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gender stereotype

Kazi Md Mukitul Islam, M Niaz Asadullah
Using government secondary school English language textbooks from Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, we conducted a quantitative content analysis in order to identify gender stereotypes in school education. In total, 21 categories of exclusion and quality of representation were used to study gender stereotypes. Our analysis confirms a pro-male bias in textbooks: the aggregate female share is 40.4% in textual and pictorial indicators combined. Female occupations are mostly traditional and less prestigious while the characters are predominantly introverted and passive in terms of personality traits...
2018: PloS One
Maretha J Visser
A critical component of an AIDS-free generation is to reduce HIV-related stigma. Previous research predicted that stigma would decline over time with increased contact with PLWH, understanding of the disease and availability of treatment. The aim of the research was to explore change in stigma over a 12-year period, by comparing data collected from two large cross-sectional samples from South African communities in 2004 (before the roll-out of antiretroviral treatment (ART)) and in 2016. Students recruited respondents according to criteria related to age, gender, race and area of living...
January 18, 2018: AIDS Care
Nicola Mackintosh, Jane Sandall, Claire Collison, Wendy Carter, James Harris
OBJECTIVES: This project used animated film to translate research findings into accessible health information aimed at enabling women to speak up and secure professional help for serious safety concerns during pregnancy and after birth. We tested as proof of concept our use of the arts both as product (knowledge production) and process (enabling involvement). BACKGROUND: Emergencies during pregnancy and birth, while unusual, can develop rapidly and unexpectedly, with catastrophic consequences...
January 17, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Jonathan Bartlett
•Application rates to surgery by medical students have declined in recent years.•More hands-on experience, information and mentorship is needed in medical schools.•Within surgery, gendered stereotyping of roles and environments must be challenged.•Reform of the current systems of outcome reporting is necessary.
January 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Joris Van Ouytsel, Koen Ponnet, Michel Walrave
Just as with other forms of abuse such as bullying, dating violence is no longer limited to physical spaces. Several forms of dating violence can also be perpetrated by means of technology. Few studies have used a theoretical perspective to investigate cyber dating abuse. This study addresses this gap in the literature by focusing on the perpetration of digital monitoring behaviors-a form of cyber dating abuse-from a social learning perspective. We investigate the extent to which perceived social norms about cyber dating abuse, witnessing controlling behaviors among parents, and endorsing gender stereotypes are linked with adolescents' engagement in digital monitoring behaviors...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Michelle F Wright
The present study focused on the impact of gender and gender stereotype traits (i.e., masculinity, femininity) on cyber aggression perpetration utilizing different technologies (i.e., social-networking sites, gaming consoles, mobile phones) and behaviors (i.e., cyber relational aggression, cyber verbal aggression, hacking). Participants included 233 eighth graders (108 female; Mage = 13.26, SD = 0.36) from two middle schools in the Midwestern United States. Adolescents completed questionnaires on their endorsement of masculinity and femininity traits as well as how often they engaged in cyber aggression perpetration (i...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Phyllis R Silverman, Susan Thomson
To increase our understanding of the role gender plays in spousal loss, this qualitative study analyzes bereavement narratives of 33 recent widowers, aged 45-89 years, all of whom accessed the National Widowers' Organization website. In particular, we look at how these widowers' lives changed, the impact of changing gender norms, and coping strategies. To illuminate the temporal process evident in these narratives, we utilize Silverman's nonlinear characteristics of bereavement and the anthropological concept of liminality...
January 1, 2017: Omega
Angelo J M Maxim, Martin S Rice
OBJECTIVE: Relatively few men are occupational therapy practitioners in the United States. Little research has examined issues germane to men working in the profession. The objective of this study was to investigate perceptions, issues, and factors surrounding male occupational therapy practitioners. METHOD: A survey link was emailed to 9,467 licensed occupational therapy practitioners in Ohio; 699 participants responded, yielding a response rate of 7.66%. RESULTS: Male and female participants provided both similar and significantly different responses to the survey questions...
January 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Allison S Gabriel, Marcus M Butts, Zhenyu Yuan, Rebecca L Rosen, Michael T Sliter
Research conducted on workplace incivility-a low intensity form of deviant behavior-has generally shown that women report higher levels of incivility at work. However, to date, it is unclear as to whether women are primarily treated uncivilly by men (i.e., members of the socially dominant group/out-group) or other women (i.e., members of in-group) in organizations. In light of different theorizing surrounding gender and incivility, we examine whether women experience increased incivility from other women or men, and whether this effect is amplified for women who exhibit higher agency and less communion at work given that these traits and behaviors violate stereotypical gender norms...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
James P Ravenhill, Richard O de Visser
In anal intercourse between gay men, men who are typically insertive ("tops") are often perceived as, and may identify as, more masculine than those who are typically receptive ("bottoms"). "Versatile" men, who may adopt either position, may be perceived as more gender balanced and may transcend the gender-role stereotypes associated with self-labeling as top or bottom. The aim of this study was to explore how gay men's beliefs about masculinity were associated with their beliefs about the gendered nature of sexual self-labels and their behavior in anal intercourse...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
Linda K Kaye, Claire E Gresty, Natasha Stubbs-Ennis
Gender stereotypes are still reported to exist in digital gaming contexts, despite the fact that participation of females is relatively equal to that of males. The current research explored a number of factors and their impact upon stereotypical perceptions and attitudes toward female players. This included avatar gender, gender identity by gaming context, as well as more general gender-role beliefs. We undertook two studies, each utilizing an online questionnaire targeted toward online players. Study 1 recruited online gamers (N = 489) and compared competence perceptions of players, which varied by player gender (male, female) and avatar gender (male, female), whereby four conditions were established...
December 6, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Félix Bravo-González, Arturo Álvarez-Roldán
OBJECTIVE: To identify the type of support and assistance that patients with multiple sclerosis need in order to cope with the loss of functionality, and to show how gender affects the perception of these needs. METHOD: Interpretative-phenomenological qualitative study. LOCATION: Granada (Spain). Year: 2014. Intentional sample: 30 patients and 20 family caregivers. Data were gathered from 26 interviews and 4 focus groups. The data were coded and analysed with the NVivo programme...
December 1, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
Samara Perez, Hannah Restle, Anila Naz, Ovidiu Tatar, Gilla K Shapiro, Zeev Rosberger
OBJECTIVES: Parents are critical to ensure sufficient human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage. No studies to date have examined how mothers and fathers perceive their own, their partners' and their sons' involvement in HPV vaccination decision-making process. METHODS: An online survey methodology was used to collect data from a national sample of Canadian parents (33% fathers, 67% mothers, Mage=44) who had a 9-16years old son (n=3117). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parent's perception of their self-involvement, partner-involvement and son's involvement in the decision to get their son the HPV vaccine were measured on a Likert scale and were classified as 'no involvement', 'moderate involvement' and 'high involvement'...
December 2017: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
Anna I R van der Miesen, Annelou L C de Vries, Thomas D Steensma, Catharina A Hartman
Studies have shown an increase of symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in gender dysphoria (GD). Various hypotheses try to explain this possible co-occurrence (e.g., a role of resistance to change, stereotyped behaviors or prenatal testosterone exposure). This study examined ASD symptoms with the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) in 490 children with GD compared to 2507 typically developing (TD) and 196 children with ASD. CSBQ total scores of the GD sample were in between scores from the TD and ASD sample...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Bora Lee, Olivenne D Skinner, Susan M McHale
The world of work remains gender-segregated, and research is needed to identify factors that may give rise to women's and men's vocational choices. This study explored bidirectional relations between youth's gendered career aspirations and the proportions of youth's leisure time spent in stereotypically gendered activities and gendered social contexts. Participants were 203 youth (52% girls) from predominantly white, working and middle class families living in the US, who reported on their occupational aspirations and gendered interests in home interviews and on their daily activities in a series of 7 nightly phone interviews on two occasions, in middle childhood (Mage = 10...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
Yusuf Ahmed, Marko Popovic, Bo Angela Wan, Michael Lam, Henry Lam, Vithusha Ganesh, Milica Milakovic, Carlo DeAngelis, Leila Malek, Edward Chow
BACKGROUND: Pain is reported in approximately 50-70% of cancer patients. Studies on gender differences in perceived pain generally report lower pain thresholds and increased pain prevalence in women, which may be attributed to gender-specific behaviors, stereotypes, and unknown etiological factors. There are sparse and inconclusive results on gender differences in self-perceived pain in the cancer setting. The aim of this article was to examine the effect of gender on baseline perceived pain intensity in cancer patients through a meta-analysis...
September 12, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Mihaela Constantinescu, David S Moore, Scott P Johnson, Melissa Hines
Some cognitive abilities exhibit reliable gender differences, with females outperforming males in specific aspects of verbal ability, and males showing an advantage on certain spatial tasks. Among these cognitive gender differences, differences in mental rotation are the most robust, and appear to be present even in infants. A large body of animal research suggests that gonadal hormones, particularly testosterone, during early development could contribute to this gender difference in mental rotation. Also, substantial evidence supports an influence of socialization on mental rotation performance...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Science
Bryan Burford, Harriet E S Rosenthal-Stott
BACKGROUND: The emergence of medical students' professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. METHOD: Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October) and end (April) of the academic year...
November 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
Suad Hannawi, Issa Al Salmi
Although the health care system depends heavily on female physicians, it discriminates against women and tends to concentrate female physicians' work in lower status occupations. Gender discrimination has structural, social, and cultural dimensions. Such discrimination is perceived differently by various stakeholders and the public. In addition, there is reluctance to publicly acknowledge gender discrimination, especially in the culturally conservative Middle East region. Gender discrimination leads to underrepresentation of female physicians in leadership roles and certain specialties and hence leads to less attention and understanding of the working conditions of female physicians and their roles in the health care system...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Shaun Halovic, Christian Kroos
Previous evidence has shown that males and females display different gait kinematics which may influence the perception of emotions displayed through the same walking gait. We therefore investigated the influence of walker gender on the perception of happiness, sadness, anger and fear displayed through walking movements. Full-light (FL), point-light (PL) and synthetically modelled point-light walkers (SW) of both genders were shown to perceivers over three experiments. Additionally, gender ambiguous synthetic walkers were shown to control for the influence of form, gender stereotypes and idiosyncratic gait movements on emotional gait perception...
October 26, 2017: Human Movement Science
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