June 2009 and December 2010...
June 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495415/rhinovirus-from-bench-to-bedside
#12
REVIEW
Kelvin K W To, Cyril C Y Yip, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Rhinovirus has been neglected in the past because it was generally perceived as a respiratory virus only capable of causing mild common cold. Contemporary epidemiological studies using molecular assays have shown that rhinovirus is frequently detected in adult and pediatric patients with upper or lower respiratory tract infections. Severe pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications are increasingly recognized. Contrary to popular belief, some rhinoviruses can actually replicate well at 37 °C and infect the lower airway in humans...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452841/are-we-over-treating-insect-bite-related-periorbital-cellulitis-in-children-the-experience-of-a-large-tertiary-care-pediatric-hospital
#13
Nadav Friedel, Dennis Scolnik, Ayelet Rimon, Rotem Orbach, Sharon Laat, Miguel M Glatstein
INTRODUCTION: Preseptal (periorbital) and orbital cellulitis are potentially catastrophic infections near the eye. Preseptal cellulitis is far more common, and although classically reported to be associated with dacrocystitis, sinusitis/upper respiratory infection, trauma/surgery, or infection from contiguous areas, it can also be associated with insect bites. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of insect bite-associated preseptal cellulitis and to compare clinical findings and outcomes of these patients with those having other causes for the condition...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440108/microbiology-of-the-upper-and-lower-airways-in-pediatric-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#14
Lindsay Sobin, Kosuke Kawai, Alexandria L Irace, Ozgul Gergin, Michael Cunningham, Gregory S Sawicki, Eelam A Adil
Objective To evaluate the microbiology of the upper and lower airways in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients who underwent sinus surgery. Study Design Retrospective case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care children's hospital. Subjects and Methods A total of 201 paired sinus and pulmonary cultures from 105 CF patients were identified between 1996 and 2014. Demographics and culture results were analyzed. Results The mean age of patients was 11.2 ± 5.4 years (range, 1-27 years), and approximately one-half were female...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347279/simultaneous-detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-by-one-step-multiplex-real-time-rt-pcr-in-patients-with-respiratory-symptoms
#15
Huey-Ling You, Shun-Jen Chang, Hong-Ren Yu, Chia-Chin Li, Chang-Han Chen, Wei-Ting Liao
BACKGROUND: Both respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are important viral pathogens causing respiratory tract infection (RTI) in the pediatric population. However, the clinical manifestations of RSV and hMPV infections are similar. Therefore, a reliable and rapid diagnostic tool is needed for diagnostic performance. METHODS: In order to optimize diagnosis efficiency of RTI, the aim of this study is to establish a rapid and advanced method for simultaneous detecting RSV and hMPV in nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens from patients...
March 27, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337076/nebulized-gentamicin-as-an-alternative-to-nebulized-tobramycin-for-tracheitis-in-pediatric-patients
#16
Justin K Chen, Brittany L Martin-McNew, Lisa M Lubsch
OBJECTIVES: Tracheitis is an infection of the lower respiratory tract and is defined by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) based on signs and symptoms with no radiographic evidence of pneumonia. One method of treatment involves the use of tobramycin given by nebulizer. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of nebulized gentamicin with nebulized tobramycin. METHODS: This study was conducted in patients under 21 years of age who received greater than or equal to 1 day of gentamicin, 80 mg, or tobramycin, 300 mg, given twice a day by nebulization within the 14-month study period...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298602/a-single-dose-recombinant-parainfluenza-virus-5-vectored-vaccine-expressing-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-f-or-g-protein-protected-cotton-rats-and-african-green-monkeys-from-rsv-challenge
#17
Dai Wang, Shannon Phan, Daniel J DiStefano, Michael P Citron, Cheryl L Callahan, Lani Indrawati, Sheri A Dubey, Gwendolyn J Heidecker, Dhanasekaran Govindarajan, Xiaoping Liang, Biao He, Amy S Espeseth
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of severe respiratory disease among infants, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly. No licensed vaccine is currently available. In this study, we evaluated two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-vectored vaccines expressing RSV F (PIV5/F) or G (PIV5/G) protein in the cotton rat and African green monkey models for their replication, immunogenicity, and efficacy of protection against RSV challenge. Following a single intranasal inoculation, both animal species shed the vaccine viruses for a limited time but without noticeable clinical symptoms...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282433/the-cause-specific-morbidity-and-mortality-and-referral-patterns-of-all-neonates-admitted-to-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-in-the-northern-provinces-of-vietnam-over-a-one-year-period
#18
Merinda Miles, Khu Thi Khanh Dung, Le Thi Ha, Nguyen Thanh Liem, Khu Ha, Rod W Hunt, Kim Mulholland, Chris Morgan, Fiona M Russell
OBJECTIVE: To describe the cause-specific morbidity and mortality, and referral patterns of all neonates admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in the northern provinces of Vietnam. DESIGN: A prospective hospital based observational study. SETTING: The Neonatal Department, National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam. PATIENTS: All admissions to the Neonatal Department over a 12 month period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cause-specific morbidity and mortality; deaths...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277413/community-primary-care-provider-preferences-for-emergency-department-follow-up-recommendations-a-regional-study
#19
Marissa A Hendrickson, Eta Obeya, Andrew R Wey, Philippe R Gaillard
BACKGROUND: Children who present to emergency departments (EDs) for care are frequently advised to follow up with their primary care providers (PCPs) after discharge; little is known about whether PCPs agree that follow-up advised by EDs is appropriate for their patients. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine PCP preferences for follow-up recommendations given to their pediatric patients at the time of ED visits and to compare these preferences to reported emergency medicine provider (EMP) practice...
March 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277411/testing-for-urinary-tract-infection-in-the-influenza-respiratory-syncytial-virus-positive-febrile-infant-aged-2-to-12-months
#20
Anna Kathleen Schlechter Salinas, David S Hains, Tamekia Jones, Camden Harrell, Mark Meredith
OBJECTIVE: Infants 12 months or younger with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) commonly present to the emergency department (ED) with fever. Previous publications have recommended that these patients have a urinalysis and urine culture performed. We aimed to assess the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile RSV/influenza positive infants aged 2 to 12 months presenting to the ED. We also examined whether the 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) UTI clinical practice guidelines could be used to identify patients at lower risk of UTI...
March 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
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