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Systemic Racism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892696/looking-like-a-smoker-a-smokescreen-to-racism-m%C3%A4-ori-perceived-appearance-linked-to-smoking-status
#1
E Muriwai, C A Houkamau, C G Sibley
OBJECTIVES: Māori, the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa (New Zealand), continue to exhibit the highest rate of smoking of any ethnic group in the nation. Clarifying the present day factors which perpetuate Māori smoking has become matter of some urgency. DESIGN: We investigate links between subjective elements of Māori identity, demographic factors and perceived discrimination with smoking status in a national probability sample of self-identified Māori (N = 667)...
November 28, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763464/the-social-context-of-substance-use-and-perceived-risk-among-rhode-island-urban-minority-adolescents
#2
Shaniece Criss, Dahiana Rodriguez, Roberta E Goldman
Our qualitative study examined how stresses of daily life affected substance use and perceived risk among Black and Hispanic adolescents. We conducted 11 focus groups with students aged 13-25 in public and alternative schools in Providence, Rhode Island, using Bourdieu's Social Practice theoretical approach to guide questioning and data analysis. Despite participants' frequent marijuana use, they perceived the emphasis society places on substance use as misguided, obfuscating the persistence of more critical problems such as stress and reduced opportunity resulting from neighborhood violence, poor schools, financial difficulties, and home troubles...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716235/access-to-primary-health-care-services-for-indigenous-peoples-a-framework-synthesis
#3
Carol Davy, Stephen Harfield, Alexa McArthur, Zachary Munn, Alex Brown
BACKGROUND: Indigenous peoples often find it difficult to access appropriate mainstream primary health care services. Securing access to primary health care services requires more than just services that are situated within easy reach. Ensuring the accessibility of health care for Indigenous peoples who are often faced with a vast array of additional barriers including experiences of discrimination and racism, can be complex. This framework synthesis aimed to identify issues that hindered Indigenous peoples from accessing primary health care and then explore how, if at all, these were addressed by Indigenous health care services...
September 30, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551857/-they-aren-t-really-black-fellas-but-they-are-easy-to-talk-to-factors-which-influence-australian-aboriginal-women-s-decision-to-disclose-intimate-partner-violence-during-pregnancy
#4
Jo Spangaro, Sigrid Herring, Jane Koziol-Mclain, Alison Rutherford, Mary-Anne Frail, Anthony B Zwi
OBJECTIVES: intimate partner violence is a significant global health problem but remains largely hidden. Understanding decisions about whether or not to disclose violence in response to routine enquiry in health settings can inform safe and responsive systems. Elevated rates of violence and systematic disadvantage found among Indigenous women globally, can impact on their decisions to disclose violence. This study aimed to test, among Indigenous women, a model for decisions on whether to disclose intimate partner violence in the context of antenatal routine screening...
October 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429060/super-heroes-and-lucky-duckies-racialized-stressors-among-teachers
#5
Lauren Rauscher, Bianca D M Wilson
OBJECTIVES: This article explores the complex relationships between race and occupational stressors among an ethnically diverse sample of high school teachers and their implications for women's mental health. METHOD: Interviews with Black, White, and Mexican American teachers suggest that workplaces are organized by subtle forms of gender and racial discrimination as well as White racial privilege; this context shapes women's experiences of occupational stressors...
July 18, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372475/the-health-care-institution-population-health-and-black-lives
#6
Christopher J King, Yanique Redwood
The ongoing existence of institutionalized racism and discriminatory practices in various systems (education, criminal justice, housing, employment) serve as root causes of poor health in Blacks Lives. Furthermore, these unjust social structures and their complex interplay result in inefficient utilization of health services and reactive or futile interactions with medical providers. Collectively, these factors contribute to racial disparities in health and treatment represents a significant portion of the nation's health care expenditures...
May 2016: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367141/the-framing-of-women-and-health-disparities-a-critical-look-at-race-gender-and-class-from-the-perspectives-of-grassroots-health-communicators
#7
Jennifer Vardeman-Winter
As women's health has received significant political and media attention recently, I proposed an expanded structural theory of women's communication about health. Women's health communication and critical race and systemic racism research framed this study. I interviewed 15 communicators and community health workers from grass-roots organizations focused on women's health to learn of their challenges of communicating with women from communities experiencing health disparities. Findings suggest that communicators face difficulties in developing meaningful messaging for publics because of disjunctures between medical and community frames, issues in searching for health among women's many priorities, Whiteness discourses imposed on publics' experiences, and practices of correcting for power differentials...
July 1, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092388/doing-violence-making-race-southern-lynching-and-white-racial-group-formation
#8
Mattias Smångs
This article presents a theoretical framework of how intergroup violence may figure into the activation and maintenance of group categories, boundaries, and identities, as well as the mediating role played by organizations in such processes. The framework's analytical advantages are demonstrated in an application to southern lynchings. Findings from event- and community-level analyses suggest that "public" lynchings, carried out by larger mobs with ceremonial violence, but not "private" ones, perpetrated by smaller bands without public or ceremonial violence, fed off and into the racial group boundaries, categories, and identities promoted by the southern Democratic Party at the turn of the 20th century and on which the emerging Jim Crow system rested...
March 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070278/culture-but-more-than-culture-an-exploratory-study-of-the-hiv-vulnerability-of-indian-immigrants-in-canada
#9
Yanqiu Rachel Zhou, Basanti Majumdar, Natasha Vattikonda
Explanations of immigrant health that ascribe to culture a fundamental causal role neglect the broader structural and contextual factors with which culture intersects. Based on a qualitative study of Indian immigrants' vulnerability to HIV in Canada, this paper presents a contextualised understanding of these individuals' understanding of, perceptions about, and responses to the HIV risk in their post-immigration lives. The study reveals that although culture - both traditional values and the norms of the diaspora community - appears to have constrained Indian immigrants' capacities to respond to the risk, this effect can be properly understood only by situating such constraint in the context of the settlement process that has shaped participants' living conditions, including their relationship with the diasporic community in Canada...
September 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066857/best-practices-for-the-prevention-and-management-of-diabetes-and-obesity-related-chronic-disease-among-indigenous-peoples-in-canada-a-review
#10
Kathleen Rice, Braden Te Hiwi, Merrick Zwarenstein, Barry Lavallee, Douglas Edward Barre, Stewart B Harris
OBJECTIVES: To carry out a systematic review of interventions that have aimed at improving screening, treatment, prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and obesity-related chronic disease in Indigenous communities in Canada from 2008 to 2014, with the aim of identifying current best practices. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was carried out through an electronic database search using Medline, EMBASE, PubMED and Google scholar. RESULTS: We identified 17 publications, comprising 13 evaluated interventions...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27018365/community-guided-focus-group-analysis-to-examine-cancer-disparities
#11
Jennifer C Schaal, Alexandra F Lightfoot, Kristin Z Black, Kathryn Stein, Stephanie Baker White, Carol Cothern, Keon Gilbert, Christina Yongue Hardy, Janet Y Jeon, Lilli Mann, Mary Sherwyn Mouw, Lyn Robertson, Emily M Waters, Michael A Yonas, Eugenia Eng
BACKGROUND: Accountability for Cancer Care through Undoing Racism™ and Equity (ACCURE) is a systems-change intervention addressing disparities in treatment initiation and completion and outcomes for early stage Black and White breast and lung cancer patients. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, ACCURE is guided by a diverse partnership involving academic researchers, a nonprofit community-based organization, its affiliated broader based community coalition, and providers and staff from two cancer centers...
2016: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017706/race-making-in-a-penal-institution
#12
Michael L Walker
This article provides a ground-level investigation into the lives of penal inmates, linking the literature on race making and penal management to provide an understanding of racial formation processes in a modern penal institution. Drawing on 135 days of ethnographic data collected as an inmate in a Southern California county jail system, the author argues that inmates are subjected to two mutually constitutive racial projects--one institutional and the other microinteractional. Operating in symbiosis within a narrative of risk management, these racial projects increase (rather than decrease) incidents of intraracial violence and the potential for interracial violence...
January 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954753/exploring-aboriginal-patients
#13
Linda Worrall-Carter, Karen Daws, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Sarah MacLean, Kevin Rowley, Shawana Andrews, Andrew MacIsaac, Phyllis M Lau, Samantha McEvedy, John Willis, Kerry Arabena
Objectives The aim of the present study was to explore Aboriginal patients' lived experiences of cardiac care at a major metropolitan hospital in Melbourne.Methods The study was a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 10 Aboriginal patients who had been treated in the cardiology unit at the study hospital during 2012-13. A phenomenological approach was used to analyse the data.Results Eight themes emerged from the data, each concerning various aspects of participants' experiences: 'dislike of hospitals', 'system failures', 'engagement with hospital staff', 'experiences of racism', 'health literacy and information needs', 'self-identifying as Aboriginal', 'family involvement in care' and 'going home and difficulties adapting'...
March 9, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880150/beliefs-in-an-unjust-world-mediating-ethnicity-related-stressors-and-psychological-functioning
#14
Christopher T H Liang, Carin M Molenaar
OBJECTIVE: Racism is negatively associated with health. Explorations of cognitive reactions, such as beliefs in an unjust world (BUW), are needed to understand the associations between both perceived discrimination and own-group conformity pressures (OGCPS) and reduced psychological well-being. METHOD: With a sample of 215 ethnic minority individuals, this study used structural equation modeling to explore BUW's mediating role between the two aforementioned forms of ethnicity-related stressors (ERS), anger rumination, and negative affect...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26672728/residential-segregation-and-diabetes-risk-among-latinos
#15
Diana S Grigsby-Toussaint, Antwan Jones, Jessica Kubo, Natalie Bradford
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether residence in ethnically segregated metropolitan areas is associated with increased diabetes risk for Latinos in the United States. METHODS: Population data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the 2005 American Community Survey were used to determine whether higher levels of Latino-White segregation across metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States is associated with increased diabetes risk among Latinos (n=7462)...
2015: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26634659/cultural-diversity-and-mental-health
#16
Narayan Gopalkrishnan, Hurriyet Babacan
OBJECTIVE: Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health...
December 2015: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26484619/maternal-and-pediatric-health-and-disease-integrating-biopsychosocial-models-and-epigenetics
#17
REVIEW
Lewis P Rubin
The concepts of allostasis (stability through adaptation) and accumulated life stress (McEwen's allostatic load) aim to understand childhood and adult outcomes. Chronic malnutrition, changes in social condition, and adverse early-life experiences may program phenotypes and contribute to long-lasting disease risk. However, integration of life course approaches, social and economic contexts, and comparison among different biopsychosocial models has not generally been explored. This review critically examines the literature and evaluates recent insights into how environmental stress can alter lifelong hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system responsiveness and induce metabolic and neurodevelopmental maladaptation...
January 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26322238/perceptions-of-racism-in-healthcare-among-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Ernest R Vina, Leslie R M Hausmann, Tammy O Utset, Christopher M Masi, Kimberly P Liang, C Kent Kwoh
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in the clinical outcomes of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) exist. Perceived racial discrimination may contribute to disparities in health. OBJECTIVES: To determine if perceived racism in healthcare differs by race among patients with SLE and to evaluate its contribution to racial disparities in SLE-related outcomes. METHODS: 163 African-American (AA) and 180 white (WH) patients with SLE were enrolled. Structured interviews and chart reviews were done to determine perceptions of racism, SLE-related outcomes (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Damage Index, SLE Disease Activity, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D)), and other variables that may affect perceptions of racism...
2015: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26292521/corrado-gini-and-the-scientific-basis-of-fascist-racism
#19
Daniele Macuglia
It is controversial whether the development of Fascist racism was influenced by earlier Italian eugenic research. Before the First International Eugenics Congress held in London in 1912, Italian eugenics was not characterized by a clear program of scientific research. With the advent of Fascism, however, the equality "number = strength" became the foundation of its program. This idea, according to which the improvement of a nation relies on the amplitude of its population, was conceived by statistician Corrado Gini (1884-1965) already in 1912...
2014: Medicina Nei Secoli
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26179238/a-hierarchical-bayesian-analysis-of-parasite-prevalence-and-sociocultural-outcomes-the-role-of-structural-racism-and-sanitation-infrastructure
#20
Cody T Ross, Bruce Winterhalder
OBJECTIVES: We conduct a revaluation of the Thornhill and Fincher research project on parasites using finely-resolved geographic data on parasite prevalence, individual-level sociocultural data, and multilevel Bayesian modeling. In contrast to the evolutionary psychological mechanisms linking parasites to human behavior and cultural characteristics proposed by Thornhill and Fincher, we offer an alternative hypothesis that structural racism and differential access to sanitation systems drive both variation in parasite prevalence and differential behaviors and cultural characteristics...
January 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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