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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324794/the-socio-political-context-of-migration-and-reproductive-health-disparities-the-case-of-early-sexual-initiation-among-mexican-origin-immigrant-young-women
#1
Kate Coleman-Minahan
Prior research often explains the lower risk of early sexual initiation among foreign-born Mexican-origin young women by a patriarchal and sexually conservative "traditional Latino culture." This definition overlooks structural factors such as exploitation of migrant workers, and conflates gender inequality and sexual expectations. I use an intersectional framework and the theory of gender and power to explore how gender inequality and sexual expectations are both influenced by structural factors and affect reproductive health outcomes...
March 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299587/how-sex-selection-undermines-reproductive-autonomy
#2
Tamara Kayali Browne
Non-medical sex selection is premised on the notion that the sexes are not interchangeable. Studies of individuals who undergo sex selection for non-medical reasons, or who have a preference for a son or daughter, show that they assume their child will conform to the stereotypical roles and norms associated with their sex. However, the evidence currently available has not succeeded in showing that the gender traits and inclinations sought are caused by a "male brain" or a "female brain". Therefore, as far as we know, there is no biological reason why parents cannot have the kind of parenting experience they seek with a child of any sex...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299562/gay-and-lesbian-sounding-auditory-cues-elicit-stereotyping-and-discrimination
#3
Fabio Fasoli, Anne Maass, Maria Paola Paladino, Simone Sulpizio
The growing body of literature on the recognition of sexual orientation from voice ("auditory gaydar") is silent on the cognitive and social consequences of having a gay-/lesbian- versus heterosexual-sounding voice. We investigated this issue in four studies (overall N = 276), conducted in Italian language, in which heterosexual listeners were exposed to single-sentence voice samples of gay/lesbian and heterosexual speakers. In all four studies, listeners were found to make gender-typical inferences about traits and preferences of heterosexual speakers, but gender-atypical inferences about those of gay or lesbian speakers...
March 15, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295850/the-effect-of-stereotypes-and-prejudices-regarding-gender-roles-on-the-relation-between-nurses-and-muslim-fathers-in-health-institutions-within-the-community-of-madrid-spain
#4
Juan Luis González-Pascual, Laura Esteban-Gonzalo, Marta Rodríguez-García, Sagrario Gómez-Cantarino, Manuel Moreno-Preciado
Modern Western societies are characterized by a considerable cultural and ethnic diversity whereby different groups and minorities live side by side. However, not all people are viewed in the same light by the autochthonous population. This is particularly true in the case of Muslim immigrants, who are often prone to negative stereotyping and prejudice. This has become increasingly apparent since the 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and the subsequent attacks in various Western countries. This study seeks to analyze the relation between female nurses and those labeled by nurses as "Muslim fathers," as part of a research project on the care of immigrant children in Madrid (Spain)...
March 13, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295294/catching-up-with-wonderful-women-the-women-are-wonderful-effect-is-smaller-in-more-gender-egalitarian-societies
#5
Kuba Krys, Colin A Capaldi, Wijnand van Tilburg, Ottmar V Lipp, Michael Harris Bond, C-Melanie Vauclair, L Sam S Manickam, Alejandra Domínguez-Espinosa, Claudio Torres, Vivian Miu-Chi Lun, Julien Teyssier, Lynden K Miles, Karolina Hansen, Joonha Park, Wolfgang Wagner, Angela Arriola Yu, Cai Xing, Ryan Wise, Chien-Ru Sun, Razi Sultan Siddiqui, Radwa Salem, Muhammad Rizwan, Vassilis Pavlopoulos, Martin Nader, Fridanna Maricchiolo, María Malbran, Gwatirera Javangwe, İdil Işık, David O Igbokwe, Taekyun Hur, Arif Hassan, Ana Gonzalez, Márta Fülöp, Patrick Denoux, Enila Cenko, Ana Chkhaidze, Eleonora Shmeleva, Radka Antalíková, Ramadan A Ahmed
Inequalities between men and women are common and well-documented. Objective indexes show that men are better positioned than women in societal hierarchies-there is no single country in the world without a gender gap. In contrast, researchers have found that the women-are-wonderful effect-that women are evaluated more positively than men overall-is also common. Cross-cultural studies on gender equality reveal that the more gender egalitarian the society is, the less prevalent explicit gender stereotypes are...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290118/the-moderating-effect-of-gender-role-on-the-relationships-between-gender-and-attitudes-about-body-and-eating-in-a-sample-of-italian-adolescents
#6
J Lampis, S Cataudella, A Busonera, S De Simone, M Tommasi
PURPOSE: The differential prevalence of eating disorders in males and females can be explained by the impact of gender-role orientations. Inside the Italian socio-cultural context, gender socialization can be influenced by stereotypical gender beliefs, and this may contribute to the psychological distress of individuals who identify with discrepant gender roles from their biological sex. Our study explored, within the Italian context, the potential moderating effect of masculinity and femininity on the relationships between gender and attitudes about body and eating...
March 13, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281870/are-female-applicants-disadvantaged-in-national-institutes-of-health-peer-review-combining-algorithmic-text-mining-and-qualitative-methods-to-detect-evaluative-differences-in-r01-reviewers-critiques
#7
Wairimu Magua, Xiaojin Zhu, Anupama Bhattacharya, Amarette Filut, Aaron Potvien, Renee Leatherberry, You-Geon Lee, Madeline Jens, Dastagiri Malikireddy, Molly Carnes, Anna Kaatz
BACKGROUND: Women are less successful than men in renewing R01 grants from the National Institutes of Health. Continuing to probe text mining as a tool to identify gender bias in peer review, we used algorithmic text mining and qualitative analysis to examine a sample of critiques from men's and women's R01 renewal applications previously analyzed by counting and comparing word categories. METHODS: We analyzed 241 critiques from 79 Summary Statements for 51 R01 renewals awarded to 45 investigators (64% male, 89% white, 80% PhD) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison between 2010 and 2014...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273398/the-development-and-developmental-consequences-of-social-essentialism
#8
REVIEW
Marjorie Rhodes, Tara M Mandalaywala
People often view certain ways of classifying people (e.g., by gender, race, or ethnicity) as reflecting real distinctions found in nature. Such categories are viewed as marking meaningful, fundamental, and informative differences between distinct kinds of people. This article examines the development of these essentialist intuitive theories of how the social world is structured, along with the developmental consequences of these beliefs. We first examine the processes that give rise to social essentialism, arguing that essentialism emerges as children actively attempt to make sense of their environment by relying on several basic representational and explanatory biases...
March 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265251/looking-through-the-glass-ceiling-a-qualitative-study-of-stem-women-s-career-narratives
#9
Mary J Amon
Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women's perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women's experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262919/urban-middle-school-students-stereotypes-at-the-intersection-of-sexual-orientation-ethnicity-and-gender
#10
Negin Ghavami, Letitia Anne Peplau
Heterosexual urban middle school students' (N = 1,757) stereotypes about gender typicality, intelligence, and aggression were assessed. Students (Mage  = 12.36 years) rated Facebook-like profiles of peers who varied by gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Several hypotheses about how the gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation of target peers intersect to shape stereotypes were tested. As predicted, a peer's sexual orientation determined stereotypes of gender typicality, with gay and lesbian students viewed as most atypical...
March 6, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255187/are-all-researchers-male-gender-misattributions-in-citations
#11
Michał Krawczyk
I screen academic literature for cases of misattribution of cited author's gender. While such mistakes are overall not common, their frequency depends dramatically on the gender of the cited author. Female scholar are cited as if they were male more than ten times more often than the opposite happens, probably revealing that citers are influenced by the gender-science stereotype. The gender of the citing author and the field of study appear to have only limited effect.
2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253005/the-effects-of-gender-composition-on-women-s-experience-in-math-work-groups
#12
Sarah S Grover, Tiffany A Ito, Bernadette Park
The present studies tested a model outlining the effects of group gender composition on self- and others' perceptions of women's math ability in a truly interactive setting with groups composed entirely of naïve participants (N = 158 4-person groups across 3 studies). One woman in each group was designated to be the "expert" by having her complete a tutorial that gave her task-relevant knowledge for a subsequent group task. Group gender composition was hypothesized to influence perceptions of women's math ability through intrapersonal processes (stereotype threat effects on performance) and interpersonal processes (social cohesion between the expert and other group members)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243218/moral-judgments-on-short-term-sexual-behaviors-among-chinese-college-students-exploring-the-roles-of-gender-and-physical-attractiveness
#13
Qianguo Xiao, Aijuan Li, Yi Zhu
This study primarily investigated the effects of gender and physical attractiveness on moral judgments on three typical kinds of short-term sexual behaviors (short-term fling, one-night stand, and hookup) in the Chinese culture context. A total of 120 university student subjects were presented with a series of stereotypically physically attractive (versus physically unattractive) photos before they rated the extent to which each of the three short-term sexual behaviors are morally acceptable. The results showed that male students judged all three behaviors to be more morally acceptable than female students did...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211031/differential-peer-effects-student-achievement-and-student-absenteeism-evidence-from-a-large-scale-randomized-experiment
#14
Ozkan Eren
Using data from a well-executed randomized experiment, I examine the effects of gender composition and peer achievement on high school students' outcomes in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results show that having a higher proportion of female peers in the classroom improves girls' math test scores only in less-advanced courses. For male students, the estimated gender peer effects are positive but less precisely estimated. I also find no effect of average classroom achievement on female math test scores. Males, on the other hand, seem to benefit from a higher-achieving classroom...
February 16, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197995/explaining-academic-track-boys-underachievement-in-language-grades-not-a-lack-of-aptitude-but-students-motivational-beliefs-and-parents-perceptions
#15
Anke Heyder, Ursula Kessels, Ricarda Steinmayr
BACKGROUND: Boys earn lower grades in languages than girls. The expectancy-value model by Eccles et al. (, A series of books in psychology. Achievement and achievement motives. Psychological and sociological approaches, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA, 76) is a comprehensive theoretical model for explaining gender differences in educational outcomes. In the past, most studies have focused on girls' disadvantage in math and science and on the role of the students' motivational beliefs...
February 15, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194197/the-sociological-study-of-nurse-physician-professional-relationship-in-iran
#16
Maryam Mehrabi, Ali Madanipour, Shirin Ahmadnia
BACKGROUND: During recent decades, various factors have modified the nurse-physician professional relationship pattern in hospital settings. The present study investigates the typology and dynamics of this relationship as well as the effects of social structures and the actors' agency by considering the gender variable in two professional groups of nurse and physician. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was conducted in 2009 using a quota sampling method of 100 female nurses and male physicians in four hospitals in Tehran...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188369/self-stigma-as-a-barrier-to-recovery-a-longitudinal-study
#17
Nathalie Oexle, Mario Müller, Wolfram Kawohl, Ziyan Xu, Sandra Viering, Christine Wyss, Stefan Vetter, Nicolas Rüsch
Stigma limits life opportunities of persons with mental illness. Self-stigma, the internalization of negative stereotypes, undermines empowerment and could hinder recovery. Here we examined self-stigma's effect on recovery among 222 disability pensioners with mental illness over 2 years, controlling for age, gender, symptoms and recovery at baseline measured by the Recovery Assessment Scale. More self-stigma at baseline was associated with a significant decrease in recovery after 1 year (not significant after 2 years)...
February 10, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179893/professionalism-and-occupational-well-being-similarities-and-differences-among-latin-american-health-professionals
#18
Montserrat San-Martín, Roberto Delgado-Bolton, Luis Vivanco
Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare institutions. Materials and Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration, the Jefferson Scale of Physicians Lifelong Learning, and the Scale of Collateral Effects (somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation), were administered to 522 physicians and nurses working in institutions of Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164436/there-is-nothing-wrong-with-being-a-nurse-the-experiences-of-male-nursing-students-in-taiwan
#19
Cheng-I Yang, Hsing-Yi Yu, Yen-Fan Chin, Li-Hung Lee
AIM: Male nurses are reported to experience role strain. Fear of gender stereotyping can be stressful and frustrating for male nursing students, which could make them feel isolated and excluded. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate how male nursing students in Taiwan perceive the barriers to their experience as nursing students and how they manage these barriers in their study environment and social life. METHODS: A qualitative research approach was used in this study...
February 5, 2017: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155009/homogamy-in-masculinity-femininity-is-positively-linked-to-relationship-quality-in-gay-male-couples-from-the-czech-republic
#20
Klára Bártová, Zuzana Štěrbová, Lenka Martinec Nováková, Jakub Binter, Marco Antonio Corrêa Varella, Jaroslava Varella Valentova
The main aims of this research were to test the similarity of masculinity-femininity in long-term male same-sex couples from the Czech Republic and to examine whether this similarity predicts higher relationship quality. In Study 1, participants (N = 30) and their partners completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale (CGN). In Study 2, participants (N = 40) and their partners completed DAS and the Gender Diagnosticity Scale (GD). Results showed that the partners were no more alike than individuals paired at random in their CGN or GD, but greater similarity in CGN between partners increased Dyadic Cohesion (r = -...
February 2, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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