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Systemic Racism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409478/reversing-racial-inequities-at-the-end-of-life-a-call-for-health-systems-to-create-culturally-competent-advance-care-planning-programs-within-african-american-communities
#1
Randi Belisomo
Racial and cultural barriers inherent in health systems have made the delivery of culturally relevant end of life care that aligns with patient preferences a particular challenge across African American patient populations. The end of life experience has been cited as a public health crisis by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and this crisis is one felt even more acutely by patients of this minority race. Structural racism has limited access to the planning mechanisms proven to result in quality end of life care; thus, health systems must initiate remedies in the face of dire need, as African Americans face a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from many serious illnesses...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402827/structural-racism-and-health-inequities-in-the-usa-evidence-and-interventions
#2
REVIEW
Zinzi D Bailey, Nancy Krieger, Madina Agénor, Jasmine Graves, Natalia Linos, Mary T Bassett
Despite growing interest in understanding how social factors drive poor health outcomes, many academics, policy makers, scientists, elected officials, journalists, and others responsible for defining and responding to the public discourse remain reluctant to identify racism as a root cause of racial health inequities. In this conceptual report, the third in a Series on equity and equality in health in the USA, we use a contemporary and historical perspective to discuss research and interventions that grapple with the implications of what is known as structural racism on population health and health inequities...
April 8, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402825/inequality-and-the-health-care-system-in-the-usa
#3
REVIEW
Samuel L Dickman, David U Himmelstein, Steffie Woolhandler
Widening economic inequality in the USA has been accompanied by increasing disparities in health outcomes. The life expectancy of the wealthiest Americans now exceeds that of the poorest by 10-15 years. This report, part of a Series on health and inequality in the USA, focuses on how the health-care system, which could reduce income-based disparities in health, instead often exacerbates them. Other articles in this Series address population health inequalities, and the health effects of racism, mass incarceration, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA)...
April 8, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368199/he-said-what-physiological-and-cognitive-responses-to-imagining-and-witnessing-outgroup-racism
#4
Francine Karmali, Kerry Kawakami, Elizabeth Page-Gould
Responses to outgroup racism can have serious implications for the perpetuation of bias, yet research examining this process is rare. The present research investigated self-reported, physiological, and cognitive responses among "experiencers" who witnessed and "forecasters" who imagined a racist comment targeting an outgroup member. Although previous research indicates that experiencers self-reported less distress and chose a racist partner more often than forecasters, the present results explored the possibility that experiencers may actually be distressed in such situation but regulate their initial affective reactions...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342562/tackling-racism-as-a-wicked-public-health-problem-enabling-allies-in-anti-racism-praxis
#5
Heather Came, Derek Griffith
Racism is a "wicked" public health problem that fuels systemic health inequities between population groups in New Zealand, the United States and elsewhere. While literature has examined racism and its effects on health, the work describing how to intervene to address racism in public health is less developed. While the notion of raising awareness of racism through socio-political education is not new, given the way racism has morphed into new narratives in health institutional settings, it has become critical to support allies to make informing efforts to address racism as a fundamental cause of health inequities...
March 16, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340589/critical-race-theory-as-a-tool-for-understanding-poor-engagement-along-the-hiv-care-continuum-among-african-american-black-and-hispanic-persons-living-with-hiv-in-the-united-states-a-qualitative-exploration
#6
Robert Freeman, Marya Viorst Gwadz, Elizabeth Silverman, Alexandra Kutnick, Noelle R Leonard, Amanda S Ritchie, Jennifer Reed, Belkis Y Martinez
BACKGROUND: African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV (AABH-PLWH) in the U.S. evidence insufficient engagement in HIV care and low uptake of HIV antiretroviral therapy, leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. The present qualitative study used critical race theory, and incorporated intersectionality theory, to understand AABH-PLWH's perspectives on the mechanisms by which structural racism; that is, the macro-level systems that reinforce inequities among racial/ethnic groups, influence health decisions and behaviors...
March 24, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259213/movement-advocacy-personal-relationships-and-ending-health-care-disparities
#7
Marshall H Chin
Deep-rooted structural problems drive health care disparities. Compounding the difficulty of attaining health equity, solutions in clinics and hospitals require the cooperation of clinicians, administrators, patients, and the community. Recent protests over police brutality and racism on campuses across America have opened fresh wounds over how best to end racism, with lessons for achieving health equity. Movement advocacy, the mobilizing of the people to raise awareness of an injustice and to advocate for reform, can break down ingrained structural barriers and policies that impede health equity...
April 2017: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214449/-they-treated-me-like-crap-and-i-know-it-was-because-i-was-native-the-healthcare-experiences-of-aboriginal-peoples-living-in-vancouver-s-inner-city
#8
Ashley Goodman, Kim Fleming, Nicole Markwick, Tracey Morrison, Louise Lagimodiere, Thomas Kerr
There is growing evidence that Aboriginal peoples often experience healthcare inequalities due to racism. However, research exploring the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit substances is limited, and research rarely accounts for how multiple accounts of stigma intersect and contribute to the experiences of marginalized populations. Our research aimed to explore the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit drugs and or illicit alcohol (APWUID/A) living in Vancouver's inner city...
April 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198924/the-issue-of-race-in-the-work-of-domingos-guedes-cabral
#9
Juanma Sánchez Arteaga, Ronnie Jorge Tavares de Almeida, Charbel Niño El-Hani
In 1875 Bahia, medicine and evolutionism were used by the physician, journalist, and republican militant Domingos Guedes Cabral as ideological weapons to propose a radical program of social reforms in Brazil in the areas of education, marriage control, medical care to the alienated, changes in the penal system, etc., all of which were based on the scientific knowledge of that time. Among the social ideas of Guedes Cabral, the question of race will be the main focus of this analysis. In this sense, Domingos Guedes Cabral is a particularly significant example for understanding the initial steps in the peculiar alliance between evolutionism, medicine, and scientific racism in Brazil since the 1870s, when Darwinism first arrived in the country...
December 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196847/housing-discrimination-residential-racial-segregation-and-colorectal-cancer-survival-in-southeastern-wisconsin
#10
EDITORIAL
Yuhong Zhou, Amin Bemanian, Kirsten M M Beyer
Background: Residential racial segregation is still neglected in contemporary examinations of racial health disparities, including studies of cancer. Even fewer studies examine the processes by which segregation occurs, such as through housing discrimination. This study aims to examine relationships among housing discrimination, segregation, and colorectal cancer survival in southeastern Wisconsin.Methods: Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Wisconsin Cancer Reporting System for two southeastern Wisconsin metropolitan areas...
February 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054417/aboriginal-prisoners-and-cognitive-impairment-the-impact-of-dual-disadvantage-on-social-and-emotional-wellbeing
#11
S M Shepherd, J R P Ogloff, D Shea, J E Pfeifer, Y Paradies
BACKGROUND: Negligible information is available regarding the Social and Emotional Wellbeing (SEWB) needs of Aboriginal Australian individuals in custody with cognitive impairment. This is problematic given that Aboriginal people with cognitive impairment often experience dual disadvantage in the context of the justice system. This study sought to ascertain the relationship between cognitive impairment and mental health/cultural needs (SEWB) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in custody...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030421/the-political-future-of-social-medicine-reflections-on-physicians-as-activists
#12
H Jack Geiger
The academic discipline of social medicine has always had a political and policy advocacy component, in addition to its core functions of research and teaching. Its origins lie in the 18th and 19th centuries, in the work of Johann Peter Frank and Rudolph Virchow, among others. Virchow's dictum that "politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale" highlights that most social determinants of health are politically determined and shape population health. Yet despite intense epidemiological and sociological research on the social determinants of health, less attention has been paid to this political and policy dimension...
December 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892696/looking-like-a-smoker-a-smokescreen-to-racism-m%C3%A4-ori-perceived-appearance-linked-to-smoking-status
#13
E Muriwai, C A Houkamau, C G Sibley
OBJECTIVES: Māori, the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa (New Zealand), continue to exhibit the highest rate of smoking of any ethnic group in the nation. Clarifying the present day factors which perpetuate Māori smoking has become matter of some urgency. DESIGN: We investigate links between subjective elements of Māori identity, demographic factors and perceived discrimination with smoking status in a national probability sample of self-identified Māori (N = 667)...
November 28, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763464/the-social-context-of-substance-use-and-perceived-risk-among-rhode-island-urban-minority-adolescents
#14
Shaniece Criss, Dahiana Rodriguez, Roberta E Goldman
Our qualitative study examined how stresses of daily life affected substance use and perceived risk among Black and Hispanic adolescents. We conducted 11 focus groups with students aged 13-25 in public and alternative schools in Providence, Rhode Island, using Bourdieu's Social Practice theoretical approach to guide questioning and data analysis. Despite participants' frequent marijuana use, they perceived the emphasis society places on substance use as misguided, obfuscating the persistence of more critical problems such as stress and reduced opportunity resulting from neighborhood violence, poor schools, financial difficulties, and home troubles...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716235/access-to-primary-health-care-services-for-indigenous-peoples-a-framework-synthesis
#15
Carol Davy, Stephen Harfield, Alexa McArthur, Zachary Munn, Alex Brown
BACKGROUND: Indigenous peoples often find it difficult to access appropriate mainstream primary health care services. Securing access to primary health care services requires more than just services that are situated within easy reach. Ensuring the accessibility of health care for Indigenous peoples who are often faced with a vast array of additional barriers including experiences of discrimination and racism, can be complex. This framework synthesis aimed to identify issues that hindered Indigenous peoples from accessing primary health care and then explore how, if at all, these were addressed by Indigenous health care services...
September 30, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551857/-they-aren-t-really-black-fellas-but-they-are-easy-to-talk-to-factors-which-influence-australian-aboriginal-women-s-decision-to-disclose-intimate-partner-violence-during-pregnancy
#16
Jo Spangaro, Sigrid Herring, Jane Koziol-Mclain, Alison Rutherford, Mary-Anne Frail, Anthony B Zwi
OBJECTIVES: intimate partner violence is a significant global health problem but remains largely hidden. Understanding decisions about whether or not to disclose violence in response to routine enquiry in health settings can inform safe and responsive systems. Elevated rates of violence and systematic disadvantage found among Indigenous women globally, can impact on their decisions to disclose violence. This study aimed to test, among Indigenous women, a model for decisions on whether to disclose intimate partner violence in the context of antenatal routine screening...
October 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429060/super-heroes-and-lucky-duckies-racialized-stressors-among-teachers
#17
Lauren Rauscher, Bianca D M Wilson
OBJECTIVES: This article explores the complex relationships between race and occupational stressors among an ethnically diverse sample of high school teachers and their implications for women's mental health. METHOD: Interviews with Black, White, and Mexican American teachers suggest that workplaces are organized by subtle forms of gender and racial discrimination as well as White racial privilege; this context shapes women's experiences of occupational stressors...
April 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372475/the-health-care-institution-population-health-and-black-lives
#18
Christopher J King, Yanique Redwood
The ongoing existence of institutionalized racism and discriminatory practices in various systems (education, criminal justice, housing, employment) serve as root causes of poor health in Blacks Lives. Furthermore, these unjust social structures and their complex interplay result in inefficient utilization of health services and reactive or futile interactions with medical providers. Collectively, these factors contribute to racial disparities in health and treatment represents a significant portion of the nation's health care expenditures...
May 2016: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367141/the-framing-of-women-and-health-disparities-a-critical-look-at-race-gender-and-class-from-the-perspectives-of-grassroots-health-communicators
#19
Jennifer Vardeman-Winter
As women's health has received significant political and media attention recently, I proposed an expanded structural theory of women's communication about health. Women's health communication and critical race and systemic racism research framed this study. I interviewed 15 communicators and community health workers from grass-roots organizations focused on women's health to learn of their challenges of communicating with women from communities experiencing health disparities. Findings suggest that communicators face difficulties in developing meaningful messaging for publics because of disjunctures between medical and community frames, issues in searching for health among women's many priorities, Whiteness discourses imposed on publics' experiences, and practices of correcting for power differentials...
July 1, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092388/doing-violence-making-race-southern-lynching-and-white-racial-group-formation
#20
Mattias Smångs
This article presents a theoretical framework of how intergroup violence may figure into the activation and maintenance of group categories, boundaries, and identities, as well as the mediating role played by organizations in such processes. The framework's analytical advantages are demonstrated in an application to southern lynchings. Findings from event- and community-level analyses suggest that "public" lynchings, carried out by larger mobs with ceremonial violence, but not "private" ones, perpetrated by smaller bands without public or ceremonial violence, fed off and into the racial group boundaries, categories, and identities promoted by the southern Democratic Party at the turn of the 20th century and on which the emerging Jim Crow system rested...
March 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
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