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Paediatric respiratory infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136168/a-prospective-study-of-the-incidence-of-juvenile-onset-recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis-after-implementation-of-a-national-hpv-vaccination-program
#1
Daniel Novakovic, Alan T L Cheng, Yvonne Zurynski, Robert Booy, Paul J Walker, Robert Berkowitz, Henley Harrison, Robert Black, Christopher Perry, Shyan Vijayasekaran, David Wabnitz, Hannah Burns, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Suzanne M Garland, Elizabeth Elliott, Julia M L Brotherton
Background: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a rare but morbid disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. Infection is preventable through HPV vaccination. Following an extensive quadrivalent HPV vaccination program (females 12-26 years in 2007-2009) in Australia, we established a method to monitor incidence and demographics of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP) cases. Methods: The Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit undertakes surveillance of rare pediatric diseases by contacting practitioners monthly...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115723/patterns-of-paediatric-emergency-presentations-to-a-tertiary-referral-centre-in-the-northern-territory
#2
Davina Buntsma, Anna Lithgow, Evan O'Neill, Didier Palmer, Peter Morris, Jason Acworth, Franz E Babl
OBJECTIVE: To describe epidemiological data concerning paediatric attendances at the ED of Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of paediatric emergency presentations to the RDH ED during 2004 and 2013. Epidemiological data, including demographics, admission rates and diagnostic grouping, were analysed using descriptive and comparative statistical methods. We compared data with findings from a baseline epidemiological study by the Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT) conducted in 2004...
November 8, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102353/effect-of-a-training-and-educational-intervention-for-physicians-and-caregivers-on-antibiotic-prescribing-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-at-primary-care-facilities-in-rural-china-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Xiaolin Wei, Zhitong Zhang, John D Walley, Joseph P Hicks, Jun Zeng, Simin Deng, Yu Zhou, Jia Yin, James N Newell, Qiang Sun, Guanyang Zou, Yan Guo, Ross E G Upshur, Mei Lin
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing contributes to the generation of drug resistance worldwide, and is particularly common in China. We assessed the effectiveness of an antimicrobial stewardship programme aiming to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in paediatric outpatients by targeting providers and caregivers in primary care hospitals in rural China. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, cluster-randomised controlled trial with a 6-month intervention period...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079584/smoke-free-legislation-and-paediatric-hospitalisations-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-national-quasi-experimental-study-with-unexpected-findings-and-important-methodological-implications
#4
Jasper V Been, Daniel F Mackay, Christopher Millett, Ireneous Soyiri, Constant P van Schayck, Jill P Pell, Aziz Sheikh
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether Scottish implementation of smoke-free legislation was associated with a reduction in unplanned hospitalisations or deaths ('events') due to respiratory tract infections (RTIs) among children. DESIGN: Interrupted time series (ITS). SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 0-12 years living in Scotland during 1996-2012. INTERVENTION: National comprehensive smoke-free legislation (March 2006)...
October 27, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064471/nasopharyngeal-metagenomic-deep-sequencing-data-lancaster-uk-2014-2015
#5
Kate V Atkinson, Lisa A Bishop, Glenn Rhodes, Nicolas Salez, Neil R McEwan, Matthew J Hegarty, Julie Robey, Nicola Harding, Simon Wetherell, Robert M Lauder, Roger W Pickup, Mark Wilkinson, Derek Gatherer
Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from volunteers attending a general medical practice and a general hospital in Lancaster, UK, and at Lancaster University, in the winter of 2014-2015. 51 swabs were selected based on high RNA yield and allocated to deep sequencing pools as follows: patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; asthmatics; adults with no respiratory symptoms; adults with feverish respiratory symptoms; adults with respiratory symptoms and presence of antibodies against influenza C; paediatric patients with respiratory symptoms (2 pools); adults with influenza C infection (2 pools), giving a total of 9 pools...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042914/the-educational-challenge-of-paediatric-virology-an-interview-with-professor-of-neonatology-anne-greenough
#6
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
According to Professor Anne Greenough, Professor of Neonatology and Clinical Respiratory Physiology at the King's College London (London, UK), Paediatric Virology is indeed a rapidly increasing educational challenge. Professor Greenough, who in 1992 wrote her book on congenital, perinatal and neonatal infections, believes that during the past 3 decades, paediatric health professionals are becoming increasingly involved in specialised care and follow-up of paediatric patients with viral diseases, who require advanced medical care and innovative technological services...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024833/health-of-vlbw-infants-in-germany-at-five-years-of-age-what-do-parents-describe
#7
Juliane Spiegler, Guido Stichtenoth, Inke R König, Egbert Herting, Wolfgang Göpel
BACKGROUND: There are only few data on medical problems and utilization of health services of former very low birth weight (VLBW) children at preschool age. STUDY DESIGN: At five years of age parents of a cohort of VLBW children (N=862) received questionnaires, a medical interview and examination. The results were compared to the KIGGS cohort (Deutscher-Kinder-und Jugendgesundheitssurvey, N=777). RESULTS: Parents of the VLBW and KIGGS cohort reported a very good or good health in 95% in their children...
October 9, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018009/paediatric-case-of-ductal-origin-of-right-pulmonary-artery-presenting-with-exertional-dyspnoea-and-mimicking-asthma-and-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#8
Malvika Sagar, Anderson S Marshall, Cody W Clary, Athar M Qureshi
Ductal origin of pulmonary artery is a rare anomaly that is frequently misdiagnosed. Patients may present with exertional dyspnoea, recurrent respiratory infections and pulmonary hypertension. The presence of pulmonary hypertension can adversely affect clinical outcome in these patients; hence, early identification and intervention is the key to improve survival. A case of a 3-year-old child presenting with exertional dyspnoea is presented in this report. Chest radiograph revealed right-sided pulmonary hypoplasia and mediastinal shift to the right...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983694/incomplete-vaccination-coverage-in-european-children-with-end-stage-kidney-disease-prior-to-renal-transplantation
#9
Britta Höcker, Martin Aguilar, Paul Schnitzler, Lars Pape, Luca Dello Strologo, Nicholas J A Webb, Martin Bald, Gurkan Genc, Heiko Billing, Jens König, Anja Büscher, Markus J Kemper, Stephen D Marks, Martin Pohl, Marianne Wigger, Rezan Topaloglu, Susanne Rieger, Kai Krupka, Thomas Bruckner, Alexander Fichtner, Burkhard Tönshoff
BACKGROUND: Because infections constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric renal allograft recipients, avoidance of preventable systemic infections by vaccination before transplantation is of utmost importance. However, data on the completeness of vaccinations and factors associated with incomplete vaccination coverage are scarce. METHODS: Within the framework of the Cooperative European Paediatric Renal Transplant Initiative (CERTAIN), we therefore performed a multi-centre, multi-national, retrospective study investigating the vaccination coverage before transplantation of 254 European children with end-stage renal disease (mean age 10...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964302/the-implications-of-pneumomediastinum-and-subcutaneous-emphysema-for-the-paediatric-otolaryngologist
#10
Chloe Swords, Neil Cheng-Wen Tan, Nico Jonas
Three patients presented within a 6-month period with pneumomediastinum. The underlying cause in each was distinct. One case occurred due to blunt laryngeal trauma and required urgent surgical intervention due to a decompensating airway. The second case was related to tracheal perforation secondary to a myofibroblastic tracheal tumour and the final case was related to adenovirus upper respiratory tract infection. Pneumomediastinum may be spontaneous or secondary to an underlying cause. Children should be managed using a multidisciplinary approach...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925058/the-association-between-mica-micb-polymorphism-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-children
#11
Q Luo, X Guo, S Peng, W Luo, F Tian, P Yu, Y Zou
MICA/MICB gene polymorphisms are related to several cancers and infectious diseases, but there are no reports on the association between MICA/MICB gene polymorphisms and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. To clarify the association between MICA/MICB gene polymorphisms and infection of RSV in children, we collected fresh blood samples from paediatric patients with and without pneumonia after RSV infection. The MICA/MICB alleles were characterized by PCR sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) and PCR sequence-based genotyping (PCR-SBT), and then, the frequency of the MICA/MICB alleles and haplotypes was calculated...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#12
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913912/streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-of-the-nasopharynx-is-associated-with-increased-severity-during-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-young-children
#13
Jaelle C Brealey, Keith J Chappell, Sally Galbraith, Emmanuelle Fantino, Jane Gaydon, Sarah Tozer, Paul R Young, Patrick G Holt, Peter D Sly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in early life. RSV and other respiratory viruses are known to stimulate substantial outgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the upper airways of young children. However, the clinical significance of interactions between viruses and bacteria is currently unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the effect of viral and bacterial co-detections on disease severity during paediatric ARI...
September 15, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886038/diagnoses-infections-and-injuries-in-northern-syrian-children-during-the-civil-war-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Gerlant van Berlaer, Abdallah Mohamed Elsafti, Mohammad Al Safadi, Saad Souhil Saeed, Ronald Buyl, Michel Debacker, Atef Redwan, Ives Hubloue
BACKGROUND: The civil war in Syria including the deliberate targeting of healthcare services resulted in a complex humanitarian emergency, seriously affecting children's health. The objectives of this study are to document diagnoses and disease categories in Northern Syrian children after four years of conflict, and to document infectious diseases and injuries in this vulnerable population. METHODS: In a prospective cross-sectional observational sample study conducted in May 2015, healthcare workers registered demographics, comorbidities, and diagnoses (categorised according to the International Classification of Diseases version 10) in children visited at home and in internally displaced persons camps in four Syrian governorates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881007/delayed-antibiotic-prescriptions-for-respiratory-infections
#15
REVIEW
Geoffrey Kp Spurling, Chris B Del Mar, Liz Dooley, Ruth Foxlee, Rebecca Farley
BACKGROUND: Concerns exist regarding antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) owing to adverse reactions, cost, and antibacterial resistance. One proposed strategy to reduce antibiotic prescribing is to provide prescriptions, but to advise delay in antibiotic use with the expectation that symptoms will resolve first. This is an update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2007, and updated in 2010 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects on clinical outcomes, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance, and patient satisfaction of advising a delayed prescription of antibiotics in respiratory tract infections...
September 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871588/primary-pleuropulmonary-synovial-sarcoma-with-brain-metastases-in-a-paediatric-patient-an-unusual-presentation
#16
Pushpak Chandrakant Chirmade, Sonia Parikh, Asha Anand, Harsha Panchal, Apurva Patel, Sandip Shah
Primary lung neoplasms are rare in children. The most common primary lung malignancies in children are pleuropulmonary blastoma and carcinoid tumour. Synovial sarcoma (SS) accounts for approximately 1% of all childhood malignancies. In absolute terms, the SS of the lungs and pleura are extremely rare and pose a diagnostic difficulty. Soft tissue sarcomas usually have a high potential for metastases, however, metastasis to the brain is rare, even in widely disseminated disease, and it has been described only in 3 case reports previously...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795339/impact-of-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-on-the-development-of-respiratory-tract-diseases
#17
REVIEW
S Esposito, N Principi
Knowledge of whether and how respiratory microbiota composition can prime the immune system and provide colonisation resistance, limiting consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and infections, is essential to improving the prevention and therapy of respiratory disorders. Modulation of dysbiotic ecosystems or reconstitution of missing microbes might be a possible measure to reduce respiratory diseases. The aim of this review is to analyse the role of nasopharyngeal microbiota in the development of respiratory tract disease in paediatric-age subjects...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793861/viral-and-bacterial-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-hospital-health-care-workers-over-time-and-association-with-symptoms
#18
C Raina MacIntyre, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Yi Zhang, Holly Seale, Peng Yang, Joshua Chen, Yang Pan, Daitao Zhang, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Bacterial colonisation of the respiratory tract is commonly described and usually thought to be of no clinical significance. The aim of this study was to examine the presence and significance of bacteria and viruses in the upper respiratory tract of healthcare workers (HCWs), and association with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in China and 223 HCWs were recruited from fever clinics and respiratory, paediatric, emergency/Intensive medication wards...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780496/fifteen-minute-consultation-a-structured-approach-to-the-management-of-chronic-cough-in-a-child
#19
Cherry Alviani, Gary Ruiz, Atul Gupta
Coughing is a primary pulmonary defence mechanism that enhances clearance of secretions and particles from the airways and protects against aspiration of foreign materials. Coughing may affect 30% of children at any given time (1). Many are healthy children but some may have serious underlying disease. Childhood cough accounts for a large number of consultations and 80% of families who are referred to a paediatric respiratory clinic for chronic cough have sought medical advice five times or more (2). The majority of childhood coughs are secondary to an acute respiratory tract infection and will improve once the infection resolves, usually within 1 to 3 weeks...
August 5, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744815/mammalian-diaphanous-related-formin-1-restricts-early-phases-of-influenza-a-nws-33-virus-h1n1-infection-in-llc-mk2-cells-by-affecting-cytoskeleton-dynamics
#20
Flora De Conto, Alessandra Fazzi, Sergey V Razin, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Silvana Belletti, Carlo Chezzi, Adriana Calderaro
Viruses depend on cellular machinery to efficiently replicate. The host cytoskeleton is one of the first cellular systems hijacked by viruses in order to ensure their intracellular transport and promote the development of infection. Our previous results demonstrated that stable microfilaments and microtubules interfered with human influenza A/NWS/33 virus (H1N1) infection in semi-permissive LLC-MK2 cells. Although formins play a key role in cytoskeletal remodelling, few studies addressed a possible role of these proteins in development of viral infection...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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