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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143410/early-contributions-to-infants-mental-rotation-abilities
#1
Mihaela Constantinescu, David S Moore, Scott P Johnson, Melissa Hines
Some cognitive abilities exhibit reliable gender differences, with females outperforming males in specific aspects of verbal ability, and males showing an advantage on certain spatial tasks. Among these cognitive gender differences, differences in mental rotation are the most robust, and appear to be present even in infants. A large body of animal research suggests that gonadal hormones, particularly testosterone, during early development could contribute to this gender difference in mental rotation. Also, substantial evidence supports an influence of socialization on mental rotation performance...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132332/first-and-second-year-medical-students-identify-and-self-stereotype-more-as-doctors-than-as-students-a-questionnaire-study
#2
Bryan Burford, Harriet E S Rosenthal-Stott
BACKGROUND: The emergence of medical students' professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. METHOD: Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October) and end (April) of the academic year...
November 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124785/time-to-address-gender-inequalities-against-female-physicians
#3
Suad Hannawi, Issa Al Salmi
Although the health care system depends heavily on female physicians, it discriminates against women and tends to concentrate female physicians' work in lower status occupations. Gender discrimination has structural, social, and cultural dimensions. Such discrimination is perceived differently by various stakeholders and the public. In addition, there is reluctance to publicly acknowledge gender discrimination, especially in the culturally conservative Middle East region. Gender discrimination leads to underrepresentation of female physicians in leadership roles and certain specialties and hence leads to less attention and understanding of the working conditions of female physicians and their roles in the health care system...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107320/walking-my-way-walker-gender-and-display-format-confounds-the-perception-of-specific-emotions
#4
Shaun Halovic, Christian Kroos
Previous evidence has shown that males and females display different gait kinematics which may influence the perception of emotions displayed through the same walking gait. We therefore investigated the influence of walker gender on the perception of happiness, sadness, anger and fear displayed through walking movements. Full-light (FL), point-light (PL) and synthetically modelled point-light walkers (SW) of both genders were shown to perceivers over three experiments. Additionally, gender ambiguous synthetic walkers were shown to control for the influence of form, gender stereotypes and idiosyncratic gait movements on emotional gait perception...
October 26, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083217/theory-of-mind-is-related-to-children-s-resource-allocations-in-gender-stereotypic-contexts
#5
Michael T Rizzo, Melanie Killen
The present study investigated the relations between 4- to 6-year-old children's (N = 67) gender stereotypes, resource allocations, and mental state knowledge in gender-stereotypic contexts. Participants were told vignettes about female and male characters completing gender-stereotyped activities (making dolls or trucks). Children held stereotypic expectations regarding doll- and truck-making abilities, and these expectations predicted the degree of bias in their allocations of resources to the characters. Critically, children's performance on a Theory of Mind (ToM) Scale (Diverse Desires [DD], Contents False-Belief [FB], Belief-Emotion [BE]) was significantly related to their allocations of resources to individuals whose effort did not fit existing gender stereotypes (e...
October 30, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079541/withdrawn-sex-specific-effects-of-gender-identification-on-pain-study-recruitment
#6
L Mattos Feijó, G Z Tarman, C Fontaine, R Harrison, T Johnstone, T V Salomons
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075375/gender-differences-in-attending-physicians-feedback-to-residents-a-qualitative-analysis
#7
Anna S Mueller, Tania M Jenkins, Melissa Osborne, Arjun Dayal, Daniel M O'Connor, Vineet M Arora
BACKGROUND : Prior research has shown a gender gap in the evaluations of emergency medicine (EM) residents' competency on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones, yet the practical implications of this are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE : To better understand the gender gap in evaluations, we examined qualitative differences in the feedback that male and female residents received from attending physicians. METHODS : This study used a longitudinal qualitative content analysis of narrative comments by attending physicians during real-time direct observation milestone evaluations of residents...
October 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072557/-gay-guys-are-shit-lovers-and-lesbians-are-obsessed-with-fingers-the-mis-representation-of-lgbtiq-people-in-thai-news-media
#8
Kangwan Fongkaew, Anoporn Khruataeng, Sumon Unsathit, Matawii Khamphiirathasana, Nisarat Jongwisan, Oranong Arlunaek, Jensen Byrne
This paper presents an analysis of news reports presenting information or opinions about Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Intersex and Queer (LGBTIQ) people taken from six Thai media outlets over a period of one year. The aim was to explore how LGBTIQ people are portrayed in news media narratives. LGBTIQ identities were found to be vastly underrepresented, and when represented were often represented inaccurately, stereotypically, harmfully or without a clear understanding of the diversity of sexual orientations, gender identities and gender expressions...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065282/does-facial-attractiveness-influence-perception-of-epilepsy-diagnosis-an-insight-into-stigma-in-epilepsy
#9
Aleksandar J Ristić, Olja Jovanović, Dragan Popadić, Višnja Pađen, Ahsan N V Moosa, Ana Krivokapić, Aleksandra Parojčić, Ivana Berisavac, Andrej Ilanković, Vladimir Baščarević, Nikola Vojvodić, Dragoslav Sokić
BACKGROUND: Using a group of young healthy individuals and patients with multiple sclerosis (pMS), we aimed to investigate whether the physical attractiveness judgment affects perception of epilepsy. We tested hypothesis that subjects, in the absence of relevant clues, would catch upon the facial attractiveness when asked to speculate which person suffers epilepsy and select less attractive choices. METHOD: Two photo-arrays (7 photos for each gender) selected from the Chicago Face Database (180 neutral faces of Caucasian volunteers with unknown medical status) were shown to study participants...
October 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059231/leader-evaluation-and-team-cohesiveness-in-the-process-of-team-development-a-matter-of-gender
#10
Núria Rovira-Asenjo, Agnieszka Pietraszkiewicz, Sabine Sczesny, Tània Gumí, Roger Guimerà, Marta Sales-Pardo
Leadership positions are still stereotyped as masculine, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., engineering). So how do gender stereotypes affect the evaluation of leaders and team cohesiveness in the process of team development? In our study participants worked in 45 small teams (4-5 members). Each team was headed by either a female or male leader, so that 45 leaders (33% women) supervised 258 team members (39% women). Over a period of nine months, the teams developed specific engineering projects as part of their professional undergraduate training...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048195/controlling-images-how-awareness-of-group-stereotypes-affects-black-women-s-well-being
#11
Morgan C Jerald, Elizabeth R Cole, L Monique Ward, Lanice R Avery
This paper presents research exploring how stereotypes that are simultaneously racialized and gendered affect Black women. We investigated the mental and physical health consequences of Black women's awareness that others hold these stereotypes and tested whether this association was moderated by the centrality of racial identity. A structural equation model tested among 609 young Black women revealed that metastereotype awareness (i.e., being aware that others hold negative stereotypes of one's group) predicted negative mental health outcomes (e...
October 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046657/the-palliative-function-of-hostile-sexism-among-high-and-low-status-chilean-students
#12
Salvador Vargas-Salfate
Previous studies have demonstrated that justifying the social, economic, and political systems is associated with psychological well-being, which has been termed as the palliative function of ideology. However, little research has been conducted on gender stereotypes among children, comparing by socioeconomic status. This study aimed to fill this gap in the system justification literature. We present data from the Chilean version of the International Survey of Children Well-Being (ISCWeB), which was conducted in 2012...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033881/age-and-gender-differences-in-facial-attractiveness-but-not-emotion-resemblance-contribute-to-age-and-gender-stereotypes
#13
Rocco Palumbo, Reginald B Adams, Ursula Hess, Robert E Kleck, Leslie Zebrowitz
Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027632/let-us-talk-about-eggs-professional-resistance-to-elective-egg-vitrification-and-gendered-medical-paternalism
#14
Judit Sándor, Lilla Vicsek, Zsófia Bauer
In this paper, by applying a feminist bioethical perspective, we identify a new form of medical paternalism that still shapes contemporary legal policies on human egg cryopreservation performed without medical reasons. The fear of negligent, careless women who opt to delay their pregnancy for mere convenience is a widely known gender biased stereotype. Nevertheless, the opinions and judgments of medical professionals on this issue have not yet been sufficiently explored by in-depth research. In this essay, therefore, first we look at the broader bioethical, legal, and social aspects of human egg cryopreservation...
October 13, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023451/caring-or-daring-exploring-the-impact-of-facial-masculinity-femininity-and-gender-category-information-on-first-impressions
#15
Mirella Walker, Michaela Wänke
In two studies we disentangled and systematically investigated the impact of subtle facial cues to masculinity/femininity and gender category information on first impressions. Participants judged the same unambiguously male and female target persons-either with masculine or feminine facial features slightly enhanced-regarding stereotypically masculine (i.e., competence) and feminine (i.e., warmth) personality traits. Results of both studies showed a strong effect of facial masculinity/femininity: Masculine-looking persons were seen as colder and more competent than feminine-looking persons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023200/gender-stereotype-activation-versus-lexical-semantic-activation-an-erp-study
#16
Pei Wang, Ya-Ping Yang, Chen-Hao Tan, Qin-Wei Chen, Thomas Cantfort
It is an open question whether social stereotype activation can be distinguished from nonsocial semantic activation. To address this question, gender stereotype activation (GSA) and lexical semantic activation (LSA) were directly compared. EEGs were recorded in 20 participants as they identified the congruence between prime-target word pairs under four different conditions (stereotype congruent, stereotype incongruent, semantic congruent, and semantic incongruent). We found that congruent targets elicited faster and more accurate responses and reduced N400 amplitudes irrespective of priming category types...
October 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018811/high-frequency-eeg-variations-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-during-human-faces-visualization
#17
Celina A Reis Paula, Camille Reategui, Bruna Karen de Sousa Costa, Caio Queiroz da Fonseca, Luana da Silva, Edgard Morya, Fabricio Lima Brasil
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the impairment in the social reciprocity, interaction/language, and behavior, with stereotypes and signs of sensory function deficits. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a well-established and noninvasive tool for neurophysiological characterization and monitoring of the brain electrical activity, able to identify abnormalities related to frequency range, connectivity, and lateralization of brain functions. This research aims to evidence quantitative differences in the frequency spectrum pattern between EEG signals of children with and without ASD during visualization of human faces in three different expressions: neutral, happy, and angry...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985566/brain-wide-maps-reveal-stereotyped-cell-type-based-cortical-architecture-and-subcortical-sexual-dimorphism
#18
Yongsoo Kim, Guangyu Robert Yang, Kith Pradhan, Kannan Umadevi Venkataraju, Mihail Bota, Luis Carlos García Del Molino, Greg Fitzgerald, Keerthi Ram, Miao He, Jesse Maurica Levine, Partha Mitra, Z Josh Huang, Xiao-Jing Wang, Pavel Osten
The stereotyped features of neuronal circuits are those most likely to explain the remarkable capacity of the brain to process information and govern behaviors, yet it has not been possible to comprehensively quantify neuronal distributions across animals or genders due to the size and complexity of the mammalian brain. Here we apply our quantitative brain-wide (qBrain) mapping platform to document the stereotyped distributions of mainly inhibitory cell types. We discover an unexpected cortical organizing principle: sensory-motor areas are dominated by output-modulating parvalbumin-positive interneurons, whereas association, including frontal, areas are dominated by input-modulating somatostatin-positive interneurons...
October 5, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983927/when-less-is-more-psychometric-properties-of-norwegian-short-forms-of%C3%A2-the-ambivalent-sexism-scales-asi-and-ami-and-the-illinois-rape-myth-acceptance-irma-scale
#19
Mons Bendixen, Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair
This paper reports on the development and the psychometric properties of short forms of Ambivalent Sexism Scales toward women (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) and men (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999), and a scale measuring rape stereotypes (IRMA; McMahon & Farmer, 2011). The short form AMI/ASI were applied for examining gender and educational differences in university students (N = 512) and in high school students (N = 1381), and for predicting individual differences in rape stereotypes in the latter. The short forms demonstrated good to excellent psychometric properties across samples of emerging adults...
October 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972839/prejudices-in-cultural-contexts-shared-stereotypes-gender-age-versus-variable-stereotypes-race-ethnicity-religion
#20
Susan T Fiske
Some prejudices share cross-cultural patterns, but others are more variable and culture specific. Those sharing cross-cultural patterns (sexism, ageism) each combine societal status differences and intimate interdependence. For example, in stereotypes of sex and age, lower status groups-women and elders-gain stereotypic warmth (from their cooperative interdependence) but lose stereotypic competence (from their lower status); men and middle-aged adults show the opposite trade-off, stereotypically more competent than warm...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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