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Paediatric respiratory infection

M S Tan, E J Teoh, C P Hor, A A C Yeoh
INTRODUCTION: Children who develop any hypersensitivity reaction to eggs are routinely referred to hospital for Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination as inpatients to prevent anaphylaxis. We aimed to study the association between hypersensitivity reactions after egg exposure and similar reactions after MMR immunisation; and examine the necessity of hospital admission for vaccination. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in Paediatric Department in Bukit Mertajam Hospital, Penang, between March and December 2014...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Karen E James, Rui Xiao, Peter A Merkel, Pamela F Weiss
OBJECTIVES: To characterise the clinical course and outcomes of a cohort of children with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of children diagnosed with GPA in a tertiary care facility from 2000-2014. All subjects met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for GPA or the 2008 European League against Rheumatism/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation/Paediatric Rheumatology European Society criteria for GPA...
October 6, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Keisuke Yoshihara, Minh Nhat Le, Koo Nagasawa, Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi, Hien Anh Nguyen, Michiko Toizumi, Hiroyuki Moriuchi, Masahiro Hashizume, Koya Ariyoshi, Duc Anh Dang, Hirokazu Kimura, Lay-Myint Yoshida
We performed molecular evolutionary analyses of the G gene C-terminal 3rd hypervariable region of RSV-A genotypes NA1 and ON1 strains from the paediatric acute respiratory infection patients in central Vietnam during the 2010-2012 study period. Time-scaled phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, and pairwise distances (p-distances) were calculated. Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) was constructed to analyze the time-trend relative genetic diversity of central Vietnam RSV-A strains...
October 14, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Sophie Desmonde, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants exposed to both HIV and multiple antiretroviral drugs in utero and during prolonged breastfeeding is increasing in low-income countries where HIV prevalence is the highest. We review recent evidence on the effects of perinatal/postnatal exposure to maternal HIV and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on health outcomes of HEU children (mitochondrial and metabolic toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, growth, infectious morbidity, and mortality)...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Khuen F Ng, Kah K Tan, Zhi H Sam, Grace Ss Ting, Wan Y Gan
AIM: The aim of this study is to describe epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory data and severity of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in Malaysian children and to determine risk factors associated with prolonged hospital stay, paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and mortality. METHODS: Retrospective data on demographics, clinical presentation, outcomes and laboratory findings of 450 children admitted into Tuanku Jaafar Hospital in Seremban, Malaysia from 2008 to 2013 with documented diagnosis of RSV ALRI were collected and analysed...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Philippe Cavailler, Arnaud Tarantola, Yee Sin Leo, Andrew A Lover, Anne Rachline, Moniboth Duch, Rekol Huy, Ai Li Quake, Yuvatha Kdan, Veasna Duong, Jeremy L Brett, Philippe Buchy
BACKGROUND: Dengue is endemic throughout Cambodia, a country faced with significant health and economic challenges. We undertook a clinical study at the National Paediatric Hospital in Phnom Penh to evaluate clinical diagnostic parameters for dengue and predictors of disease outcome. METHODS: Between September 2011 and January 2013, all consecutive inpatients aged between 1 and 15 years and presenting with suspected dengue were enrolled. They were clinically assessed using both the 1997 and 2009 WHO dengue classifications...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Oliver Fuchs, Thomas Bahmer, Klaus F Rabe, Erika von Mutius
Asthma is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease both in children and adults and resembles a complex syndrome rather than a single disease. Different methods have been developed to better characterise distinct asthma phenotypes in childhood and adulthood. In studies of adults, most phenotyping relies on biomaterials from the lower airways; however, this information is missing in paediatric studies because of restricted accessibility. Few patients show symptoms throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood...
September 22, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
A L Slogrove, L Frigati, D M Gray
With improved prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV, paediatric HIV disease is less common. However, the number of HIV exposed but uninfected infants is growing. Exposure to maternal HIV impacts infant respiratory health through an increase in known risk factors such as increased preterm birth and low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding, increased psychosocial stressors and increased exposure to infective pathogens. Exposure to the HIV virus and altered maternal immune environment result in immunologic changes in the infant that may contribute to respiratory disease risk...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Luca Castellazzi, Maria Francesca Patria, Gemma Frati, Andrea Alessandro Esposito, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare but potentially lethal condition in paediatric patients. This condition is considered an immune-mediated disorder, but its pathogenesis is still unknown. Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis is characterized by the classical triad of haemoptysis, iron-deficiency anaemia, and diffuse parenchymal consolidation on chest radiology. Unfortunately, this triad of signs is not frequent in children at the onset of this disease, resulting in a delay in diagnosis and a negative outcome...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Ingrid Peterson, Naor Bar-Zeev, Neil Kennedy, Antonia Ho, Laura Newberry, Miguel A San Joaquin, Mavis Menyere, Maaike Alaerts, Gugulethu Mapurisa, Moses Chilombe, Ivan Mambule, David G Lalloo, Suzanne T Anderson, Thembi Katangwe, Nigel Cunliffe, Nico Nagelkerke, Meredith McMorrow, Marc-Allain Widdowson, Neil French, Dean Everett, Robert S Heyderman
BACKGROUND:  We used four years of paediatric severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) sentinel surveillance in Blantyre, Malawi to identify factors associated with clinical severity and co-viral clustering. METHODS:  From January 2011 to December 2014, 2363 children aged 3 months to 14 years presenting to hospital with SARI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses. We assessed risk factors for clinical severity and conducted clustering analysis to identify viral clusters in children with co-viral detection...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
T M Alvur, N Cinar, D Kose, O Tiryaki
Characterization of newborn (aged ≤ 28 days) visits to paediatric emergency department (PED). Retrospective study concerning newborns who presented to PED of Sakarya University Maternity and Paediatric Hospital during 2014. We studied the electronic data consisted of admission date, date-of-birth, emergency department diagnosis at discharge (ICD-10 code) and the outcome. A total of 5708 neonates visited PED with an average age of 7.9 ± 5.9 days of age and prevalence of males (56.1%). The major diagnoses were jaundice, respiratory system problems, excessive crying of infant, feeding problems of newborn and prematurity...
February 12, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
S M Matha, S N Rahiman, B G Gelbart, T D Duke
To determine utility of procalcitonin (PCT) for the prediction of bacterial infection in critically ill children, we analysed the relationship between serum PCT, cultures and other laboratory markers of bacterial sepsis or viral infection in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The outcome measures were levels of PCT in proven bacteraemia, pneumonia and viral respiratory infection; and comparison of PCT to immature to total neutrophil ratio (ITR) in prediction of bacteraemia. In 420 children with suspected sepsis, 1,226 serum PCT levels were analysed...
September 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Emma C Anderson, Suzanne Marie Ingle, Peter Muir, Charles Beck, Adam Finn, John Peter Leeming, Christie Cabral, Joanna May Kesten, Alastair D Hay
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common reasons for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing. Locally relevant syndromic and microbiological surveillance information has the potential to improve the care of children with RTIs by normalising illness (parents) and reducing uncertainty (clinicians). Currently, most RTI studies are conducted at the point of healthcare service consultation, leaving the community burden, microbiology, symptom duration and proportion consulting largely unknown...
2016: BMJ Open
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Felipe Cavagnaro S M, Ingrid Harwardt, Alejandra Aird G, Carmen Gloria Marambio Q
: Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a rare clinical condition that mainly affects pre-school and school age-children. It is usually preceded by a viral illness, particularly influenza virus infection. OBJECTIVE: To describe a cluster of BACM cases that were seen in a paediatric unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective series of cases that presented with a clinical picture suggestive of BACM between August and November 2012 in the paediatric emergency department of a private clinic...
August 16, 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Elise Launay, Karine Levieux, Corinne Levy, François Dubos, Alain Martinot, Bénédicte Vrignaud, Flora Lepage, Robert Cohen, Emmanuel Grimprel, Matthieu Hanf, François Angoulvant, Christèle Gras-Le Guen
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection is a common cause of consultation and antibiotic prescription in paediatric practice. The misuse of antibiotics is a major cause of the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency, changes over time, and determinants of non-compliance with antibiotic prescription recommendations for children admitted in paediatric emergency department (PED) with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: We conducted a prospective two-period study using data from the French pneumonia network that included all children with CAP, aged one month to 15 years old, admitted to one of the ten participating paediatric emergency departments...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Swagatika Panda, Nirmal Kumar Mohakud, Mrutyunjay Suar, Subrat Kumar
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in low and middle income countries. To analyse the overall burden of respiratory viruses responsible for ARTIs in paediatrics population in eastern India, this study was performed. Clinical information, demographic information and nasal/oral swabs were collected from 332 paediatric patients (aged from one month to twelve years old) with the symptoms of ARTI, enrolled from the outpatient department from Nov 2012 to Oct 2014...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Roopa Bhandary, Rekha Boloor
INTRODUCTION: Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) pulmonary disease manifesting as bronchiolitis and pneumonia continues to play a major role in the childhood mortality and morbidity. Hence the present study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of RSV among hospitalized children presenting with Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARTI) and its correlation with risk factors. AIM: To determine the occurrence of RSV related respiratory tract infection in paediatric patients and to access the risk factors and clinical features associated...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Ioana Dumitrascu-Biris, Adela Chirita-Emandi, Imelda Lambert, Otilia Marginean, Farhana Sharif
INTRODUCTION: The association of fever and petechiae in children is one of the most alarming findings for a paediatrician. To quickly distinguish between benign and life-threatening conditions is challenging in many cases. We aimed to evaluate the clinical practice of children presenting with fever and petechiae as initial symptoms. METHODS: 41 patients (age 3 months-11 years) presenting with fever and petechiae were identified in an Emergency Paediatric Assessment Unit over a period of 9 months...
April 2016: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Minna Koskenvuo, Jaana Rahiala, Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Matti Waris, Tytti Vuorinen, Maija Lappalainen, Päivi Norja, Mari Toppinen, Ulla Saarinen-Pihkala, Tobias Allander, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Klaus Hedman, Olli Ruuskanen, Kim Vettenranta
BACKGROUND: Viral infections remain the cause of key complications following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The impact of multiple, concurrent viral reactivations/infections remains to be delineated. METHODS: The clinical correlates of single or multiple viremic infections following HSCT and especially the occurrence of respiratory viruses in the bloodstream were investigated. We retrospectively searched for 23 viruses in a total of 184 sera from 53 paediatric patients...
July 28, 2016: Infectious Diseases
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