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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433822/programming-experience-promotes-higher-stem-motivation-among-first-grade-girls
#1
Allison Master, Sapna Cheryan, Adriana Moscatelli, Andrew N Meltzoff
The gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement is large and persistent. This gap is significantly larger in technological fields such as computer science and engineering than in math and science. Gender gaps begin early; young girls report less interest and self-efficacy in technology compared with boys in elementary school. In the current study (N=96), we assessed 6-year-old children's stereotypes about STEM fields and tested an intervention to develop girls' STEM motivation despite these stereotypes...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431734/gender-and-engineering-aptitude-is-the-color-of-science-technology-engineering-and-math-materials-related-to-children-s-performance
#2
Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Bridget Miller, Victoria Rizzardi
To investigate gender stereotypes, demonstrated engineering aptitude, and attitudes, children (N=105) solved an engineering problem using either pastel-colored or primary-colored materials. Participants also evaluated the acceptability of denial of access to engineering materials based on gender and counter-stereotypic preferences (i.e., a boy who prefers pastel-colored materials). Whereas material color was not related to differences in female participants' performance, younger boys assigned to pastel materials demonstrated lower engineering aptitude than did other participants...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423105/-adolescense-pregnancy-in-a-marginalized-rural-community-in-mexico
#3
Alberto Jiménez-González, José Arturo Granados-Cosme, Roselia Arminda Rosales-Flores
Objective: To identify objective and subjective conditions in the lives of pregnant teens within a highly-marginalized community in the state of Puebla, Mexico. Materials and methods: Objective and subjective conditions of pregnant teens were evaluated through a mixed methodology (surveys, observation guides and a structured interview guide). Results: The main family characteristic is the absence of a father due to migration, no desire to study or work and the new meaning of pregnancy: the initial social stigma for engaging in a sexual activity and then, the stigma for being a young mother...
January 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422963/a-large-scale-analysis-of-sex-differences-in-facial-expressions
#4
Daniel McDuff, Evan Kodra, Rana El Kaliouby, Marianne LaFrance
There exists a stereotype that women are more expressive than men; however, research has almost exclusively focused on a single facial behavior, smiling. A large-scale study examines whether women are consistently more expressive than men or whether the effects are dependent on the emotion expressed. Studies of gender differences in expressivity have been somewhat restricted to data collected in lab settings or which required labor-intensive manual coding. In the present study, we analyze gender differences in facial behaviors as over 2,000 viewers watch a set of video advertisements in their home environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414481/word-order-denotes-relevance-differences-the-case-of-conjoined-phrases-with-lexical-gender
#5
Selin Kesebir
This work explores the order of linguistic references to the two genders (e.g., men and women vs. women and men). It argues that a gender is more likely to be mentioned first when it is perceived to have higher relevance in a context rather than lower relevance, and audiences assign stronger relevance to a party when the party is mentioned first rather than second. Studies 1-3 document the current prevalence of male-first conjoined phrases in the public (but not family) domain and link the pattern to historical changes in women's public presence over the 20th century...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408891/video-games-exposure-and-sexism-in-a-representative-sample-of-adolescents
#6
Laurent Bègue, Elisa Sarda, Douglas A Gentile, Clementine Bry, Sebastian Roché
Research has indicated that many video games are saturated with stereotypes of women and that these contents may cultivate sexism. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between video game exposure and sexism for the first time in a large and representative sample. Our aim was also to measure the strength of this association when two other significant and well-studied sources of sexism, television exposure and religiosity, were also included in a multivariate model. A representative sample of 13520 French youth aged 11-19 years completed a survey measuring weekly video game and television exposure, religiosity, and sexist attitudes toward women...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406773/cluster-of-differentiation-5-cd5-levels-in-the-plasma-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#7
Dost Muhammad Halepoto, Abdulrahman Mohammed Alhowikan, Laila Al- Ayadhi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cluster of differentiation 5 (CD5) plasma levels and their association with childhood autism rating scale (CARS) in subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to age and gender matched healthy controls, and to explore the link between CD5, severity, and autoimmunity in autism. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2014 to May 2015...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402183/halloween-costume-choices-reflections-of-gender-development-in-early-childhood
#8
Lisa M Dinella
The author examined whether preschoolers' Halloween costume choices reflect their gender development. The sample consisted of 110 (53 boys, 57 girls) infant through preschool-aged participants, and 1 parent of each child. Both observational methodologies and parent-report surveys were used to assess the gender-typed nature of children's Halloween costumes, information about the Halloween costume choice process, and about the children's gender development. Boys' costumes were more masculine and girls' costumes were more feminine...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392774/tears-or-fears-comparing-gender-stereotypes-about-movie-preferences-to-actual-preferences
#9
Peter Wühr, Benjamin P Lange, Sascha Schwarz
This study investigated the accuracy of gender-specific stereotypes about movie-genre preferences for 17 genres. In Study 1, female and male participants rated the extent to which 17 movie genres are preferred by women or men. In Study 2, another sample of female and male participants rated their own preference for each genre. There were three notable results. First, Study 1 revealed the existence of gender stereotypes for the majority of genres (i.e., for 15 of 17 genres). Second, Study 2 revealed the existence of actual gender differences in preferences for the majority of genres (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392620/barriers-to-higher-education-commonalities-and-contrasts-in-the-experiences-of-hindu-and-muslim-young-women-in-urban-bengaluru
#10
Biswamitra Sahu, Patricia Jeffery, N Nakkeeran
Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and explores the barriers they confronted in fulfilling their aspirations. We highlight the similarities amongst the young women, as well as the distinctive experiences of the Hindu and Muslim interviewees...
March 4, 2017: Compare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388277/gender-stereotype-consistent-memories-how-system-justification-motivation-distorts-the-recollection-of-information-related-to-the-self
#11
Virginie Bonnot, Silvia Krauth-Gruber
Research based on system justification theory has shown that women's self-perceptions may be altered by the motivation to justify the system and its inequalities. Self-perceptions being built on past experiences, the present study aimed to explore how system justification motivation induced through a system dependency manipulation may alter both women's recall of autobiographical memories, and their behavior. Women who were led to feel highly dependent on the social system perceived themselves as more competent and recalled memories of higher competence in the verbal domain compared with the negatively stereotyped scientific domain...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385050/-the-complaining-women-health-professionals-perceptions-on-patients-with-fibromyalgia-in-spain
#12
Erica Briones-Vozmediano, Ann Öhman, Isabel Goicolea, Carmen Vives-Cases
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is twofold: (1) to explore health service providers' perceptions regarding fibromyalgia patients in Spain and (2) to analyze possible consequences of these perceptions in terms of how health service providers construct the disease and treat their patients. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS: Twelve health service providers (eight men, four women) involved in the care of fibromyalgia patients. Providers were from different disciplines and included general practitioners, rheumatologists, occupational doctors, psychologists, psychiatrists, physiotherapists and behavioral specialists from Spain...
April 7, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371699/the-semantic-representation-of-prejudice-and-stereotypes
#13
Sudeep Bhatia
We use a theory of semantic representation to study prejudice and stereotyping. Particularly, we consider large datasets of newspaper articles published in the United States, and apply latent semantic analysis (LSA), a prominent model of human semantic memory, to these datasets to learn representations for common male and female, White, African American, and Latino names. LSA performs a singular value decomposition on word distribution statistics in order to recover word vector representations, and we find that our recovered representations display the types of biases observed in human participants using tasks such as the implicit association test...
March 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364853/affirmation-effects-on-math-scores-the-importance-of-high-school-track
#14
Amanda Bancroft, Jenifer Bratter, Kristie Rowley
Stereotype threat has been shown to affect academic performance of minority racial groups. Minority girls may experience the burdens of both race and gender - a "double bind" theorized to affect the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. A randomized controlled trial focused on alleviating stereotype threat in three high schools in a large U.S. metro demonstrates the effects of affirmative writing interventions, which have previously shown positive effects for minority and female students. Results indicate effects for these groups were insignificant...
May 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363356/diversity-dynamics-issues-and-strategies-to-create-positive-organizations-the-experience-of-male-robert-wood-johnson-foundation-nurse-faculty-scholars
#15
Abraham A Brody, Jason E Farley, Gordon L Gillespie, Ronald Hickman, Eric A Hodges, Courtney Lyder, Steven J Palazzo, Todd Ruppar, Martin Schiavenato, Daniel J Pesut
BACKGROUND: Managing diversity dynamics in academic or clinical settings for men in nursing has unique challenges resulting from their minority status within the profession. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to share challenges and lessons learned identified by male scholars in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program and suggest strategies for creating positive organizations promoting inclusive excellence. METHODS: Multiple strategies including informal mentored discussions and peer-to-peer dialogue throughout the program, formal online surveys of scholars and National Advisory Committee members, and review of scholar progress reports were analyzed as part of the comprehensive evaluation plan of the program...
February 14, 2017: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360868/gendered-expectations-examining-how-peers-shape-female-students-intent-to-pursue-stem-fields
#16
Catherine Riegle-Crumb, Karisma Morton
Building on prior psychological and sociological research on the power of local environments to shape gendered outcomes in STEM fields, this study focuses on the critical stage of adolescence to explore the potential negative impact of exposure to exclusionary messages from peers within girls' science classrooms, as well as the positive potential impact of inclusionary messages. Specifically, utilizing longitudinal data from a diverse sample of adolescent youth, analyses examine how the presence of biased male peers, as well as confident female peers, shape girls' subsequent intentions to pursue different STEM fields, focusing specifically on intentions to pursue the male-dominated fields of computer science and engineering, as well as more gender equitable fields...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343109/a-visual-analysis-of-gender-bias-in-contemporary-anatomy-textbooks
#17
Rhiannon Parker, Theresa Larkin, Jon Cockburn
Empirical research has linked gender bias in medical education with negative attitudes and behaviors in healthcare providers. Yet it has been more than 20 years since research has considered the degree to which women and men are equally represented in anatomy textbooks. Furthermore, previous research has not explored beyond quantity of representation to also examine visual gender stereotypes and, in light of theoretical advancements in the area of intersectional research, the relationship between representations of gender and representations of ethnicity, body type, health, and age...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324794/the-socio-political-context-of-migration-and-reproductive-health-disparities-the-case-of-early-sexual-initiation-among-mexican-origin-immigrant-young-women
#18
Kate Coleman-Minahan
Prior research often explains the lower risk of early sexual initiation among foreign-born Mexican-origin young women by a patriarchal and sexually conservative "traditional Latino culture." This definition overlooks structural factors such as exploitation of migrant workers, and conflates gender inequality and sexual expectations. I use an intersectional framework and the theory of gender and power to explore how gender inequality and sexual expectations are both influenced by structural factors and affect reproductive health outcomes...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299587/how-sex-selection-undermines-reproductive-autonomy
#19
Tamara Kayali Browne
Non-medical sex selection is premised on the notion that the sexes are not interchangeable. Studies of individuals who undergo sex selection for non-medical reasons, or who have a preference for a son or daughter, show that they assume their child will conform to the stereotypical roles and norms associated with their sex. However, the evidence currently available has not succeeded in showing that the gender traits and inclinations sought are caused by a "male brain" or a "female brain". Therefore, as far as we know, there is no biological reason why parents cannot have the kind of parenting experience they seek with a child of any sex...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299562/gay-and-lesbian-sounding-auditory-cues-elicit-stereotyping-and-discrimination
#20
Fabio Fasoli, Anne Maass, Maria Paola Paladino, Simone Sulpizio
The growing body of literature on the recognition of sexual orientation from voice ("auditory gaydar") is silent on the cognitive and social consequences of having a gay-/lesbian- versus heterosexual-sounding voice. We investigated this issue in four studies (overall N = 276), conducted in Italian language, in which heterosexual listeners were exposed to single-sentence voice samples of gay/lesbian and heterosexual speakers. In all four studies, listeners were found to make gender-typical inferences about traits and preferences of heterosexual speakers, but gender-atypical inferences about those of gay or lesbian speakers...
March 15, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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