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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211031/differential-peer-effects-student-achievement-and-student-absenteeism-evidence-from-a-large-scale-randomized-experiment
#1
Ozkan Eren
Using data from a well-executed randomized experiment, I examine the effects of gender composition and peer achievement on high school students' outcomes in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results show that having a higher proportion of female peers in the classroom improves girls' math test scores only in less-advanced courses. For male students, the estimated gender peer effects are positive but less precisely estimated. I also find no effect of average classroom achievement on female math test scores. Males, on the other hand, seem to benefit from a higher-achieving classroom...
February 16, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197995/explaining-academic-track-boys-underachievement-in-language-grades-not-a-lack-of-aptitude-but-students-motivational-beliefs-and-parents-perceptions
#2
Anke Heyder, Ursula Kessels, Ricarda Steinmayr
BACKGROUND: Boys earn lower grades in languages than girls. The expectancy-value model by Eccles et al. (, A series of books in psychology. Achievement and achievement motives. Psychological and sociological approaches, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA, 76) is a comprehensive theoretical model for explaining gender differences in educational outcomes. In the past, most studies have focused on girls' disadvantage in math and science and on the role of the students' motivational beliefs...
February 15, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194197/the-sociological-study-of-nurse-physician-professional-relationship-in-iran
#3
Maryam Mehrabi, Ali Madanipour, Shirin Ahmadnia
BACKGROUND: During recent decades, various factors have modified the nurse-physician professional relationship pattern in hospital settings. The present study investigates the typology and dynamics of this relationship as well as the effects of social structures and the actors' agency by considering the gender variable in two professional groups of nurse and physician. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was conducted in 2009 using a quota sampling method of 100 female nurses and male physicians in four hospitals in Tehran...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188369/self-stigma-as-a-barrier-to-recovery-a-longitudinal-study
#4
Nathalie Oexle, Mario Müller, Wolfram Kawohl, Ziyan Xu, Sandra Viering, Christine Wyss, Stefan Vetter, Nicolas Rüsch
Stigma limits life opportunities of persons with mental illness. Self-stigma, the internalization of negative stereotypes, undermines empowerment and could hinder recovery. Here we examined self-stigma's effect on recovery among 222 disability pensioners with mental illness over 2 years, controlling for age, gender, symptoms and recovery at baseline measured by the Recovery Assessment Scale. More self-stigma at baseline was associated with a significant decrease in recovery after 1 year (not significant after 2 years)...
February 10, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179893/professionalism-and-occupational-well-being-similarities-and-differences-among-latin-american-health-professionals
#5
Montserrat San-Martín, Roberto Delgado-Bolton, Luis Vivanco
Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare institutions. Materials and Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration, the Jefferson Scale of Physicians Lifelong Learning, and the Scale of Collateral Effects (somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation), were administered to 522 physicians and nurses working in institutions of Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164436/there-is-nothing-wrong-with-being-a-nurse-the-experiences-of-male-nursing-students-in-taiwan
#6
Cheng-I Yang, Hsing-Yi Yu, Yen-Fan Chin, Li-Hung Lee
AIM: Male nurses are reported to experience role strain. Fear of gender stereotyping can be stressful and frustrating for male nursing students, which could make them feel isolated and excluded. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate how male nursing students in Taiwan perceive the barriers to their experience as nursing students and how they manage these barriers in their study environment and social life. METHODS: A qualitative research approach was used in this study...
February 5, 2017: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155009/homogamy-in-masculinity-femininity-is-positively-linked-to-relationship-quality-in-gay-male-couples-from-the-czech-republic
#7
Klára Bártová, Zuzana Štěrbová, Lenka Martinec Nováková, Jakub Binter, Marco Antonio Corrêa Varella, Jaroslava Varella Valentova
The main aims of this research were to test the similarity of masculinity-femininity in long-term male same-sex couples from the Czech Republic and to examine whether this similarity predicts higher relationship quality. In Study 1, participants (N = 30) and their partners completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale (CGN). In Study 2, participants (N = 40) and their partners completed DAS and the Gender Diagnosticity Scale (GD). Results showed that the partners were no more alike than individuals paired at random in their CGN or GD, but greater similarity in CGN between partners increased Dyadic Cohesion (r = -...
February 2, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139201/do-female-surgeons-learn-or-teach-differently
#8
Cody A Nebeker, Marc D Basson, Pam S Haan, Alan T Davis, Muhammad Ali, Rama N Gupta, Robert L Osmer, John C Hardaway, Andi N Peshkepija, Michael K McLeod, Cheryl I Anderson
BACKGROUND: Gender and/or gender-stereotypes might influence surgical education. We hypothesized that female surgeons might focus their learning and teaching differently from male surgeons. METHODS: Residents and surgeons (multi-institutional) individually recorded preoperatively discussed learning objectives (LO) for matching cases. Narratives were classified as knowledge-based, skill-based, or attitude-based. Multinomial logistic regression analyses, LO = dependent variable; independent variables = resident/surgeon gender, PGY level, timing of entry-to-procedure date, and quarters-of-year...
February 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136009/a-mediational-model-explaining-the-connection-between-religiosity-and-anti-homosexual-attitudes-in-italy-the-effects-of-male-role-endorsement-and-homosexual-stereotyping
#9
Giovanni Piumatti
This study aimed to better understand the relationship between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes in Italy by examining the mediation effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping. A sample of 5,522 Italian residents (age range = 18-74) was drawn from a cross-sectional national representative survey carried out in 2011. Measures included general religiosity, male role endorsement, homosexual stereotyping, social acceptance of homosexuality and homosexual rights endorsement. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediational effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping on the relationship between general religiosity and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126816/gender-stereotypes-about-intellectual-ability-emerge-early-and-influence-children-s-interests
#10
Lin Bian, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Andrei Cimpian
Common stereotypes associate high-level intellectual ability (brilliance, genius, etc.) with men more than women. These stereotypes discourage women's pursuit of many prestigious careers; that is, women are underrepresented in fields whose members cherish brilliance (such as physics and philosophy). Here we show that these stereotypes are endorsed by, and influence the interests of, children as young as 6. Specifically, 6-year-old girls are less likely than boys to believe that members of their gender are "really, really smart...
January 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124193/-not-brain-washed-but-heart-washed-a-qualitative-analysis-of-benevolent-sexism-in-the-anti-choice-stance
#11
Kari N Duerksen, Karen L Lawson
PURPOSE: In recent years, anti-choice dialog has shifted from a focus on the fetus to a focus on the woman. This new movement constructs itself as positive and pro-woman, while perpetuating harmful stereotypes about women and the effects of abortion. Research has shown a relationship between benevolent sexism (beliefs that women are morally pure creatures in need of protection and nurturing) and restrictive attitudes towards abortion, although no research has qualitatively explored this relationship...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111085/portion-size-tells-who-i-am-food-type-tells-who-you-are-specific-functions-of-amount-and-type-of-food-in-same-and-opposite-sex-dyadic-eating-contexts
#12
Nicoletta Cavazza, Margherita Guidetti, Fabrizio Butera
Previous research has shown that women eating small portions of food (vs. eating big portions) are perceived as more feminine, whereas men eating large portions are perceived as more masculine. The specific type of food items have also been shown to carry connotations for gender stereotyping. In addition, matching the co-eater's food quantity is also a means to ingratiate him or her. Thus, a potential motivational conflict between gender identity expression and ingratiation arises when people eat in opposite-sex dyads...
January 19, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090170/gender-s-role-in-misperceptions-of-peers-sexual-motives
#13
Rose Wesche, Graciela Espinosa-Hernández, Eva S Lefkowitz
The sexual double standard influences men's and women's sexual attitudes and behavior, leading men and women to consider distinct sexual motives, or reasons whether or not to engage in sexual intercourse (Crawford & Popp 2003; Reiss 1964). The goal of the present paper was to document how the sexual double standard shapes perceptions of peers' sexual motives. We build on past research by using open-ended questions and measuring perceptions of both same-gender and other-gender peers. The sample included 154 heterosexual college students (50% female, 49% European American, 25% Latino American, 26% African American) recruited via probability sampling...
December 2016: Sexuality & Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080088/the-effect-of-reactive-emotions-expressed-in-response-to-another-s-anger-on-inferences-of-social-power
#14
Shlomo Hareli, Shlomo David
Social perception of emotions is influenced by the context in which it occurs. One such context is a social interaction involving an exchange of emotions. The way parties to the interaction are perceived is shaped by the combination of emotions exchanged. This idea was examined by assessing the extent to which expressions of anger toward a target-which, in isolation, are perceived as signals of high social power-are influenced by the target's emotional reaction to it (i.e., reactive emotions). Three studies show that the angry person was perceived as having a higher level of social power when this anger was responded by fear or sadness than when it was responded by neutrality or anger...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028047/content-analysis-of-uk-newspaper-and-online-news-representations-of-women-s-and-men-s-binge-drinking-a-challenge-for-communicating-evidence-based-messages-about-single-episodic-drinking
#15
C Patterson, C Emslie, O Mason, G Fergie, S Hilton
OBJECTIVES: In the UK, men's alcohol-related morbidity and mortality still greatly exceeds women's, despite an increase in women's alcohol consumption in recent decades. New UK alcohol guidelines introduce gender-neutral low-risk alcohol consumption guidance. This study explores how UK newspaper and online news represent women's and men's 'binge' drinking to identify opportunities to better align reporting of harmful drinking with evidence. DESIGN: Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 308 articles published in 7 UK national newspapers and the BBC News website between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013...
December 27, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002841/voice-quality-and-gender-stereotypes-a-study-of-lebanese-women-with-reinke-s-edema
#16
Nayla Matar, Cristel Portes, Leonardo Lancia, Thierry Legou, Fabienne Baider
Purpose: Women with Reinke's edema (RW) report being mistaken for men during telephone conversations. For this reason, their masculine-sounding voices are interesting for the study of gender stereotypes. The study's objective is to verify their complaint and to understand the cues used in gender identification. Method: Using a self-evaluation study, we verified RW's perception of their own voices. We compared the acoustic parameters of vowels produced by 10 RW to those produced by 10 men and 10 women with healthy voices (hereafter referred to as NW) in Lebanese Arabic...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995538/promoting-optimal-native-outcomes-pono-by-understanding-women-s-stress-experiences
#17
May Okihiro, Lisa Duke, Deborah Goebert, Lauren Ampolos, Casandra Camacho, Natasha Shanahan, Earl Hishinuma, J Keawe Kaholokula
A growing body of evidence links stress with mental illness and chronic disease. Existing scales of women's stress fail to capture the daily stressors of low-income, rural women. We explored the psychosocial stressors of local women residing in a rural Hawaii community with a large Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population. We recruited women, aged 18-35 years, at a community health center. We convened four focus groups to elicit information about women's stress. We identified key themes from the focus group data to generate questions that target concerns raised by participants...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982743/stereotypes-emotions-and-behaviors-towards-lesbians-gay-men-bisexual-women-and-bisexual-men
#18
Allison A Vaughn, Stacy A Teeters, Melody S Sadler, Sierra B Cronan
The utility of the Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) and the Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes map (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2007) was examined in the context of heterosexuals' attitudes towards sexual minorities. Heterosexual adults completed a survey measuring stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral tendencies towards lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men. Stereotype content differed across groups and showed "gendered" and "valenced" effects on emotions and behavioral tendencies...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980524/professional-activity-of-polish-peri-and-postmenopausal-women
#19
Dorota Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Mariola Janiszewska, Agata Mielniczuk, Małgorzata A Dziedzic, Ewelina Firlej
INTRODUCTION: The menopausal transition as one of the stages in women's life can bring many ailments which complicate the accomplishment of professional duties. The situation of women on the Polish job market is determined by many barriers and stereotypes which impede women's access to jobs and professional promotions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to estimate the professional status and job satisfaction of women aged 40-65. The research was carried out by a survey method, a poll technique in the period from January to March 2016...
November 2016: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925122/-abortion-and-stigma-an-analysis-of-the-scientific-literature-on-the-theme
#20
Leila Adesse, Claudia Bonan Jannotti, Katia Silveira da Silva, Vania Matos Fonseca
This article analyzes the scientific output on abortion and social stigma and the potential of the stigma category for abortion care in Brazil. An integrative review of publications on scientific databases without a time limit was conducted. Sixty-five publications with the social representations of women who had an abortion and the professionals who attended them were analyzed. The obstacles to the implementation of abortion laws and the protocols and norms that facilitate access to quality services care was explored...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
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