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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639512/the-relationship-between-nairobi-adolescents-media-use-and-their-sexual-beliefs-and-attitudes
#1
Ann Neville Miller, William Kinnally, Hellen Maleche, Nancy Achieng' Booker
Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for contracting HIV. Although media campaigns have educated the population as a whole, few studies are available about the time sub-Saharan African youth spend listening to and viewing sexual messages via the entertainment and informational media. The goals of this project were: 1) to investigate what programming Nairobi adolescents access; and 2) to investigate the association between frequency of access and level of focus on physical relationships with adolescents' perceptions of descriptive norms of peer sexual behaviour, and their attitudes regarding men as sex driven, women as sex objects, and dating as a sport...
June 22, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632770/men-women%C3%A2-who-cares-a-population-based-study-on-sex-differences-and-gender-roles-in-empathy-and-moral-cognition
#2
Sandra Baez, Daniel Flichtentrei, María Prats, Ricardo Mastandueno, Adolfo M García, Marcelo Cetkovich, Agustín Ibáñez
Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629224/-it-s-not-my-business-exploring-heteronormativity-in-young-people-s-discourses-about-lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-and-queer-issues-and-their-implications-for-youth-health-and-wellbeing
#3
Cara Ky Ng, Rebecca J Haines-Saah, Rodney E Knight, Jean A Shoveller, Joy L Johnson
In Canada, the issue of creating safe and inclusive school environments for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer students has been in the spotlight. Several researchers and advocates have pointed out the positive effects of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-positive policy frameworks on the health and wellbeing of all young people. In this article, we take a critical approach to analyzing narrative findings from qualitative interviews conducted with youth in three communities in British Columbia, Canada: "the North," Vancouver, and Abbotsford...
June 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626437/counter-stereotypes-and-feminism-promote-leadership-aspirations-in-highly-identified-women
#4
Carola Leicht, Małgorzata A Gocłowska, Jolien A Van Breen, Soledad de Lemus, Georgina Randsley de Moura
Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1) counter-stereotype salience and (2) feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with greater leadership aspiration regardless of feminism, while when gender stereotypes are salient, women's identification would predict greater leadership aspirations contingent on a high level of feminist identification...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620330/can-i-work-with-and-help-others-in-this-field-how-communal-goals-influence-interest-and-participation-in-stem-fields
#5
REVIEW
Kathryn L Boucher, Melissa A Fuesting, Amanda B Diekman, Mary C Murphy
Although science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines as a whole have made advances in gender parity and greater inclusion for women, these increases have been smaller or nonexistent in computing and engineering compared to other fields. In this focused review, we discuss how stereotypic perceptions of computing and engineering influence who enters, stays, and excels in these fields. We focus on communal goal incongruity-the idea that some STEM disciplines like engineering and computing are perceived as less aligned with people's communal goals of collaboration and helping others...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617005/using-adolescents-drawings-to-reveal-stereotypes-about-ethnic-groups-in-guatemala
#6
Brien K Ashdown, Judith L Gibbons, Yetilú de Baessa, Carrie M Brown
It is important to identify stereotypes about indigenous people because those stereotypes influence prejudice and discrimination, both obstacles to social justice and universal human rights. The purpose of the current study was to document the stereotypes, as held by Guatemalan adolescents, of indigenous Maya people (e.g., Maya) and nonindigenous Ladinos in Guatemala (the 2 main ethnic groups in Guatemala). Guatemalan adolescents (N = 465; 38.3% female; Mage = 14.51 years; SDage = 1.81 years) provided drawings and written characteristics about indigenous Maya and nonindigenous Ladino people, which were then coded for patterns in the data...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615979/erratum-gender-stereotypes-in-occupational-choice-a-cross-sectional-study-on-a-group-of-italian-adolescents-erratum
#7
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 109 in vol. 10, PMID: 28458587.].
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603505/adolescent-girls-stem-identity-formation-and-media-images-of-stem-professionals-considering-the-influence-of-contextual-cues
#8
REVIEW
Jocelyn Steinke
Popular media have played a crucial role in the construction, representation, reproduction, and transmission of stereotypes of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals, yet little is known about how these stereotypes influence STEM identity formation. Media images of STEM professionals may be important sources of information about STEM and may be particularly salient and relevant for girls during adolescence as they actively consider future personal and professional identities...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602565/diverse-patient-perspectives-on-respect-in-healthcare-a-qualitative-study
#9
Mary Catherine Beach, Emily Branyon, Somnath Saha
BACKGROUND: The dominant view of respect in western bioethics focuses almost exclusively on respect for autonomy (or 'self-rule') as conceptualized primarily from the perspective of philosophers. We designed this study to understand, from the perspective of patients from different racial/ethnic groups, what it means for patients to be treated with respect in healthcare settings. METHODS: We conducted focus groups with African American, Latino, and white patients in the Northwestern U...
May 5, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600924/-only-you-can-play-with-me-children-s-inclusive-decision-making-reasoning-and-emotions-based-on-peers-gender-and-behavior-problems
#10
Joanna Peplak, Ju-Hyun Song, Tyler Colasante, Tina Malti
This study examined the development of children's decisions, reasoning, and emotions in contexts of peer inclusion/exclusion. We asked an ethnically diverse sample of 117 children aged 4years (n=59; 60% girls) and 8years (n=58; 49% girls) to choose between including hypothetical peers of the same or opposite gender and with or without attention deficit/hyperactivity problems and aggressive behavior. Children also provided justifications for, and emotions associated with, their inclusion decisions. Both 4- and 8-year-olds predominantly chose to include the in-group peer (i...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596750/self-concept-in-childhood-the-role-of-body-image-and-sport-practice
#11
Santiago Mendo-Lázaro, María I Polo-Del-Río, Diana Amado-Alonso, Damián Iglesias-Gallego, Benito León-Del-Barco
The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in satisfaction with body image depending on whether the subject practices organized sport or not, as well as the gender of the children. In addition, the study aims to examine the role of body image and the practice of organized sport on the process of building the academic, social, emotional, family and physical dimensions of self-concept in childhood. To do so, a sample of 944 pupils was used. These children were attending primary school in different centers of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain) and were between 9 and 12 years of age...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567483/-gender-norms-and-expertise-constructions-of-gender-in-psychiatrists-legal-opinions-in-imperial-germany-1871-1914
#12
Marcus B Carrier
This article focuses on notions of gender in psychiatrists' expert opinions written for lawsuits during the German Empire, 1871-1914. Four different narratives concerning gender can be identified in these testimonies. On the one hand, the reports describe women and men who did not conform to the gender stereotypes of the time. The psychiatrists found the non-conformist defendants to be of unsound mind. On the other hand, women and men who did conform to the gender stereotypes were also described. In those cases, however, "feminine" women were certified insane, whereas "masculine" men were accused of simulating a mental disease in order to avoid punishment...
May 31, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567022/the-impact-of-gender-stereotypes-on-the-self-concept-of-female-students-in-stem-subjects-with-an-under-representation-of-females
#13
Bernhard Ertl, Silke Luttenberger, Manuela Paechter
It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have <30% females...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551105/early-preschool-environments-and-gender-effects-of-gender-pedagogy-in-sweden
#14
Kristin Shutts, Ben Kenward, Helena Falk, Anna Ivegran, Christine Fawcett
To test how early social environments affect children's consideration of gender, 3- to 6-year-old children (N=80) enrolled in gender-neutral or typical preschool programs in the central district of a large Swedish city completed measures designed to assess their gender-based social preferences, stereotypes, and automatic encoding. Compared with children in typical preschools, a greater proportion of children in the gender-neutral school were interested in playing with unfamiliar other-gender children. In addition, children attending the gender-neutral preschool scored lower on a gender stereotyping measure than children attending typical preschools...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543376/the-everyday-risk-work-of-dutch-child-healthcare-professionals-inferring-safe-and-good-parenting-through-trust-as-mediated-by-a-lens-of-gender-and-class
#15
Gerlieke Veltkamp, Patrick Brown
Amidst intensifying policy concerns with children's wellbeing and development, healthcare professionals are required not only to assess risk of abuse and neglect, but to manage risk of 'poor parenting' more broadly. Drawing on 15 in-depth interviews and non-participant observations of 61 professional-family interactions, across four preventative public health services for children in the Netherlands, we explored how professionals accomplished such risk work amid intractable uncertainties. Building inferences from brief encounters with families, professionals gauged the extent to which they trusted parents to care 'appropriately'...
May 24, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506202/subtle-and-severe-microaggressions-among-racially-diverse-sexual-minorities
#16
Amanda Weber, Shelly-Ann Collins, Tracy Robinson-Wood, Elda Zeko-Underwood, Bianca Poindexter
In recent years, understanding prejudice and discrimination toward minorities has developed to include the investigation of microaggressions. Microaggressions are brief and commonplace verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities. They are intentional or unintentional and communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights toward racial and sexual minorities. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to chronicle the prevalence and type of microaggressions experienced among a sample of 18 highly educated and racially diverse sexual minorities, 24-65 years of age...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506123/jack-d-a-mobile-social-networking-application-a-site-of-exclusion-within-a-site-of-inclusion
#17
Michael D Bartone
User-generated smartphone applications have created a new level of virtual connectivity for gay males, one in which users can create profiles and meet other users as nearby or as far away as possible. For those within close proximity, the other users can be considered their "virtual neighbors." Although the applications are theoretically designed to be places of inclusion and not exclusion, where any gay male with economic means can download an application, many profiles have been created that exclude other users...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497279/aspiring-to-have-the-looks-of-a-celebrity-young-girls-engagement-in-appearance-management-behaviors
#18
Jolien Trekels, Steven Eggermont
Research suggests that sexualizing media messages are present in teen media and negatively affect young girls' body image. Yet, it is unknown whether exposure to teen television programs is associated with girls' engagement in appearance management behaviors. Two-wave longitudinal data among 785 girls (Mage = 11.65 years) were collected. Results show that teen television exposure was longitudinally related to appearance management, while the reverse relation was not supported. Approximately half of the girls indicated to manage their appearance to some extent, and 13- to 14-year-old girls were more likely to invest in their appearance than younger girls...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474457/the-development-and-correlates-of-gender-role-orientations-in-african-american-youth
#19
Olivenne D Skinner, Susan M McHale
This study charted the development of gendered personality qualities, activity interests, and attitudes across adolescence (approximately ages 9-18) among 319 African-American youth from 166 families. The relations between daily time spent with father, mother, and male and female peers-the gendered contexts of youth's daily activities-and (changes in) these gender role orientations were also assessed. Boys and girls differed in their gender role orientations in stereotypical ways: interest in masculine and feminine activities, and attitude traditionality generally declined, but instrumentality increased across adolescence and expressivity first increased and later decreased...
May 5, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467559/bridging-the-gender-divide-facilitating-the-educational-path-for-men-in-nursing
#20
Eric A Hodges, Pamela Johnson Rowsey, Tamryn Fowler Gray, Shawn M Kneipp, Cheryl Woods Giscombe, Beverly B Foster, G Rumay Alexander, Vicki Kowlowitz
BACKGROUND: Although the number of men entering the nursing profession over the past century has increased incrementally, the proportion of men remains low in contrast to the U.S. POPULATION: On matriculation into nursing school, men face stereotypes about the nursing profession and the characteristics of the men who enter it. Men may also face a number of gender-based barriers, including lack of history about men in nursing, lack of role models, role strain, gender discrimination, and isolation...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
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