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Pediatric lower respiratory infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917737/a-pediatric-approach-to-ventilator-associated-events-surveillance
#1
Noelle M Cocoros, Gregory P Priebe, Latania K Logan, Susan Coffin, Gitte Larsen, Philip Toltzis, Thomas J Sandora, Marvin Harper, Julia S Sammons, James E Gray, Donald Goldmann, Kelly Horan, Michael Burton, Paul A Checchia, Matthew Lakoma, Shannon Sims, Michael Klompas, Grace M Lee
OBJECTIVE Adult ventilator-associated event (VAE) definitions include ventilator-associated conditions (VAC) and subcategories for infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC) and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP). We explored these definitions for children. DESIGN Retrospective cohort SETTING Pediatric, cardiac, or neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 US hospitals PATIENTS Patients ≤18 years old ventilated for ≥1 day METHODS We identified patients with pediatric VAC based on previously proposed criteria...
December 5, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908797/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-b-genotypes-circulating-in-pakistani-children
#2
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Nayab Mahmood, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Hajra Sadia, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in young children, but very little is known about its epidemiology and circulating genotypes in Pakistan. This study analyzed the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of RSV B genotypes in Pakistani children below 5years with acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) during three consecutive winter seasons from 2010 to 2013. A total of 1941 samples were analyzed for RSV infection by real time PCR and 24% (472/1941) samples were found positive out of which 22...
November 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886037/hospital-acquired-infection-in-public-hospital-buildings-in-the-philippines-is-the-type-of-ventilation-increasing-the-risk
#3
Godofreda Ruiz Vergeire-Dalmacion, Jill Rafols Itable, Emmanuel Saporna Baja
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. However, limited information is available about the risk of HAIs in naturally ventilated wards (NVWs) and mechanically ventilated intensive care units (MVICUs) of public hospitals in the Philippines. We aimed to assess the association between HAIs and type of ventilation in an urban tertiary care hospital in the Philippines. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional point-prevalence survey of infections was done in NVWs and MVICUs of a tertiary care hospital in December 2013...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882804/a-comparison-of-high-frequency-chest-wall-oscillation-and-intrapulmonary-percussive-ventilation-for-airway-clearance-in-pediatric-patients-with-tracheostomy
#4
Aneela Bidiwala, Linda Volpe, Claudia Halaby, Melissa Fazzari, Christina Valsamis, Melodi Pirzada
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare two modes of airway clearance, the intrapulmonary percussive ventilation system (IPV) to high frequency chest wall oscillation system (HFCWO) in medically complex pediatric patients with tracheostomy requiring long term care. METHODS: This was a single center, retrospective study comparing the number of respiratory illnesses, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), utilization of bronchodilator and systemic steroids, and respiratory illnesses requiring acute care hospitalizations...
November 24, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854115/an-investigation-into-respiratory-tract-viruses-in-children-with-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-or-wheezing
#5
Demet Dabaniyasti, Fahriye Eksi, Özlem Keskin, Mehmet Y Özkars, Tekin Karsligil, Iclal Balci
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the frequencies of respiratory tract viruses in patient (acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) or wheezing) and control (history of asthma without symptoms) groups. METHODS: Using multiplex-PCR, respiratory tract viruses were investigated in the respiratory tract specimens from patient and control groups followed in the Pediatric Clinic. RESULTS: The viruses detected in the patient and control groups (p=0...
November 17, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851998/clinical-and-molecular-features-of-adenovirus-type-2-3-and-7-infections-in-children-in-an-outbreak-in-taiwan-2011
#6
Ming-Ru Lin, Shu-Li Yang, Yu-Nong Gong, Ching-Chia Kuo, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Chih-Jung Chen, Yu-Chia Hsieh, Chen-Yen Kuo, Chun-Wan Fang, Kuo-Chien Tsao, Yhu-Chering Huang
OBJECTIVES: We studied pediatric patients with human adenovirus (HAdV) infection during the 2011 outbreak in northern Taiwan in order to define the clinical features of different HAdV genotypes in children. METHODS: Between January and December 2011, 637 patients <19 years of age exhibited culture-confirmed adenoviral infection in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, and provided specimens available for genotyping by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clinical data were retrospectively collected...
November 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850287/648-utility-of-procalcitonin-for-viral-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-pediatric-icu
#7
John Kotula, Wayne Moore, Arun Chopra, Jeffrey Cies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833115/transcriptome-assists-prognosis-of-disease-severity-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infected-infants
#8
Victor L Jong, Inge M L Ahout, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Jop Jans, Fatiha Zaaraoui-Boutahar, Aldert Zomer, Elles Simonetti, Maarten A Bijl, H Kim Brand, Wilfred F J van IJcken, Marien I de Jonge, Pieter L Fraaij, Ronald de Groot, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Marinus J Eijkemans, Gerben Ferwerda, Arno C Andeweg
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes infections that range from common cold to severe lower respiratory tract infection requiring high-level medical care. Prediction of the course of disease in individual patients remains challenging at the first visit to the pediatric wards and RSV infections may rapidly progress to severe disease. In this study we investigate whether there exists a genomic signature that can accurately predict the course of RSV. We used early blood microarray transcriptome profiles from 39 hospitalized infants that were followed until recovery and of which the level of disease severity was determined retrospectively...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828898/pediatric-ventilator-associated-infections-the-ventilator-associated-infection-study
#9
Douglas F Willson, Michelle Hoot, Robinder Khemani, Christopher Carrol, Aileen Kirby, Adam Schwarz, Rainer Gedeit, Sholeen T Nett, Simon Erickson, Heidi Flori, Spencer Hays, Mark Hall
OBJECTIVE: Suspected ventilator-associated infection is the most common reason for antibiotics in the PICU. We sought to characterize the clinical variables associated with continuing antibiotics after initial evaluation for suspected ventilator-associated infection and to determine whether clinical variables or antibiotic treatment influenced outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study conducted in 47 PICUs in the United States, Canada, and Australia...
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790333/a-multi-strain-synbiotic-may-reduce-viral-respiratory-infections-in-asthmatic-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Hamid Ahanchian, Seyed Ali Jafari, Elham Ansari, Toktam Ganji, Mohammad Ali Kiani, Maryam Khalesi, Tooba Momen, Hamidreza Kianifar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a growing problem worldwide. Acute exacerbations impose considerable morbidity, mortality, and increased cost. Viral respiratory infections are the most common cause (80-85%) of pediatric asthma exacerbations and admissions to the hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a new synbiotic Lactocare® on viral respiratory infections and asthma exacerbations in asthmatic children. METHODS: In this double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, 72 children with mild persistent asthma, aged between 6 and 12 years, were randomized to receive either Lactocare®, a Synbiotic containing 1 billion CFU/Capsule of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Fructooligosacharide (Zist Takhmir, Tehran, Iran) or placebo daily for 60 days...
September 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750448/respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccines-an-update-on-those-in-the-immediate-pipeline
#11
Susanna Esposito, Giada Di Pietro
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the most common causes of lower respiratory tract infection among infants and the elderly worldwide. Despite its long history, no licensed vaccine is available. Recently, advances in the knowledge of RSV biology and pathology as well as the development of new techniques to generate vaccine candidates have increased the number of promising vaccines. The aim of this review is to analyze RSV characteristics, to consider the history of RSV vaccines and to discuss RSV vaccines currently in development...
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740734/are-we-over-prescribing-antibiotics-in-children-with-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-sri-lanka
#12
C M Wickramatilake, R A Dharmadasa, Mhad De Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740722/detection-of-airborne-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-a-pediatric-acute-care-clinic
#13
Stephanie A Grayson, Pamela S Griffiths, Miriam K Perez, Giovanni Piedimonte
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of respiratory illness in infants and young children, but this virus is also capable of re-infecting adults throughout life. Universal precautions to prevent its transmission consist of gown and glove use, but masks and goggles are not routinely required because it is believed that RSV is unlikely to be transmitted by the airborne route. Our hypothesis was that RSV is present in respirable-size particles aerosolized by patients seen in a pediatric acute care setting...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707916/antibiotic-prescribing-by-physicians-versus-nurse-practitioners-for-pediatric-upper-respiratory-infections
#14
Elisabeth H Ference, Jin-Young Min, Rakesh K Chandra, James W Schroeder, Jody D Ciolino, Amy Yang, Jane Holl, Stephanie Shintani Smith
BACKGROUND: This study investigates differences in antibiotic prescribing rates for pediatric upper respiratory infections (URIs) between physicians and nurse practitioners (NPs). METHODS: Visits by children <18 years old diagnosed with URI to physicians or NPs between 2001 and 2010 were abstracted from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey. Logistic regression analyses examined variations in antibiotic prescribing rates...
December 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647492/suboptimal-breastfeeding-in-the-united-states-maternal-and-pediatric-health-outcomes-and-costs
#15
Melissa C Bartick, Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, Brittany D Green, Briana J Jegier, Arnold G Reinhold, Tarah T Colaizy, Debra L Bogen, Andrew J Schaefer, Alison M Stuebe
The aim of this study was to quantify the excess cases of pediatric and maternal disease, death, and costs attributable to suboptimal breastfeeding rates in the United States. Using the current literature on the associations between breastfeeding and health outcomes for nine pediatric and five maternal diseases, we created Monte Carlo simulations modeling a hypothetical cohort of U.S. women followed from age 15 to age 70 years and their children from birth to age 20 years. We examined disease outcomes using (a) 2012 breastfeeding rates and (b) assuming that 90% of infants were breastfed according to medical recommendations...
September 19, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618642/consensus-conference-on-the-appropriateness-of-palivizumab-prophylaxis-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease
#16
Maria Serenella Pignotti, Maria Carmela Leo, Alessandra Pugi, Salvatore De Masi, Klaus Peter Biermann, Luisa Galli, Giovanni Vitali Rosati, Giuseppe Buonocore, Alessandro Mugelli, Carlo Dani, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Francesca Bellini, Giampaolo Donzelli
Respiratory syncytial virus infection represents a clinical burden among young children under 24 months. Palivizumab is the only drug licensed in Italy for the prevention of serious lower respiratory tract disease requiring hospitalization caused by respiratory syncytial virus in children at high risk. However recommendations for palivizumab prophylaxis are heterogeneous. Not all the published documents agree about the clinical indications of palivizumab; this could lead to different clinical practices and concerns about the appropriateness of prophylaxis...
October 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522636/human-metapneumovirus-hmpv-infection-in-immunocompromised-children
#17
Oded Scheuerman, Galia Barkai, Michal Mandelboim, Hagit Mishali, Gabriel Chodick, Itzhak Levy
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infection (URTI, LRTI) in children. The prognosis of hMPV is unclear in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of hMPV infection in immunocompromised pediatric patients and to review the literature. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study included 39 immunocompromised children (age 0-18 years) with proven hMPV infection attending two tertiary pediatric medical centers in 2004-2014...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500954/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-other-viral-infections-among-children-under-two-years-old-in-southern-vietnam-2009-2010-clinical-characteristics-and-disease-severity
#18
Lien Anh Ha Do, Juliet E Bryant, Anh Tuan Tran, Bach Hue Nguyen, Thi Thu Loan Tran, Quynh Huong Tran, Quoc Bao Vo, Nguyen Anh Tran Dac, Hong Nhien Trinh, Thi Thanh Hai Nguyen, Bao Tinh Le Binh, Khanh Le, Minh Tien Nguyen, Quang Tung Thai, Thanh Vu Vo, Ngoc Quang Minh Ngo, Thi Kim Huyen Dang, Ngoc Huong Cao, Thu Van Tran, Lu Viet Ho, Jeremy Farrar, Menno de Jong, H Rogier van Doorn
BACKGROUND: Despite a high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections among children, data on demographic and clinical characteristics of RSV are scarce in low and middle income countries. This study aims to describe the viral etiologies, the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of children under two years of age who were hospitalized with a lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), focusing on RSV (prevalence, seasonality, subgroups, viral load) and its association with disease severity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492564/prevalence-of-malaria-prevention-measures-and-main-clinical-features-in-febrile-children-admitted-to-the-franceville-regional-hospital-gabon
#19
Sydney Maghendji-Nzondo, Hermann Nzoughe, Guy Joseph Lemamy, Lady Charlene Kouna, Irene Pegha-Moukandja, Faustin Lekoulou, Bertrand Mbatchi, Fousseyni Toure-Ndouo, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki
Recently, major progress has been made in controlling malaria in Africa. However, in Gabon, little information is available on the role of malaria in childhood febrile syndromes, the use and efficacy of preventive measures, and Plasmodium species distribution. Here, we characterized malaria in febrile children in Franceville, Gabon through a cross-sectional study at the pediatric unit of the Franceville Regional Hospital. We registered 940 febrile children. Their general condition was markedly altered in 11...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486735/parainfluenza-virus-infection
#20
Angela R Branche, Ann R Falsey
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of the Paramyoviridaie family. There are four serotypes which cause respiratory illnesses in children and adults. HPIVs bind and replicate in the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the extent of the infection correlates with the location involved. Seasonal HPIV epidemics result in a significant burden of disease in children and account for 40% of pediatric hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) and 75% of croup cases...
August 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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