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gender stereotype

Heather M Clarke, Kara A Arnold
Research demonstrates the bias faced by individuals engaged in occupations that are perceived as inconsistent with their gender. The lack of fit model and role congruity theory explain how gender stereotypes give rise to the perception that an individual lacks the attributes necessary to be successful in a gender-incongruent job. Men employed in jobs traditionally held by women are perceived as wimpy and undeserving of respect. The majority of studies in this area have, however, failed to account for the sexual orientation of the individual being rated...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Érika Barbosa de Oliveira Silva, Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo Pereira, Lúcia Helena Garcia Penna
The study analyzed health professionals' conceptions toward female users of crack and powder cocaine currently receiving psychosocial care, based on a gender perspective. Seventeen health professionals were interviewed, and systematic observations were made of the spaces for collective care in a Center for Psychosocial Care specializing in alcohol and drug addiction in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analysis of the interviews and field diaries using the hermeneutic-dialectic method revealed three categories: frailty as a constitutive attribute of women's condition, the women's emotional addiction to crack and powder cocaine use, and gender stereotypes during psychosocial care...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Tamara Rakić, Melanie C Steffens, Holger Wiese
Social categorization appears to be an automatic process that occurs during person perception. Understanding social categorization better is important because mere categorization can lead to stereotype activation and, in turn, to discrimination. In the present study we used a novel approach to examine event-related potentials (ERPs) of gender categorization in the "Who said what?" memory paradigm, thus allowing for a more in-depth understanding of the specific mechanisms underlying identity versus categorization processing...
May 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Lisa Kiang, Andrew J Supple, Gabriela L Stein
Ethnic identity is rooted in sociocultural processes, but little is known about how social interactions predict its longitudinal changes. Using data from 154 Asian American adolescents, latent profile analysis derived four typologies based on unfair treatment (i.e., discrimination, model minority stereotyping) and ethnic socialization (i.e., cultural socialization, preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust): Low Cultural Salience, High Cultural Salience with Marginalization, Culturally Prepared with Low Mistrust, and High Mistrust/Discrimination...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
J S Charsley, S C Collins, A J Hill
BACKGROUND: Negative obesity stereotypes and anti-fat attitudes have been observed in children from age three. It is uncertain whether this is specific to fatness or generalizable to other visible differences. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether young children base decisions about qualities in others and friendship choices more on fatness than other visible differences between people. METHODS: Using a personal construct theory approach, 85 children (mean age 5...
April 27, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Bernadette Park, Sarah Banchefsky
Trait stereotypes of men tend to be more fixed and negative than those of women. The current studies test whether stereotypes of men can be shifted through leveraging their social role as fathers. Trait attributes perceived to characterize women and moms were highly redundant, but those of men and dads were less so; moreover, men were perceived more negatively than dads, women, and moms (Study 1). Perceivers for whom the social role father was made salient rated men more similarly to dads, and no less similarly to men, and rated men more positively relative to a control condition (Study 2)...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Sowbhagya Micheal, Brahmaputra Marjadi
BACKGROUND: Teaching gender and sexuality in medical school is critical to prepare students for future clinical practice. Yet curriculum gaps exist in teaching these topics in medical schools. To address this, medical schools are integrating gendered perspectives into their curricula. CONTEXT: Acknowledging the need to teach gender and sexuality, Western Sydney University School of Medicine introduced a lecture on 'Gendered Perspectives on Health' in 2015. However, the delivery of the content took more time than anticipated, as some students lacked a basic understanding of gender and sexuality...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Teacher
Mirela de Oliveira Figueiredo, Mariana Cristina Zambulim, Maria Luisa Guillaumon Emmel, Alana de Paiva Nogueira Fornereto, Gerusa Ferreira Lourenço, Regina Helena Vitale Torkomian Joaquim, Patricia Della Barba
An analysis and description is given for the possible reasons why occupational therapy is seen as a female profession. An analytical narrative-style literature review is offered in conjunction with qualitative data analysis. The entry of women to the workplace was shrouded in stereotypes associated with the female gender, determining typically female professions. The stereotypes of skill in caregiving and tasks that required fine motor skills, kindness, and patience were the qualities required for the first occupational therapists and determined the gendered nature of the profession...
March 2018: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Joyce J Endendijk, Hannah Spencer, Peter A Bos, Belle Derks
Processes like gender socialization (the ways in which parents convey information to their children about how girls and boys should behave) often happen unconsciously and might therefore be studied best with neuroscientific measures. We examined whether neural processing of gender-stereotype-congruent and incongruent information is more robustly related to mothers' gendered socialization of their child than mothers' implicit and explicit gender stereotypes. To this end, we examined event-related potentials (ERPs) of mothers (N = 35) completing an implicit gender-stereotype task and mothers' gender stereotypes in relation to observed gendered communication with their child (2-6 years old) in a naturalistic picture-book-reading setting...
April 20, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Sylwia Bedyńska, Izabela Krejtz, Grzegorz Sedek
Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness of working memory functions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Nikhil Garg, Londa Schiebinger, Dan Jurafsky, James Zou
Word embeddings are a powerful machine-learning framework that represents each English word by a vector. The geometric relationship between these vectors captures meaningful semantic relationships between the corresponding words. In this paper, we develop a framework to demonstrate how the temporal dynamics of the embedding helps to quantify changes in stereotypes and attitudes toward women and ethnic minorities in the 20th and 21st centuries in the United States. We integrate word embeddings trained on 100 y of text data with the US Census to show that changes in the embedding track closely with demographic and occupation shifts over time...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Svetlana Kaljača, Bojan Dučić, Marija Cvijetić
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the level of participation in social, leisure and recreational activities in a group with intellectual disability, a group with autistic spectrum disorders, and a typically developing group. METHOD: The sample included 157 children of both genders, between 7 and 16 years of age (M = 11.03, SD =2.59). The Activities Questionnaire, which consists of: social, leisure, recreational activities, and friendship, was used in the research...
April 1, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Gijsbert Bijlstra, Rob W Holland, Ron Dotsch, Daniel H J Wigboldus
Most research on emotion recognition focuses on facial expressions. However, people communicate emotional information through bodily cues as well. Prior research on facial expressions has demonstrated that emotion recognition is modulated by top-down processes. Here, we tested whether this top-down modulation generalizes to the recognition of emotions from body postures. We report three studies demonstrating that stereotypes and prejudice about men and women may affect how fast people classify various emotional body postures...
March 26, 2018: Emotion
Jonathan Broad, Marion Matheson, Fabienne Verrall, Anna K Taylor, Daniel Zahra, Louise Alldridge, Gene Feder
CONTEXT: Discrimination and harassment create a hostile environment with deleterious effects on student well-being and education. In this study, we aimed to: (i) measure prevalences and types of discrimination and harassment in one UK medical school, and (ii) understand how and why students report them. METHODS: The study used a mixed-methods design. A medical school population survey of 1318 students was carried out in March 2014. Students were asked whether they had experienced, witnessed or reported discrimination or harassment and were given space for free-text comments...
April 2018: Medical Education
Isolina Riaño Galán, Inés Del Río Pastoriza, María Chueca Guindulain, Sabel Gabaldón Fraile, Federico de Montalvo Jááskeläinem
An ethical and legal view of gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is presented from the perspective of the best interest of the child and the principle of protection against vulnerability. The identification of gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is a process that requires support, coordination and a multidisciplinary team that improves care and helps to obtain evidence that is lacking today. Secure, equitable and comprehensive access to care and health care should be guaranteed when required...
March 19, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da Fonseca, Danyelle Leonette Araújo Dos Santos, Rafaela Gessner, Lucimara Fabiana Fornari, Rebeca Nunes Guedes de Oliveira, Michaela Chiara Schoenmaker
OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyze the perception of high school students about violence in intimacy relations in adolescence, in the light of the category Gender. METHOD: A qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study, based on the comments of 27 adolescents participating in the online game, Papo Reto. The discourses were submitted to the analysis of thematic content and discussed in the light of the category Gender. RESULTS: Adolescents naturalize violence in their relationships of intimacy, but when they recognize it, they react in several ways: with aggressions, dialoguing with the partner or seeking support from third parties...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
David I Miller, Kyle M Nolla, Alice H Eagly, David H Uttal
This meta-analysis, spanning 5 decades of Draw-A-Scientist studies, examined U.S. children's gender-science stereotypes linking science with men. These stereotypes should have weakened over time because women's representation in science has risen substantially in the United States, and mass media increasingly depict female scientists. Based on 78 studies (N = 20,860; grades K-12), children's drawings of scientists depicted female scientists more often in later decades, but less often among older children...
March 20, 2018: Child Development
Tabitha C Peck, My Doan, Kimberly A Bourne, Jessica J Good
The underrepresentation of women in technical and STEM fields is a well-known problem, and stereotype threatening situations have been linked to the inability to recruit and retain women into these fields. Virtual reality enables the unique ability to perform body-swap illusions, and research has shown that these illusions can change participant behavior. Characteristically people take on the traits of the avatar they are embodying. We hypothesized that female participants embodying male avatars when a stereotype threat was made salient would demonstrate stereotype lift...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Gu Li, Wang Ivy Wong
Single-sex schooling has been controversial for decades. The current study investigated the differences in friendships, dating, and past, present, and ideal sexual orientation, between 207 college students who attended single-sex secondary schools and 249 college students who attended coeducational secondary schools in Hong Kong, controlling for personal characteristics such as socioeconomic status. We found that, compared to graduates of coeducational schools, graduates of single-sex schools reported a different gender composition in intimate friendships favoring the same sex, less romantic involvement with other-sex close friends, older age at first date, fewer boyfriends or girlfriends, and more past same-sex sexuality...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
James Cavalier, Sharon B Hampton, Rae Langford, Lene Symes, Anne Young
Understanding whether a patient's race or gender and/or the nurse's race or gender influence how nurses form care decisions can contribute to exploration of methods that can positively affect disparate treatment. This research examined how the variables of race and gender of both the nurse and the patient influence nurses' decision making about pain management. A randomized four-group post-test-only experimental design was used to examine the variables and variable interactions. An investigator-developed case vignette tool hosted online was used to obtain data about nursing pain management decisions...
February 28, 2018: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
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