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Self Injurious Behavior

Yuyan Gao, Li Li, David C Schwebel, Peishan Ning, Peixia Cheng, Guoqing Hu
Social medical insurance schemes are crucial for realizing universal health coverage and health equity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how reimbursement for injury-induced medical expenses is addressed in Chinese legislative documents relevant to social medical insurance. We retrieved legislative documents from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Lawyee databases. Four types of social medical insurance schemes were included: urban employee basic medical insurance, urban resident basic medical insurance, new rural cooperative medical system, and urban and rural resident medical insurance...
2018: PloS One
Leandro Nóbrega, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
New psychoactive substances (NPS), often referred as 'legal highs' or 'designer drugs', are derivatives and analogs of existing psychoactive drugs that are introduced in the recreational market to circumvent existing legislation on drugs of abuse. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding chemical, molecular pharmacology, and in vitro and in vivo data on toxicokinetics of the potent synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP or flakka or zombie drug). Chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical effects of α-PVP were searched in PubMed (U...
March 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Birgit Grund, Shweta Sharma, Esteban Martinez, Nathan Cummins, Julie Fox, Karin L Klingman, Dalibor Sedlacek, Simon Collins, Patricia M Flynn, William M Chasanov, Eynat Kedem, Christine Katlama, Juan Sierra-Madero, Claudia Afonso, Pim Brouwers, David A Cooper
Background: Randomized trials have shown increased risk of suicidality associated with efavirenz (EFV). The START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) trial randomized treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adults with high CD4 cell counts to immediate vs deferred antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: The initial ART regimen was selected prior to randomization (prespecified). We compared the incidence of suicidal and self-injurious behaviours (suicidal behavior) between the immediate vs deferred ART groups using proportional hazards models, separately for those with EFV and other prespecified regimens, by intention to treat, and after censoring participants in the deferred arm at ART initiation...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
S Kabatas, C S Demir, E Civelek, I Yilmaz, A Kircelli, C Yilmaz, Y Akyuva, E Karaoz
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the effect of human Dental Pulp-Neural Crest Stem Cells (hDP-NCSCs) delivery on lesion site after spinal cord injury (SCI), and to observe the functional recovery after transplantation. METHODS: Neural Crest Stem Cells (NCSCs) were isolated from human Dental Pulp (hDP). The experimental rat population was divided into four groups (n = 6/24). Their behavioral motility was scored regularly. After 4-weeks, rats were sacrificed, and their spinal cords were examined for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled hDP-NCSCs by immunofluorescence (IF) staining...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Joanna Halicka, Andrzej Kiejna
There are 2 types of basic self-destructive behavior: suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Currently, more and more researchers point out significant disorders which are NSSI behavior. This phenomenon is not new; NSSI seemingly has always been present in society, and certainly in approx. 10% of the population worldwide in recent times. Despite the enormous scale of the phenomenon, so far it has been overlooked and marginalized. They were considered transient behavior, typical of adolescence, a part of youthful rebellion...
February 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Katharina Kolbeck, Steffen Moritz, Julia Bierbrodt, Christina Andreou
Ongoing research is shifting towards a dimensional understanding of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Aim of this study was to identify personality profiles in BPD that are predictive of self-destructive behaviors. Personality traits were assessed (n = 130) according to the five-factor model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness) and an additional factor called Risk Preference. Self-destructive behavior parameters such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and other borderline typical dyscontrolled behaviors (e...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Caterina Mosti, Emil F Coccaro
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is highly prevalent, with an estimated occurrence in the United States of more than 1.3 million per year. While one consequence of mTBI is impulsive aggressive behavior, very few studies have examined the relationship between history of mTBI and aggressive behavior in impulsively aggressive individuals. The authors examined the relationship between history of mTBI in a healthy control group (HC; N=453), a control group with psychiatric disorders (PC; N=486), and individuals with intermittent explosive disorder (IED; N=695), a disorder of primary impulsive aggression...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Rachel L Zelkowitz, David A Cole
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and disordered eating (DE) are highly comorbid and may be regarded as belonging to a spectrum of self-harm behaviors. We investigated self-criticism as a transdiagnostic correlate of these behaviors, in keeping with etiological theories of both NSSI and DE. We reviewed the literature and meta-analyzed the relation of self-criticism to both NSSI (15 studies; 17 effect sizes) and DE (24 studies; 29 effect sizes). Results showed equivalent, moderate-to-large effects for the relation of self-criticism to NSSI (r = ...
March 5, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Randah Helal, Ghada El-Khawaga, Abdel-Hady El-Gilany
Objectives: To assess the knowledge and attitude of medical students towards road safety and to determine their driving behavior and its relation to different related factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 480 medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect student personal data, knowledge about road safety, attitude towards road safety, and driving practices. Results: More than 40% of students experienced an injury in the previous year, mainly as a pedestrian (56%), and 15...
January 2018: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Evgenia Sklirou, Uta Lichter-Konecki
Phenylketonuria is a defect in phenylalanine metabolism resulting in the excretion of phenylketones and severe intellectual disability. The principle of eliminating the offending amino acid from the diet as a successful treatment strategy was demonstrated. The development of a low methionine diet to treat homocystinuria was established after identifying the transsulfuration pathway resulting in cysteine synthesis. Both conditions are examples of disorders of amino acid metabolism. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, a rare disorder of purine metabolism resulting in intellectual disability and self-injurious behavior, is a classical inborn error of metabolism...
April 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Erin L Belfort, Lindsey Miller
Media has changed the daily lives of most Americans, especially adolescents. The interplay between development and media habits is complex. There is a link between excessive media use and risk-taking behaviors, with an alarming increase in adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal behavior, and completed suicide. The link is complex and not necessarily causal. Clinicians should routinely take a media history that distinguishes types and extent of use, content, and psychological impact. Media is a significant part of adolescents' lives and exploring their engagement with media is a critical piece of the initial assessment, risk assessment, and ongoing treatment...
April 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Allegra R Gordon, Kerith J Conron, Jerel P Calzo, Matthew T White, Sari L Reisner, S Bryn Austin
BACKGROUND: Young people may experience school-based violence and bullying victimization related to their gender expression, independent of sexual orientation identity. However, the associations between gender expression and bullying and violence have not been examined in racially and ethnically diverse population-based samples of high school students. METHODS: This study includes 5469 students (13-18 years) from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted in 4 urban school districts...
April 2018: Journal of School Health
Tijn van Diemen, Eline Wm Scholten, Ilse Jw van Nes, Jan Hb Geertzen, Marcel Wm Post
BACKGROUND: People with recently acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) experience changes in physical, social and psychological aspects of their lives. In the last decades, attention has grown for aspects of self-management and self-efficacy in SCI research. However, we still do not know what the self-management and self-efficacy outcomes of first rehabilitation are and whether utilizing these skills may prevent secondary health conditions (SHCs) and increase participation and psychological adjustment early after SCI...
February 26, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Stefan F Fischerauer, Mojtaba Talaei-Khoei, Rens Bexkens, David C Ring, Luke S Oh, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
BACKGROUND: Fear avoidance can play a prominent role in maladaptive responses to an injury. In injured athletes, such pain-related fear or fear avoidance behavior may have a substantial influence on the recovery process. Specifically, it may explain why some are able to reach their preinjury abilities, whereas others are unable to return to sport. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is fear avoidance in athletes associated with decreased physical function after injury? (2) To what degree is fear avoidance associated with athletes' pain intensity? METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we recruited injured athletes-defined as patients with sports-related injury, weekly engagement in sport activities, participation in competitive events as part of a team or club, self-identification as an athlete, and a desire to return to sport after recovery-from an orthopaedic sports medicine center at a major urban university hospital...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Shirley B Wang, Emily M Pisetsky, Julie M Skutch, Alan E Fruzzetti, Ann F Haynos
Disordered eating frequently co-occurs with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and evidence suggests that the co-occurrence of these behaviors is associated with heightened emotion dysregulation. However, little is known about the relationship between restrictive eating and NSSI, and the significance of their co-occurrence. This study examined cross-sectional associations between self-reported restrictive eating, NSSI, and putative mechanisms of emotion regulation and interpersonal problems in a non-clinical sample of undergraduate students (N = 98, 80...
February 11, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Peter J Na, Satyanarayana R Yaramala, Jihoon A Kim, Hyelee Kim, Fernando S Goes, Peter P Zandi, Jennifer L Vande Voort, Bruce Sutor, Paul Croarkin, William V Bobo
BACKGROUND: Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) evaluates passive thoughts of death or self-injury within the last two weeks, and is often used to screen depressed patients for suicide risk. We aimed to validate the PHQ-9 item 9 with a brief electronic version of the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (eC-SSRS). METHODS: We analyzed data from 841 patients enrolled in the National Network of Depression Centers Clinical Care Registry. We performed a validation analysis of PHQ-9 item 9 for suicide risk and ideation, using the eC-SSRS as a gold standard (defined as positive response to suicidal ideation with intent to act or recent suicidal behavior)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Parisa Salehi, Dale Lee, Lusine Ambartsumyan, Natalie Sikka, Ann O Scheimann
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic syndrome in which individuals have multisystem medical challenges. Gastroenterological difficulties in the syndrome include decreased vomiting, constipation, delayed gastric emptying, delayed colonic transit, dysphagia, increased choking, and increased risk of gastric dilation and rupture. In addition, self-injurious behavior such as rectal picking may be present and severe enough to lead to rectal ulceration and bleeding. Many patients have extensive gastroenterological workup and treatment before their ultimate diagnosis of severe rectal picking...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Paul H Soloff, Laurel Chiappetta
Prospective predictors of suicide attempts were assessed in 118 subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD) after 10 or more years of follow-up. Mean (SD) time to follow-up was 14.4 (4.7) years. Subjects were predominately female (78.8%), Caucasian (81.4%), and of lower socioeconomic status. Initial recruitment was evenly balanced between inpatient, outpatient, and non-patient (community) sources. In the 10-year interval, 55 subjects (46.6%) attempted suicide. Compared to baseline, suicidal ideation, number of attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury diminished markedly...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Scott D Landes, Andrew S London
OBJECTIVE: Informed by a social determinants of health framework, we investigate the relationship between self-reported ADHD diagnosis status and adult health, and whether observed associations are attenuated by biomedical and socioeconomic factors. METHOD: Using 2007 National Health Interview Survey data ( N = 19,104), we present multivariate logistic regression analyses of associations between self-reported ADHD diagnosis status and five adult health outcomes...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Lauren E Davis, Samidha Tripathi
Self-enucleation is a severe form of self-injurious behavior which presents as an ophthalmologic and psychiatric emergency. It is usually known to occur with untreated psychosis, however, there have been reports of self-enucleation across various psychopathologies. We review a case documenting self-enucleation in the forensic setting in a patient with an unusual presentation and cluster of psychotic symptoms. Literature was reviewed using PubMed/Medline databases with key terms: "forensic science," "forensic psychiatry," "auto-enucleation," "self-enucleation," "Oedipism," "self-harm...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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