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Systemic Racism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760032/white-privilege-in-a-white-coat-how-racism-shaped-my-medical-education
#1
Max J Romano
In this essay, I reflect on some of the ways racial privilege influenced my experience as a white physician in training. While white Americans often think of "racism" as a social construct primarily affecting people of color, "racism" is a system of both racial disadvantage as well as reciprocal racial advantage. Medical professionals are increasingly aware of how social determinants of health lead to important health disparities, however white physicians seldom ask how their own racial privilege reinforces a white supremacist culture and what effects this may have on our patients' health...
May 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753137/perceptions-of-intersectional-stigma-among-diverse-women-living-with-hiv-in-the-united-states
#2
Whitney S Rice, Carmen H Logie, Tessa M Napoles, Melonie Walcott, Abigail W Batchelder, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Gina M Wingood, Deborah J Konkle-Parker, Bulent Turan, Tracey E Wilson, Mallory O Johnson, Sheri D Weiser, Janet M Turan
Attitudes and behavior that devalue individuals based upon their HIV status (HIV-related stigma) are barriers to HIV prevention, treatment, and wellbeing among women living with HIV. Other coexisting forms of stigma (e.g., racism, sexism) may worsen the effects of HIV-related stigma, and may contribute to persistent racial and gendered disparities in HIV prevention and treatment. Few studies examine perceptions of intersectional stigma among women living with HIV. From June to December 2015, we conducted 76 qualitative interviews with diverse women living with HIV from varied socioeconomic backgrounds enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) in Birmingham, Alabama; Jackson, Mississippi; Atlanta, Georgia; and San Francisco, California...
May 4, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736617/insiders-insight-discrimination-against-indigenous-peoples-through-the-eyes-of-health-care-professionals
#3
Lloy Wylie, Stephanie McConkey
Discrimination in the health care system has a direct negative impact on health and wellbeing. Experiences of discrimination are considered a root cause for the health inequalities that exist among Indigenous peoples. Experiences of discrimination are commonplace, with patients noting abusive treatment, stereotyping, and a lack of quality in the care provided, which discourage Indigenous people from accessing care. This research project examined the perspectives of health care providers and decision-makers to identify what challenges they see facing Indigenous patients and families when accessing health services in a large city in southern Ontario...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729001/public-health-s-approach-to-systemic-racism-a-systematic-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Billie Castle, Monica Wendel, Jelani Kerr, Derrick Brooms, Aaron Rollins
OBJECTIVES: Recently, public health has acknowledged racism as a social determinant of health. Much evidence exists on the impact of individual-level racism and discrimination, with little to no examination of racism from the standpoint of systems and structures. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to analyze the extent to which public health currently addresses systemic racism in the published literature. METHODS: Utilizing the PRISMA guidelines, this review examines three widely used databases to examine published literature covering the topic as well as implications for future research and practice...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726715/applying-a-midwifery-lens-to-indigenous-health-care-delivery-the-contribution-of-campus-learning-and-rural-placements-to-effecting-systemic-change
#5
Rosalie D Thackrah, Sandra C Thompson
Study background Increasing cultural safety in health settings is essential to address stark health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Respect for cultural knowledge, better communication, and recognition of racism as a determinant of health are required for improved service delivery. How this knowledge is acquired in health professional training and translated to clinical settings is poorly understood. Purpose Impacts of an innovative Indigenous health unit and remote clinical placements on knowledge acquisition and attitude change were explored among midwifery students to inform cultural competency initiatives in health professional training...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sciences Infirmières
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724004/family-socioeconomic-status-at-birth-and-youth-impulsivity-at-age-15-blacks-diminished-return
#6
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell, Ron Mincy
Minorities’ Diminished Return theory suggests that health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) are systemically smaller for racial and ethnic minorities compared to Whites. To test the relevance of Minorities’ Diminished Return theory for youth impulsivity, we investigated Black⁻White differences in the effects of family SES at birth on subsequent youth impulsivity at age 15. Data came from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), 1998⁻2016, a 15-year longitudinal study of urban families from the birth of their children to age 15...
May 1, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659482/educational-attainment-and-smoking-status-in-a-national-sample-of-american-adults-evidence-for-the-blacks-diminished-return
#7
Shervin Assari, Ritesh Mistry
BACKGROUND: Although higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. AIMS: To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017 ( n = 3217)...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608087/raising-voices-a-commentary-on-say-their-names-by-sandhira-wijayaratne
#8
Tanya M White-Davis, Kathryn Fraser, David D Henderson
Comments on a poem by Sandhira Wijayaratne (see record 2018-12809-007). This poem uses the power of language to speak to the consequences of silence and complacency and points to the role of healers in the social narrative. In his work, Wijayaratne highlights the structural and systemic racism that plagues our nation today, and affects our work as healthcare providers. "Say Their Names" represents a timely contribution to this field and echoes much of the current national discourse around racial oppression...
March 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595440/measuring-patient-experiences-is-it-meaningful-and-actionable
#9
Sabrina T Wong, Sharon Johnston, Fred Burge, Kim McGrail, William Hogg
Performance measurement must be meaningful to those being asked to contribute data and to the clinicians who are collecting the information. It must be actionable if performance measurement and reporting is to influence health system transformation. To date, measuring patient experiences in all parts of the healthcare system in Canada lags behind other countries. More attention needs to be paid to capturing patients with complex intersecting health and social problems that result from inequitable distribution of wealth and/or underlying structural inequities related to systemic issues such as racism and discrimination, colonialism and patriarchy...
October 2017: HealthcarePapers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565624/intersectionality-in-psychotherapy-the-experiences-of-an-afrolatinx-queer-immigrant
#10
Hector Y Adames, Nayeli Y Chavez-Dueñas, Shweta Sharma, Martin J La Roche
Culturally responsive and racially conscious psychotherapeutic work requires that therapists recognize the ways clients are impacted by their multiple marginalized identities and by systems of oppression (e.g., racism, ethnocentrism, sexism, heterosexism, and nativism). Attending exclusively to clients' marginalized identities (i.e., weak intersectionality) may drive therapists to only focus on internal, subjective, and emotional experiences, hence, missing the opportunity to consider and address how multiple sociostructural dimensions (i...
March 2018: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524934/what-enables-and-constrains-the-inclusion-of-the-social-determinants-of-health-inequities-in-government-policy-agendas-a-narrative-review
#11
REVIEW
Phillip Baker, Sharon Friel, Adrian Kay, Fran Baum, Lyndall Strazdins, Tamara Mackean
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of evidence gathering and calls for action, few countries have systematically attenuated health inequities (HI) through action on the social determinants of health (SDH). This is at least partly because doing so presents a significant political and policy challenge. This paper explores this challenge through a review of the empirical literature, asking: what factors have enabled and constrained the inclusion of the social determinants of health inequities (SDHI) in government policy agendas? METHODS: A narrative review method was adopted involving three steps: first, drawing upon political science theories on agenda-setting, an integrated theoretical framework was developed to guide the review; second, a systematic search of scholarly databases for relevant literature; and third, qualitative analysis of the data and thematic synthesis of the results...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517258/the-moral-standing-of-animals-towards-a-psychology-of-speciesism
#12
Lucius Caviola, Jim A C Everett, Nadira S Faber
We introduce and investigate the philosophical concept of 'speciesism' -the assignment of different moral worth based on species membership -as a psychological construct. In five studies, using both general population samples online and student samples, we show that speciesism is a measurable, stable construct with high interpersonal differences, that goes along with a cluster of other forms of prejudice, and is able to predict real-world decision-making and behavior. In Study 1 we present the development and empirical validation of a theoretically driven Speciesism Scale, which captures individual differences in speciesist attitudes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508479/racism-health-a-public-health-perspective-on-racial-discrimination
#13
Stefania Sarsah Cobbinah, Jan Lewis
Racial discrimination has been increasingly reported to have a causal link with morbidity and mortality of Black Americans, yet this issue is rarely addressed in a public health perspective. Racism affects health at different levels: institutional racism is a structural and legalized system that results in differential access to health services; cultural racism refers to the negative racial stereotypes, often reinforced by media, that results in poorer psychological and physiological wellbeing of the minorities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508374/factors-related-to-physician-clinical-decision-making-for-african-american-and-hispanic-patients-a-qualitative-meta-synthesis
#14
Khadijah Breathett, Jacqueline Jones, Hillary D Lum, Dawn Koonkongsatian, Christine D Jones, Urvi Sanghvi, Lilian Hoffecker, Marylyn McEwen, Stacie L Daugherty, Irene V Blair, Elizabeth Calhoun, Esther de Groot, Nancy K Sweitzer, Pamela N Peterson
Clinical decision-making may have a role in racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare but has not been evaluated systematically. The purpose of this study was to synthesize qualitative studies that explore various aspects of how a patient's African-American race or Hispanic ethnicity may factor into physician clinical decision-making. Using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library, we identified 13 manuscripts that met inclusion criteria of usage of qualitative methods; addressed US physician clinical decision-making factors when caring for African-American, Hispanic, or Caucasian patients; and published between 2000 and 2017...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505464/racialized-mass-incarceration-and-the-war-on-drugs-a-critical-race-theory-appraisal
#15
Katherine Smith Fornili
The purpose of this column is to summarize important aspects of the racialized War on Drugs, including (a) the school-to-prison pipeline, (b) the for-profit prison system ("prison industrial complex"), (c) racialized mass incarceration, and (d) the disproportionately negative impact of the War on Drugs on families and communities of color. Analysis of critical race theory (CRT), the study of the relationships between race, racism, and power, will provide a cohesive framework for examining these four aspects...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494846/health-care-experiences-of-pregnant-birthing-and-postnatal-women-of-color-at-risk-for-preterm-birth
#16
Monica R McLemore, Molly R Altman, Norlissa Cooper, Shanell Williams, Larry Rand, Linda Franck
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress is a known risk factor for preterm birth, yet little is known about how healthcare experiences add to or mitigate perceived stress. In this study, we described the pregnancy-related healthcare experiences of 54 women of color from Fresno, Oakland, and San Francisco, California, with social and/or medical risk factors for preterm birth. METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis of focus group data generated as part of a larger project focused on patient and community involvement in preterm birth research...
March 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474451/racial-residential-segregation-socioeconomic-disparities-and-the-white-black-survival-gap
#17
Ioana Popescu, Erin Duffy, Joshua Mendelsohn, José J Escarce
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between racial residential segregation, a prominent manifestation of systemic racism, and the White-Black survival gap in a contemporary cohort of adults, and to assess the extent to which socioeconomic inequality explains this association. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study of White and Black men and women aged 35-75 living in 102 large US Core Based Statistical Areas. The main outcome was the White-Black survival gap...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447448/gendered-racism-and-the-sexual-and-reproductive-health-of-black-and-latina-women
#18
Lisa Rosenthal, Marci Lobel
OBJECTIVE: To understand health disparities, it is important to use an intersectional framework that examines unique experiences of oppression faced by particular groups due to their intersecting identities and social positions linked to societal structures. We focus on Black and Latina women and their experiences with 'gendered racism' - unique forms of oppression due to the intersection of race/ethnicity and gender - to foster understanding of disparities between Black and Latina versus White women in sexual and reproductive health outcomes in the U...
February 15, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278249/governing-the-resilience-of-neoliberalism-through-biopolitics
#19
Luca Mavelli
Neoliberalism is widely regarded as the main culprit for the 2007/2008 global financial crisis. However, despite this abysmal failure, neoliberalism has not merely survived the crisis, but actually 'thrived'. How is it possible to account for the resilience of neoliberalism? Existing scholarship has answered this question either by focusing on the distinctive qualities of neoliberalism (such as adaptability, internal coherence and capacity to incorporate dissent) or on the biopolitical capacity of neoliberalism to produce resilient subjects...
September 2017: European journal of international relations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273655/politics-policies-and-processes-a-multidisciplinary-and-multimethods-research-programme-on-policies-on-the-social-determinants-of-health-inequity-in-australia
#20
Fran Baum, Sharon Friel
INTRODUCTION: The development and implementation of multisectoral policy to improve health and reduce health inequities has been slow and uneven. Evidence is largely focused on the facts of health inequities rather than understanding the political and policy processes. This 5-year funded programme of research investigates how these processes could function more effectively to improve equitable population health. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The programme of work is organised in four work packages using four themes (macroeconomics and infrastructure, land use and urban environments, health systems and racism) related to the structural drivers shaping the distribution of power, money and resources and daily living conditions...
December 21, 2017: BMJ Open
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