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Pdx1 AND Beta cells

Jun Sung Moon, Udayakumar Karunakaran, Suma Elumalai, In-Kyu Lee, Hyoung Woo Lee, Yong-Woon Kim, Kyu Chang Won
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Cluster determinant 36 (CD36), a fatty acid transporter, was reported to have a pivotal role in glucotoxicity-induced beta cell dysfunction. However, little is known about how glucotoxicity influences CD36 expression, and it is unknown whether this action can be counteracted by metformin. In the present study, we showed that metformin counteracts glucotoxicity by alleviating oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced CD36 expression. METHODS: We used primary rat islets as well as INS-1 cells for 72h to 24h with 30mM glucose, respectively...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Hye Seung Jung, Yu Mi Kang, Ho Seon Park, Byung Yong Ahn, Hakmo Lee, Min Joo Kim, Jin Young Jang, Sun-Whe Kim
Post-translational modification by bonding of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) peptides influences various cellular functions, and is regulated by SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs). Several proteins have been suggested to have diverse impact on insulin synthesis and secretion through SUMO modification in beta cells. However, the role of SUMO modification in beta cell mass has not been established. Here, we examined the changes in expression of Senp in INS1 cells and pancreatic islets under diabetes-relevant stress conditions and associated changes in beta cell mass...
September 20, 2016: Islets
Manne Mudhu Sunitha, Lokanathan Srikanth, Pasupuleti Santhosh Kumar, Chodimella Chandrasekhar, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna Sarma
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess multipotent ability to differentiate into various types of cells on providing appropriate niche. In the present study, the differentiating potential of human HSCs into β-cells of islets of langerhans was explored. Human HSCs were apheretically isolated from a donor and cultured. Phenotypic characterization of CD34 glycoprotein in the growing monolayer HSCs was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry techniques. HSCs were induced by selection with beta cell differentiating medium (BDM), which consists of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), transferrin, Triiodo-l-Tyronine, nicotinamide and activin A...
October 2016: Cell Biology International
Adi Sasson, Eleonor Rachi, Lina Sakhneny, Daria Baer, Michal Lisnyansky, Alona Epshtein, Limor Landsman
β-Cells rely on the islet microenvironment for their functionality and mass. Pericytes, along with endothelial cells, make up the dense islet capillary network. However, although the role of endothelial cells in supporting β-cell homeostasis has been vastly investigated, the role of pericytes remains largely unknown. Here, we focus on contribution of pericytes to β-cell function. To this end, we used a transgenic mouse system that allows diphtheria toxin-based depletion of pericytes. Our results indicate that islets depleted of their pericytes have reduced insulin content and expression...
October 2016: Diabetes
Zahra Azizi, Claudia Lange, Federico Paroni, Amin Ardestani, Anke Meyer, Yonghua Wu, Axel R Zander, Christof Westenfelder, Kathrin Maedler
Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immunosuppressive properties and are a potent source for cell therapy. Cell fusion has been proposed for rapid generation of functional new reprogrammed cells. In this study, we aimed to establish a fusion protocol of bone marrow-derived human MSCs with the rat beta-cell line (INS-1E) as well as human isolated pancreatic islets in order to generate insulin producing beta-MSCs as a cell-based treatment for diabetes.Human eGFP+ puromycin+ MSCs were co-cultured with either stably mCherry-expressing rat INS-1E cells or human dispersed islet cells and treated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to induce fusion...
June 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Hong Soon Kang, Yukimasa Takeda, Kilsoo Jeon, Anton M Jetten
The transcription factor Glis-similar 3 (Glis3) has been implicated in the development of neonatal, type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Glis3 protein during embryonic and neonatal pancreas development as well as its function in PP cells. To obtain greater insights into the functions of Glis3 in pancreas development, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Glis3 protein in a knockin mouse strain expressing a Glis3-EGFP fusion protein. Immunohistochemistry showed that Glis3-EGFP was not detectable during early pancreatic development (E11...
2016: PloS One
Maria J Lima, Kenneth R Muir, Hilary M Docherty, Neil W A McGowan, Shareen Forbes, Yves Heremans, Harry Heimberg, John Casey, Kevin Docherty
Transcription factor mediated lineage reprogramming of human pancreatic exocrine tissue could conceivably provide an unlimited supply of islets for transplantation in the treatment of diabetes. Exocrine tissue can be efficiently reprogrammed to islet-like cells using a cocktail of transcription factors: Pdx1, Ngn3, MafA and Pax4 in combination with growth factors. We show here that overexpression of exogenous Pax4 in combination with suppression of the endogenous transcription factor ARX considerably enhances the production of functional insulin-secreting β-like cells with concomitant suppression of α-cells...
2016: PloS One
Angelo Porciuncula, Anujith Kumar, Saray Rodriguez, Maher Atari, Miriam Araña, Franz Martin, Bernat Soria, Felipe Prosper, Catherine Verfaillie, Miguel Barajas
Efficient induction of defined lineages in pluripotent stem cells constitutes the determinant step for the generation of therapeutically relevant replacement cells to potentially treat a wide range of diseases, including diabetes. Pancreatic differentiation has remained an important challenge in large part because of the need to differentiate uncommitted pluripotent stem cells into highly specialized hormone-secreting cells, which has been shown to require a developmentally informed step-by-step induction procedure...
May 12, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Pratik Saxena, Boon Chin Heng, Peng Bai, Marc Folcher, Henryk Zulewski, Martin Fussenegger
Synthetic biology has advanced the design of standardized transcription control devices that programme cellular behaviour. By coupling synthetic signalling cascade- and transcription factor-based gene switches with reverse and differential sensitivity to the licensed food additive vanillic acid, we designed a synthetic lineage-control network combining vanillic acid-triggered mutually exclusive expression switches for the transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3; OFF-ON-OFF) and Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1; ON-OFF-ON) with the concomitant induction of MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A; OFF-ON)...
2016: Nature Communications
Amin Ardestani, Kathrin Maedler
The loss of insulin-producing beta cells by apoptosis is a hallmark of all forms of diabetes mellitus. Strategies to prevent beta cell apoptosis and dysfunction are urgently needed to restore the insulin-producing cells and to prevent severe diabetes progression. We recently identified the serine/threonine kinase known as mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) as a critical regulator of apoptotic beta cell death and dysfunction. MST1 activates several apoptotic signalling pathways, which further stimulate its own cleavage, leading to a vicious cycle of cell death...
September 2016: Diabetologia
Carmen Salguero-Aranda, Rafael Tapia-Limonchi, Gladys Margot Cahuana, Ana Belen Hitos, Irene Diaz, Abdelkrim Hmadcha, Mario Fraga, Franz Martín, Bernat Soria, Juan Rigoberto Tejedo, Francisco Javier Bedoya
Pdx1 (Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1) is a transcription factor that regulates the embryonic development of the pancreas and the differentiation towards beta cells. Previously, we have shown that exposure of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) to high concentrations of NO donor diethylenetriamine nitric oxide adduct (DETA-NO) triggers differentiation events and promotes the expression of Pdx1. Here we report evidence that Pdx1 expression is associated with release of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) and P300 from its promoter region...
March 14, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Wen Guo, Yingyun Gong, Zhenzhen Fu, Jinxiang Fu, Yan Sun, Xianxia Ju, Yina Chang, Wen Wang, Xiaohui Zhu, Beibei Gao, Xiaoyun Liu, Tao Yang, Hongwen Zhou
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol accumulation causes pancreatic beta cell lipotoxicity and dysfunction. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) plays an important role in blood lipid homeostasis. However, its role in tissue lipid metabolism remains unclear. We hypothesized that plasma CETP impact cholesterol homeostasis in the beta cells, thus damaging their functions. METHODS: The adipose tissue-specific CETP expression transgenic (aP2-CETPTg) mice, characterized by high CETP levels in the circulation, were used in this study...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Peter Bailey, David K Chang, Katia Nones, Amber L Johns, Ann-Marie Patch, Marie-Claude Gingras, David K Miller, Angelika N Christ, Tim J C Bruxner, Michael C Quinn, Craig Nourse, L Charles Murtaugh, Ivon Harliwong, Senel Idrisoglu, Suzanne Manning, Ehsan Nourbakhsh, Shivangi Wani, Lynn Fink, Oliver Holmes, Venessa Chin, Matthew J Anderson, Stephen Kazakoff, Conrad Leonard, Felicity Newell, Nick Waddell, Scott Wood, Qinying Xu, Peter J Wilson, Nicole Cloonan, Karin S Kassahn, Darrin Taylor, Kelly Quek, Alan Robertson, Lorena Pantano, Laura Mincarelli, Luis N Sanchez, Lisa Evers, Jianmin Wu, Mark Pinese, Mark J Cowley, Marc D Jones, Emily K Colvin, Adnan M Nagrial, Emily S Humphrey, Lorraine A Chantrill, Amanda Mawson, Jeremy Humphris, Angela Chou, Marina Pajic, Christopher J Scarlett, Andreia V Pinho, Marc Giry-Laterriere, Ilse Rooman, Jaswinder S Samra, James G Kench, Jessica A Lovell, Neil D Merrett, Christopher W Toon, Krishna Epari, Nam Q Nguyen, Andrew Barbour, Nikolajs Zeps, Kim Moran-Jones, Nigel B Jamieson, Janet S Graham, Fraser Duthie, Karin Oien, Jane Hair, Robert Grützmann, Anirban Maitra, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christopher L Wolfgang, Richard A Morgan, Rita T Lawlor, Vincenzo Corbo, Claudio Bassi, Borislav Rusev, Paola Capelli, Roberto Salvia, Giampaolo Tortora, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Gloria M Petersen, Donna M Munzy, William E Fisher, Saadia A Karim, James R Eshleman, Ralph H Hruban, Christian Pilarsky, Jennifer P Morton, Owen J Sansom, Aldo Scarpa, Elizabeth A Musgrove, Ulla-Maja Hagbo Bailey, Oliver Hofmann, Robert L Sutherland, David A Wheeler, Anthony J Gill, Richard A Gibbs, John V Pearson, Nicola Waddell, Andrew V Biankin, Sean M Grimmond
Integrated genomic analysis of 456 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified 32 recurrently mutated genes that aggregate into 10 pathways: KRAS, TGF-β, WNT, NOTCH, ROBO/SLIT signalling, G1/S transition, SWI-SNF, chromatin modification, DNA repair and RNA processing. Expression analysis defined 4 subtypes: (1) squamous; (2) pancreatic progenitor; (3) immunogenic; and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine (ADEX) that correlate with histopathological characteristics. Squamous tumours are enriched for TP53 and KDM6A mutations, upregulation of the TP63∆N transcriptional network, hypermethylation of pancreatic endodermal cell-fate determining genes and have a poor prognosis...
March 3, 2016: Nature
Munirah Mohamad Santosa, Blaise Su Jun Low, Nicole Min Qian Pek, Adrian Kee Keong Teo
In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1(+) pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3(+) pancreatic endocrine progenitors...
2015: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Claudia Cavelti-Weder, Weida Li, Adrian Zumsteg, Marianne Stemann-Andersen, Yuemei Zhang, Takatsugu Yamada, Max Wang, Jiaqi Lu, Agnes Jermendy, Yong Mong Bee, Susan Bonner-Weir, Gordon C Weir, Qiao Zhou
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Reprogramming of pancreatic exocrine to insulin-producing cells by viral delivery of the genes encoding transcription factors neurogenin-3 (Ngn3), pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1 (Pdx1) and MafA is an efficient method for reversing diabetes in murine models. The variables that modulate reprogramming success are currently ill-defined. METHODS: Here, we assess the impact of glycaemia on in vivo reprogramming in a mouse model of streptozotocin-induced beta cell ablation, using subsequent islet transplantation or insulin pellet implantation for creation of groups with differing levels of glycaemia before viral delivery of transcription factors...
March 2016: Diabetologia
Lihua Ye, Morgan A Robertson, Teresa L Mastracci, Ryan M Anderson
As one of the key nutrient sensors, insulin signaling plays an important role in integrating environmental energy cues with organism growth. In adult organisms, relative insufficiency of insulin signaling induces compensatory expansion of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta (β) cells. However, little is known about how insulin signaling feedback might influence neogenesis of β cells during embryonic development. Using genetic approaches and a unique cell transplantation system in developing zebrafish, we have uncovered a novel role for insulin signaling in the negative regulation of pancreatic progenitor cell differentiation...
January 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Marina Lizio, Yuri Ishizu, Masayoshi Itoh, Timo Lassmann, Akira Hasegawa, Atsutaka Kubosaki, Jessica Severin, Hideya Kawaji, Yukio Nakamura, Harukazu Suzuki, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Piero Carninci, Alistair R R Forrest
Mammals are composed of hundreds of different cell types with specialized functions. Each of these cellular phenotypes are controlled by different combinations of transcription factors. Using a human non islet cell insulinoma cell line (TC-YIK) which expresses insulin and the majority of known pancreatic beta cell specific genes as an example, we describe a general approach to identify key cell-type-specific transcription factors (TFs) and their direct and indirect targets. By ranking all human TFs by their level of enriched expression in TC-YIK relative to a broad collection of samples (FANTOM5), we confirmed known key regulators of pancreatic function and development...
2015: Frontiers in Genetics
Christian Mangrum, Eric Rush, Vijay Shivaswamy
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a rare form of diabetes mellitus typically seen in young adults that results from pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. MODY4 is a rare subtype caused by a PDX1 mutation. In this case, we present a nonobese 26-year-old male with polyuria and polydipsia. Lab work showed a blood glucose of 511 mg/dL, no ketones or antibodies (insulin, islet cell, and glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD]), C-peptide of 1.6 ng/mL, and A1c 9.3%. Genetic analysis revealed a novel nonsense mutation in the PDX1 gene, consistent with MODY type 4...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Endocrinology and Diabetes
Peng Lin, Wenjuan Li, Zhina Yao, Yu Sun, Lingshu Wang, Shiwu Li, Li Chen
Type 1 diabetes is a T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disease. Antigen-specific immune intervention allows the selective targeting of autoreactive T cell, while leaving the remainder of the immune system intact. However, immune intervention for type 1 diabetes has not yielded perfect results clinically. In our paper published previously, we asked whether pancreatic duodenal home box 1 (PDX1) is a target of anti-islet autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. In this experiment, we assessed the therapeutic effect of oral administration of PDX1 on diabetes development of 4-week-old non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice...
October 30, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Alicia R Timme-Laragy, Karilyn E Sant, Michelle E Rousseau, Philip J diIorio
Exposures to co-planar PCBs and dioxins have been associated with diabetes in epidemiologic studies. Individuals may be predisposed to diseases such as diabetes as a result of exposure to environmental contaminants during early life, resulting in dysmorphic pancreatic islets or metabolically fragile β-cells. We tested the hypothesis that embryonic exposure to a model Ahr-ligand, PCB-126 would cause structural and/or functional alterations to the developing primary pancreatic islet in the zebrafish (Danio rerio)...
December 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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