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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506202/subtle-and-severe-microaggressions-among-racially-diverse-sexual-minorities
#1
Amanda Weber, Shelly-Ann Collins, Tracy Robinson-Wood, Elda Zeko-Underwood, Bianca Poindexter
In recent years, understanding prejudice and discrimination towards minorities has developed to include the investigation of microaggressions. Microaggressions are brief and commonplace verbal, behavioral or environmental indignities. They are intentional or unintentional and communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights towards racial and sexual minorities. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to chronicle the prevalence and type of microaggressions experienced among a sample of 18 highly educated and racially diverse sexual minorities, 24-65 years of age...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506123/jack-d-a-mobile-social-networking-application-and-gender-performance-a-site-of-exclusion-within-a-site-of-inclusion
#2
Michael D Bartone
User-generated smartphone applications have created a new level of virtual connectivity for gay males, one in which users can create profiles and meet other users as nearby or as faraway as possible. For those within close proximity, the other users can be considered their "virtual neighbors." While the applications are theoretically designed to be places of inclusion and not exclusion, where any gay male with economic means can download an application, many profiles have been created, which exclude other users...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497279/aspiring-to-have-the-looks-of-a-celebrity-young-girls-engagement-in-appearance-management-behaviors
#3
Jolien Trekels, Steven Eggermont
Research suggests that sexualizing media messages are present in teen media and negatively affect young girls' body image. Yet, it is unknown whether exposure to teen television programs is associated with girls' engagement in appearance management behaviors. Two-wave longitudinal data among 785 girls (Mage = 11.65 years) were collected. Results show that teen television exposure was longitudinally related to appearance management, while the reverse relation was not supported. Approximately half of the girls indicated to manage their appearance to some extent, and 13- to 14-year-old girls were more likely to invest in their appearance than younger girls...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474457/the-development-and-correlates-of-gender-role-orientations-in-african-american-youth
#4
Olivenne D Skinner, Susan M McHale
This study charted the development of gendered personality qualities, activity interests, and attitudes across adolescence (approximately ages 9-18) among 319 African-American youth from 166 families. The relations between daily time spent with father, mother, and male and female peers-the gendered contexts of youth's daily activities-and (changes in) these gender role orientations were also assessed. Boys and girls differed in their gender role orientations in stereotypical ways: interest in masculine and feminine activities, and attitude traditionality generally declined, but instrumentality increased across adolescence and expressivity first increased and later decreased...
May 5, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467559/bridging-the-gender-divide-facilitating-the-educational-path-for-men-in-nursing
#5
Eric A Hodges, Pamela Johnson Rowsey, Tamryn Fowler Gray, Shawn M Kneipp, Cheryl Woods Giscombe, Beverly B Foster, G Rumay Alexander, Vicki Kowlowitz
BACKGROUND: Although the number of men entering the nursing profession over the past century has increased incrementally, the proportion of men remains low in contrast to the U.S. POPULATION: On matriculation into nursing school, men face stereotypes about the nursing profession and the characteristics of the men who enter it. Men may also face a number of gender-based barriers, including lack of history about men in nursing, lack of role models, role strain, gender discrimination, and isolation...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466538/judging-the-gender-of-the-inanimate-benevolent-sexism-and-gender-stereotypes-guide-impressions-of-physical-objects
#6
Benjamin R Meagher
Within a given culture, sexist ideologies and stereotypes are largely characterized by their prescriptive expectations for the types of social and behavioural domains men and women occupy. The activities that take place within these respective domains, however, frequently involve designed, physical artefacts. This study reports a pair of studies that test whether sexist schemas are capable of guiding not only impressions of men and women as social groups, but also their impressions of the inanimate objects associated with these groups...
May 2, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458587/gender-stereotypes-in-occupational-choice-a-cross-sectional-study-on-a-group-of-italian-adolescents
#7
Tiziana Ramaci, Monica Pellerone, Caterina Ledda, Giovambattista Presti, Valeria Squatrito, Venerando Rapisarda
BACKGROUND: Gender beliefs represent cultural schemas for interpreting or making sense of the social and employment world, as they can influence attitudes, career aspirations, and the vocational decision process of young people, especially the adolescence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study examined the influence of gender stereotypes on the choice of career in adolescents. A group of 120 students were recruited to complete an ad hoc questionnaire, Scale of Perceived Occupational Self-Efficacy, and Semantic Differentials...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458499/gender-gap-in-science-technology-engineering-and-mathematics-stem-current-knowledge-implications-for-practice-policy-and-future-directions
#8
Ming-Te Wang, Jessica L Degol
Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences in cognitive capacity and motivation are also influenced by broader sociocultural factors. After reviewing research from the fields of psychology, sociology, economics, and education over the past 30 years, we summarize six explanations for US women's underrepresentation in math-intensive STEM fields: (a) cognitive ability, (b) relative cognitive strengths, (c) occupational interests or preferences, (d) lifestyle values or work-family balance preferences, (e) field-specific ability beliefs, and (f) gender-related stereotypes and biases...
March 2017: Educational Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450840/more-than-the-win-the-relation-between-appetitive-competition-motivation-socialization-and-gender-role-orientation-in-women-s-football
#9
Danie Meyer-Parlapanis, Sabrina Siefert, Roland Weierstall
The ability to produce peak performance plays a decisive role in the success of athletes in competitive contest situations. Levels of appetitive competition motivation (ACM), i.e., the desire to defeat an opponent independent of secondary reinforcing factors, were assessed in professional female football/soccer players in the premier and regional leagues, using club level as the measurement of sport success. Furthermore, the influence of social environments predominantly encouraging masculine and competitive play behavior and the players' perceptions of their own gender role orientations were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433822/programming-experience-promotes-higher-stem-motivation-among-first-grade-girls
#10
Allison Master, Sapna Cheryan, Adriana Moscatelli, Andrew N Meltzoff
The gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement is large and persistent. This gap is significantly larger in technological fields such as computer science and engineering than in math and science. Gender gaps begin early; young girls report less interest and self-efficacy in technology compared with boys in elementary school. In the current study (N=96), we assessed 6-year-old children's stereotypes about STEM fields and tested an intervention to develop girls' STEM motivation despite these stereotypes...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431734/gender-and-engineering-aptitude-is-the-color-of-science-technology-engineering-and-math-materials-related-to-children-s-performance
#11
Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Bridget Miller, Victoria Rizzardi
To investigate gender stereotypes, demonstrated engineering aptitude, and attitudes, children (N=105) solved an engineering problem using either pastel-colored or primary-colored materials. Participants also evaluated the acceptability of denial of access to engineering materials based on gender and counter-stereotypic preferences (i.e., a boy who prefers pastel-colored materials). Whereas material color was not related to differences in female participants' performance, younger boys assigned to pastel materials demonstrated lower engineering aptitude than did other participants...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423105/-adolescense-pregnancy-in-a-marginalized-rural-community-in-mexico
#12
Alberto Jiménez-González, José Arturo Granados-Cosme, Roselia Arminda Rosales-Flores
Objective: To identify objective and subjective conditions in the lives of pregnant teens within a highly-marginalized community in the state of Puebla, Mexico. Materials and methods: Objective and subjective conditions of pregnant teens were evaluated through a mixed methodology (surveys, observation guides and a structured interview guide). Results: The main family characteristic is the absence of a father due to migration, no desire to study or work and the new meaning of pregnancy: the initial social stigma for engaging in a sexual activity and then, the stigma for being a young mother...
January 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422963/a-large-scale-analysis-of-sex-differences-in-facial-expressions
#13
Daniel McDuff, Evan Kodra, Rana El Kaliouby, Marianne LaFrance
There exists a stereotype that women are more expressive than men; however, research has almost exclusively focused on a single facial behavior, smiling. A large-scale study examines whether women are consistently more expressive than men or whether the effects are dependent on the emotion expressed. Studies of gender differences in expressivity have been somewhat restricted to data collected in lab settings or which required labor-intensive manual coding. In the present study, we analyze gender differences in facial behaviors as over 2,000 viewers watch a set of video advertisements in their home environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414481/word-order-denotes-relevance-differences-the-case-of-conjoined-phrases-with-lexical-gender
#14
Selin Kesebir
This work explores the order of linguistic references to the two genders (e.g., men and women vs. women and men). It argues that a gender is more likely to be mentioned first when it is perceived to have higher relevance in a context rather than lower relevance, and audiences assign stronger relevance to a party when the party is mentioned first rather than second. Studies 1-3 document the current prevalence of male-first conjoined phrases in the public (but not family) domain and link the pattern to historical changes in women's public presence over the 20th century...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408891/video-games-exposure-and-sexism-in-a-representative-sample-of-adolescents
#15
Laurent Bègue, Elisa Sarda, Douglas A Gentile, Clementine Bry, Sebastian Roché
Research has indicated that many video games are saturated with stereotypes of women and that these contents may cultivate sexism. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between video game exposure and sexism for the first time in a large and representative sample. Our aim was also to measure the strength of this association when two other significant and well-studied sources of sexism, television exposure and religiosity, were also included in a multivariate model. A representative sample of 13520 French youth aged 11-19 years completed a survey measuring weekly video game and television exposure, religiosity, and sexist attitudes toward women...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406773/cluster-of-differentiation-5-cd5-levels-in-the-plasma-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#16
Dost Muhammad Halepoto, Abdulrahman Mohammed Alhowikan, Laila Al- Ayadhi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cluster of differentiation 5 (CD5) plasma levels and their association with childhood autism rating scale (CARS) in subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to age and gender matched healthy controls, and to explore the link between CD5, severity, and autoimmunity in autism. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2014 to May 2015...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402183/halloween-costume-choices-reflections-of-gender-development-in-early-childhood
#17
Lisa M Dinella
The author examined whether preschoolers' Halloween costume choices reflect their gender development. The sample consisted of 110 (53 boys, 57 girls) infant through preschool-aged participants, and 1 parent of each child. Both observational methodologies and parent-report surveys were used to assess the gender-typed nature of children's Halloween costumes, information about the Halloween costume choice process, and about the children's gender development. Boys' costumes were more masculine and girls' costumes were more feminine...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392774/tears-or-fears-comparing-gender-stereotypes-about-movie-preferences-to-actual-preferences
#18
Peter Wühr, Benjamin P Lange, Sascha Schwarz
This study investigated the accuracy of gender-specific stereotypes about movie-genre preferences for 17 genres. In Study 1, female and male participants rated the extent to which 17 movie genres are preferred by women or men. In Study 2, another sample of female and male participants rated their own preference for each genre. There were three notable results. First, Study 1 revealed the existence of gender stereotypes for the majority of genres (i.e., for 15 of 17 genres). Second, Study 2 revealed the existence of actual gender differences in preferences for the majority of genres (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392620/barriers-to-higher-education-commonalities-and-contrasts-in-the-experiences-of-hindu-and-muslim-young-women-in-urban-bengaluru
#19
Biswamitra Sahu, Patricia Jeffery, N Nakkeeran
Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and explores the barriers they confronted in fulfilling their aspirations. We highlight the similarities amongst the young women, as well as the distinctive experiences of the Hindu and Muslim interviewees...
March 4, 2017: Compare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388277/gender-stereotype-consistent-memories-how-system-justification-motivation-distorts-the-recollection-of-information-related-to-the-self
#20
Virginie Bonnot, Silvia Krauth-Gruber
Research based on system justification theory has shown that women's self-perceptions may be altered by the motivation to justify the system and its inequalities. Self-perceptions being built on past experiences, the present study aimed to explore how system justification motivation induced through a system dependency manipulation may alter both women's recall of autobiographical memories, and their behavior. Women who were led to feel highly dependent on the social system perceived themselves as more competent and recalled memories of higher competence in the verbal domain compared with the negatively stereotyped scientific domain...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
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