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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940233/epistemic-beliefs-as-predictors-of-epistemic-emotions-extending-a-theoretical-model
#1
Tom Rosman, Anne-Kathrin Mayer
BACKGROUND: The cognitive incongruity model of epistemic beliefs and emotions states that if students' beliefs about the nature of knowledge (e.g., knowledge as simple and absolute) are incompatible with the epistemic nature of learning materials (e.g., complex and contradictory), cognitive incongruity arises. This, in turn, entails negative emotional consequences. AIMS: The epistemic nature of contradictory learning materials might be perceived differently depending on whether individuals resolve the contradictions or not...
September 21, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936186/assessing-the-formation-of-experience-based-gender-expectations-in-an-implicit-learning-scenario
#2
Anton Öttl, Dawn M Behne
The present study investigates the formation of new word-referent associations in an implicit learning scenario, using a gender-coded artificial language with spoken words and visual referents. Previous research has shown that when participants are explicitly instructed about the gender-coding system underlying an artificial lexicon, they monitor the frequency of exposure to male vs. female referents within this lexicon, and subsequently use this probabilistic information to predict the gender of an upcoming referent...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933880/media-exposure-in-very-young-girls-prospective-and-cross-sectional-relationships-with-bmiz-self-esteem-and-body-size-stereotypes
#3
Rachel F Rodgers, Stephanie R Damiano, Eleanor H Wertheim, Susan J Paxton
Media exposure among young children has been suggested to influence self-concept and the adoption of social stereotypes regarding body weight, as well as being associated with increased weight. The aim of this study was to examine the role of TV/DVD viewing in the development of positive stereotypes toward thinness, self-esteem and body mass index standardized for child age and gender (BMIz) in very young girls. A sample of 143 girls completed interviews at ages 3, 4, and 5 years old. The interviews assessed positive stereotypes about thinness among girls, as well as age 5 dietary restraint...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923432/knowledge-and-attitudes-on-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-germany-a-web-based-survey
#4
Saskia Wilhelmy, Vasilija Rolfes, Michael Grözinger, Yvonne Chikere, Sabrina Schöttle, Dominik Groß
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to examine knowledge and attitudes on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) among the German population. METHOD: A web-based population survey based on a standardized questionnaire was used to examine knowledge and attitudes towards ECT as a treatment of severe depression among the general public (sample of 1000; representative in terms of age, gender and federal states of the German population). RESULTS: ECT is not well known and negatively connoted among the German population...
September 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917622/does-gender-matter-an-analysis-of-men-s-and-women-s-accounts-of-responding-to-symptoms-of-lung-cancer
#5
Alice MacLean, Kate Hunt, Sarah Smith, Sally Wyke
Men are often portrayed - in research studies, 'common-sense' accounts and popular media - as reluctant users of health services. They are said to avoid going to the GP whenever possible, while women are portrayed, in presumed opposition, as consulting more readily, more frequently and with less serious complaints. Such stereotypes may inadvertently encourage doctors to pay greater heed to men's symptoms in 'routine' consultations. Although previous research has challenged this view with evidence, and suggested that links between gender identities and help-seeking are complex and fluid, gender comparative studies remain uncommon, and particularly few studies (either qualitative or quantitative) compare men and women with similar morbidity...
September 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917155/crossing-the-gender-boundaries-the-gender-experiences-of-male-nursing-students-in-initial-nursing-clinical-practice-in-taiwan
#6
Hsing-Yuan Liu, Yun Ling Li
BACKGROUND: The initial nursing clinical practice is the necessary practicum required for nursing students. Because of the changing learning style, many of them are under great pressure for environmental change and therefore their daily routine is severe affected. Interacting directly with patients in a female-dominated occupation, along with the general gender stereotypes, the impact is especially significant to male nursing students than to female nursing students. PURPOSE: The purpose of this preliminary qualitative study is to explore the gendered experiences of male nursing students during their first initial nursing clinical practice...
September 1, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915993/marching-to-a-different-drummer-a-cross-cultural-comparison-of-young-adolescents-who-challenge-gender-norms
#7
Chunyan Yu, Xiayun Zuo, Robert W Blum, Deborah L Tolman, Anna Kågesten, Kristin Mmari, Sara De Meyer, Kristien Michielsen, Sharmistha Basu, Rajib Acharya, Qiguo Lian, Chaohua Lou
PURPOSE: Little is known about how gender norms regulate adolescents' lives across different cultural settings. This study aims to illustrate what is considered as violating gender norms for boys and girls in four urban poor sites as well as the consequences that follow the challenging of gender norms. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study, a 15-country collaboration to explore gender norms and health in early adolescence. The current study analyzed narrative and in-depth interviews conducted in urban poor sites in two middle-income (Shanghai, China; and New Delhi, India) and two high-income countries (Baltimore, U...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915992/-boys-should-have-the-courage-to-ask-a-girl-out-gender-norms-in-early-adolescent-romantic-relationships
#8
Sara De Meyer, Anna Kågesten, Kristin Mmari, Juliet McEachran, Elisa Chilet-Rosell, Caroline W Kabiru, Beatrice Maina, Elena M Jerves, Candace Currie, Kristien Michielsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to explore how gender norms emerge in romantic relationships among early adolescents (EAs) living in five poor urban areas. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study. The current research analyzed data from interviews with 30 EAs (aged 11-13 years) living in five poor urban sites: Baltimore, Cuenca, Edinburgh, Ghent, and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in English using Atlas...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913950/do-transgender-children-gender-stereotype-less-than-their-peers-and-siblings
#9
Kristina R Olson, Elizabeth A Enright
In the present work, we ask whether socially transitioned, transgender children differ from other children in their endorsement of gender stereotypes and response to others' gender nonconformity. We compare transgender children (N = 56) to a group of siblings of transgender children (N = 37), and a group of unrelated control participants (N = 56) during middle childhood (ages 6-8 years old). Our results indicate that transgender children and the siblings of transgender children endorse gender stereotypes less than the control group...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903680/exaggerating-accessible-differences-when-gender-stereotypes-overestimate-actual-group-differences
#10
Tal Eyal, Nicholas Epley
Stereotypes are often presumed to exaggerate group differences, but empirical evidence is mixed. We suggest exaggeration is moderated by the accessibility of specific stereotype content. In particular, because the most accessible stereotype contents are attributes perceived to differ between groups, those attributes are most likely to exaggerate actual group differences due to regression to the mean. We tested this hypothesis using a highly accessible gender stereotype: that women are more socially sensitive than men...
September 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845082/gender-representation-on-gender-targeted-television-channels-a-comparison-of-female-and-male-targeted-tv-channels-in-the-netherlands
#11
Serena Daalmans, Mariska Kleemans, Anne Sadza
The current study investigated the differences in the representation of gender on male- and female-targeted channels with regard to recognition (i.e., the actual presence of men and women) and respect (i.e., the nature of that representation or portrayal). To this end, the presence of men and women on two female- and two male-targeted Dutch channels (N = 115 programs, N = 1091 persons) were compared via content analysis. The expectation that men's channels would portray a less equal and more traditional image of gender than women's channels was generally supported by the results...
2017: Sex Roles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843609/event-related-potential-n270-as-an-index-of-social-information-conflict-in-explicit-processing
#12
Pei Wang, Chen-Hao Tan, Yu Li, Qin Zhang, Yi-Bo Wang, Jun-Long Luo
As N270 has been widely shown to be sensitive to nonsocial information conflict, the present study investigated whether social information conflict can elicit increased N270 in either explicit or implicit processing conditions. Gender stereotype-related picture-word pairs and picture-word pairs in specific colors were used as social and nonsocial information, respectively. Participants performed an explicit task based on the S1-S2 paradigm in Study 1, and both social and nonsocial information conditions elicited larger N270 than the no-conflict condition...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834842/the-decanal-divide-women-in-decanal-roles-at-u-s-medical-schools
#13
Nina F Schor
PURPOSE: To test the hypotheses that women in medical school dean-level (decanal) positions occupy lower-rank and more image- and education-focused positions than men, and that state and woman-led schools have more women in decanal positions. METHOD: Data were collected on September 10-18, 2016, from Web sites of 136 allopathic, U.S. medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education and represented on the roster of accredited MD programs in the United States with full accreditation as of June 22, 2016...
August 22, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833252/the-role-of-alcohol-in-identity-construction-among-lgbt-people-a-qualitative-study
#14
Carol Emslie, Jemma Lennox, Lana Ireland
Research suggests that alcohol use and misuse are higher among lesbian, gay and bisexual than heterosexual populations, yet the social context of drinking in sexual minority communities has rarely been examined. To explore lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people's relationship with alcohol, we conducted seven focus groups (N = 33) with pre-existing groups of friends and work colleagues (18 to 52 years) in Scotland, UK. We identified and analysed patterns in our data using thematic analysis. Respondents perceived heavy drinking as central to the commercial gay scene...
August 19, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831865/bribes-and-plasters-won-t-do
#15
Michael Coram
I disagree with Graham Scott's editorial (9 August). We should not be bribing men into nursing, we should be fighting to reinstate the bursary for all healthcare students and be looking at the issues around gender stereotyping and perceptions relating to occupations.
August 23, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812325/ambiguity-in-a-masculine-world-being-a-brca1-2-mutation-carrier-and-a-man-with-prostate-cancer
#16
C Moynihan, E K Bancroft, A Mitra, A Ardern-Jones, E Castro, E C Page, R A Eeles
BACKGROUND: Increased risk of prostate cancer(PCa) is observed in men with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. Sex and gender are key determinants of health and disease although unequal care exists between the sexes. Stereotypical male attitudes are shown to lead to poor health outcomes. METHODS: Men with BRCA1/2 mutations and diagnosed with PCa were identified and invited to participate in a qualitative interview study. Data were analysed using a Framework approach. 'Masculinity theory' was used to report the impact of having both a BRCA1/2 mutation and PCa...
August 15, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806125/changing-avatars-changing-selves-the-influence-of-social-and-contextual-expectations-on-digital-rendition-of-identity
#17
Stefano Triberti, Ilaria Durosini, Filippo Aschieri, Daniela Villani, Giuseppe Riva
Avatar creation is an interesting topic for both video game and social network studies. Research has shown that the creation of avatars is influenced by individual, contextual, and cultural features. Avatars are used to represent aspects of users' personality, but multiple avatars are used in different virtual contexts, as self-presentation strategies may vary according to the different "audiences" to be met online (say: friends, or strangers). Moreover, avatar creation is also influenced by cultural variables, such as gender, as avatars embody stereotypical aspects of being a woman or a man...
August 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776845/shifting-stem-stereotypes-considering-the-role-of-peer-and-teacher-gender
#18
Catherine Riegle-Crumb, Chelsea Moore, Jenny Buontempo
This study builds on research on the power of counter-stereotypical cues, as well as intergroup contact theory, to consider whether interactions with a female teacher and female peers in a high school engineering classroom decrease male students' gender/science, technology, engineering, and math stereotypical beliefs and whether this varies according to the initial strength of their stereotypical views. Analyses reveal that among male students who initially reject stereotypes of male superiority, more female peers in the classroom leads to a further decrease in their stereotypical views by the end of the year...
September 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752546/mandatory-waiting-periods-and-biased-abortion-counseling-in-central-and-eastern-europe
#19
Leah Hoctor, Adriana Lamačková
Several Central and Eastern European countries have recently enacted retrogressive laws and policies introducing new preconditions that women must fulfill before they can obtain legal abortion services. Mandatory waiting periods and biased counseling and information requirements are particularly common examples of these new prerequisites. The present article considers these requirements in light of international human rights standards and public health guidelines, and outlines the manner in which, by imposing regressive barriers on women's access to legal abortion services, these new laws and policies undermine women's health and well-being, fail to respect women's human rights, and reinforce harmful gender stereotypes and abortion stigma...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749833/clinical-barriers-to-effective-treatment-of-eating-disorders-and-co-occurring-psychiatric-disorders-in-transgendered-individuals
#20
Rebecca Wagner, Jonathan R Stevens
Eating disorders (EDs) are complex and difficult to treat illnesses that are often chronic and disabling on their own accord or due to comorbidity with other psychiatric conditions. Historically, EDs have been viewed as illnesses of heterosexual, affluent white females. This stereotype increases the likelihood that these disorders will be underrecognized in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community, as well as in different gender, socioeconomic, and ethnic populations. Our case report illustrates the clinical difficulties of managing a patient who presented to inpatient treatment with complaints of depression and suicidality, but who also had an active ED and was transgender...
July 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
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