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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413724/are-anti-ganglioside-antibodies-associated-with-proventricular-dilatation-disease-in-birds
#1
Jeann Leal de Araujo, Ian Tizard, Jianhua Guo, J Jill Heatley, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann, Raquel R Rech
The identification of Parrot bornaviruses (PaBV) in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) has not been sufficient to explain the pathogenesis of this fatal disease, since not all infected birds develop clinical signs. Although the most accepted theory indicates that PaBV directly triggers an inflammatory response in this disease, another hypothesis suggests the disease is triggered by autoantibodies targeting neuronal gangliosides, and PDD might therefore resemble Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) in its pathogenesis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358615/semen-collection-and-spermatozoa-characteristics-in-the-kea-parrot-nestor-notabilis
#2
Andrea Dogliero, Ada Rota, Renato Lofiego, Mitzy Mauthe von Degerfeld, Giuseppe Quaranta
We describe the seminal characteristics of the kea parrot (Nestor notabilis), an endangered species endemic to the South Island of New Zealand. Semen was collected in the full breeding season from 6 birds in the collection of an amateur aviculturist. The manual massage technique was used. A total of 25 ejaculates was collected and evaluated for volume, degree of contamination, and spermatozoa concentration; motility and kinetic parameters were assessed on diluted samples (modified Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate, pH 8...
March 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358087/animal-behaviour-playful-call-makes-parrots-merry
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344897/testing-of-microsatellite-multiplexes-for-individual-identification-of-cape-parrots-poicephalus-robustus-paternity-testing-and-monitoring-trade
#4
Willem G Coetzer, Colleen T Downs, Mike R Perrin, Sandi Willows-Munro
BACKGROUND: Illegal trade in rare wildlife species is a major threat to many parrot species around the world. Wildlife forensics plays an important role in the preservation of endangered or threatened wildlife species. Identification of illegally harvested or traded animals through DNA techniques is one of the many methods used during forensic investigations. Natural populations of the South African endemic Cape Parrot (Poicephalus robustus) are negatively affected by the removal of eggs and chicks for the pet trade...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338296/photochromism-and-dual-color-fluorescence-in-a-polyoxometalate-benzospiropyran-molecular-switch
#5
Arnaud Parrot, Aurélie Bernard, Aurélie Jacquart, Stefano Artin Serapian, Carles Bo, Etienne Derat, Olivier Oms, Anne Dolbecq, Anna Proust, Rémi Métivier, Pierre Mialane, Guillaume Izzet
The photophysical properties of a Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) covalently bounded to a benzospiropyran (BSPR) unit have been investigated. These studies reveal that both closed and open forms are emissive with distinct spectral features (λem (closed form)=530 nm, λem (open form)=670 nm) and that the fluorescence of the BSPR unit of the hybrid is considerably enhanced compared to BSPR parent compounds. While the fluorescence excitation energy of the BSPR reference compounds (370 nm) is close to the intense absorption responsible of the photochromic character (350 nm), the fluorescence excitation of the hybrid is shifted to lower energy (400 nm), improving the population of the emissive state...
March 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322728/phlebotomine-sandflies-of-botswana-a-taxonomic-review-and-a-faunistic-update-with-the-first-record-of-genus-phlebotomus
#6
Andreas Krüger
The first records of phlebotomine sandflies from Botswana have been published only recently, comprising of four species of genus Sergentomyia. This update presents the first record of genus Phlebotomus, namely Ph. (Anaphlebotomus) rodhaini Parrot, which is also the first detection of a putative vector of leishmaniasis in Botswana. In addition, records of the Sergentomyia "bedfordi (Newstead) group" are reviewed, and the molecular taxonomy of all taxa known from Botswana is analysed based on three mitochondrial gene fragments (mtDNA)...
March 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301249/investigation-of-different-infection-routes-of-parrot-bornavirus-in-cockatiels
#7
Julia Heckmann, Dirk Enderlein, Anne K Piepenbring, Sibylle Herzog, Ursula Heffels-Redmann, Sara Malberg, Christiane Herden, Michael Lierz
The aim of this study was to determine the natural infection route of parrot bornavirus (PaBV), the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacines. For this purpose, nine cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ) were inoculated orally, and nine cockatiels were inoculated intranasally, with a PaBV-4 isolate. To compare the results of the trials, the same isolate and the same experimental design were used as in a previous study where infection was successful by intravenous as well as intracerebral inoculation...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289227/naturally-occurring-fluorescence-in-frogs
#8
Carlos Taboada, Andrés E Brunetti, Federico N Pedron, Fausto Carnevale Neto, Darío A Estrin, Sara E Bari, Lucía B Chemes, Norberto Peporine Lopes, María G Lagorio, Julián Faivovich
Fluorescence, the absorption of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation reemitted at longer wavelengths, has been suggested to play several biological roles in metazoans. This phenomenon is uncommon in tetrapods, being restricted mostly to parrots and marine turtles. We report fluorescence in amphibians, in the tree frog Hypsiboas punctatus, showing that fluorescence in living frogs is produced by a combination of lymph and glandular emission, with pigmentary cell filtering in the skin. The chemical origin of fluorescence was traced to a class of fluorescent compounds derived from dihydroisoquinolinone, here named hyloins...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286082/behavioural-and-hormonal-effects-of-member-replacement-in-captive-groups-of-blue-fronted-amazon-parrots-amazona-aestiva
#9
Laerciana Silva de Souza Matos, Rupert Palme, Angélica Silva Vasconcellos
Social species in captivity may face allostatic overload due to artificial grouping and other social constraints. In rescue centres, groups of psittacines are constantly mixed due to the arrival and/or release of individuals; this procedure is potentially harmful to animal welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the possible impacts of mate replacement on the stress levels of captive blue-fronted amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). During five weeks, we recorded agonistic interactions and dropping-glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) concentrations of individuals allocated in a group whose members were kept constant and in a group subjected to frequent member replacement...
March 9, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285725/universal-versus-targeted-additional-contact-precautions-for-multidrug-resistant-organism-carriage-for-patients-admitted-to-an-intensive-care-unit
#10
Michel Djibré, Samuel Fedun, Pierre Le Guen, Sophie Vimont, Mehdi Hafiani, Jean-Pierre Fulgencio, Antoine Parrot, Michel Denis, Muriel Fartoukh
BACKGROUND: Although additional contact precautions (ACPs) are routinely used to reduce cross-transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), the relevance of isolation precautions remains debated. We hypothesized that the collection of recognized risk factors for MDRO carriage on intensive care unit (ICU) admission might be helpful to target ACPs without increasing MDRO acquisition during ICU stays, compared with universal ACPs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a sequential single-center observational study performed in consecutive patients admitted to a French medical and surgical ICU...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272409/reward-type-and-behavioural-patterns-predict-dogs-success-in-a-delay-of-gratification-paradigm
#11
Désirée Brucks, Matteo Soliani, Friederike Range, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
Inhibiting an immediate behaviour in favour of an alternative but more advantageous behaviour has been linked to individual success in life, especially in humans. Dogs, which have been living in the human environment for thousands of years, are exposed to daily situations that require inhibition different in context from other non-domesticated species. One task regularly used to study inhibitory control is the delay of gratification task, which requires individuals to choose between an immediate option of lower value and a delayed option of higher value...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256610/the-genome-of-leishmania-adleri-from-a-mammalian-host-highlights-chromosome-fission-in-sauroleishmania
#12
Simone Coughlan, Peter Mulhair, Mandy Sanders, Gabriele Schonian, James A Cotton, Tim Downing
Control of pathogens arising from humans, livestock and wild animals can be enhanced by genome-based investigation. Phylogenetically classifying and optimal construction of these genomes using short sequence reads are key to this process. We examined the mammal-infecting unicellular parasite Leishmania adleri belonging to the lizard-infecting Sauroleishmania subgenus. L. adleri has been associated with cutaneous disease in humans, but can be asymptomatic in wild animals. We sequenced, assembled and investigated the L...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247920/adaptive-advantages-of-appearance-predation-thermoregulation-and-color-of-webbing-built-by-new-zealand-s-largest-moth
#13
Kirsty Yule, Kevin Burns
Prey are often difficult to locate visually, which may help them avoid predators. However, an animal's appearance might also evolve in response to the abiotic environment. Here, we investigate the processes that determine the appearance of silk webbing built by New Zealand's largest endemic moth Aenetus virescens (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), whose larvae burrow into the trunks of native trees. Larvae cover tunnel entrances with silk webbing, detritus, and epiphytes, giving them a similar appearance to tree bark...
March 1, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215690/seasonal-and-genera-specific-variations-in-semen-availability-and-semen-characteristics-in-large-parrots
#14
A Bublat, D Fischer, S Bruslund, H Schneider, S Meinecke-Tillmann, A Wehrend, M Lierz
In large parrots electro-stimulation is suitable for collecting semen, and therefore, to facilitate semen examination and artificial insemination. Previous studies have detected differences in the semen collection success rate and semen parameters between psittacine genera. It remained unclear whether these differences were genera-related, seasonal variations or depend on the males' relationship status. To answer these questions, semen collection and spermatological analysis were performed for four psittacine groups (macaws, amazons, eclectus parrots and cockatoos) over 13 months...
March 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199322/keas-perform-similarly-to-chimpanzees-and-elephants-when-solving-collaborative-tasks
#15
Megan Heaney, Russell D Gray, Alex H Taylor
Cooperation between individuals is one of the defining features of our species. While other animals, such as chimpanzees, elephants, coral trout and rooks also exhibit cooperative behaviours, it is not clear if they think about cooperation in the same way as humans do. In this study we presented the kea, a parrot endemic to New Zealand, with a series of tasks designed to assess cooperative cognition. We found that keas were capable of working together, even when they had to wait for their partner for up to 65 seconds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169184/reproductive-disorders-in-parrots
#16
REVIEW
Alyssa M Scagnelli, Thomas N Tully
Disease affecting the reproductive tract of the companion parrot is often impacted by physiologic and environmental stimuli. In conjunction with appropriate medical management, some birds diagnosed with reproductive disorders may be successfully treated. Once the bird is diagnosed with a disease condition affecting the reproductive tract, therapeutic measures are focused on stabilizing and supporting the patient, and surgical intervention is required only in the most severe cases. Hormonal therapy with synthetic, long-acting GnRH agonists should be considered for chronic reproductive disease conditions in which decreasing ovarian activity can help alleviate certain disease processes...
February 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155804/the-pathogenesis-of-proventricular-dilatation-disease
#17
Ian Tizard, H L Shivaprasad, Jianhua Guo, Samer Hameed, Judith Ball, Susan Payne
Bornaviruses cause neurologic diseases in several species of birds, especially parrots, waterfowl and finches. The characteristic lesions observed in these birds include encephalitis and gross dilatation of the anterior stomach - the proventriculus. The disease is thus known as proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is characterized by extreme proventricular dilatation, blockage of the passage of digesta and consequent death by starvation. There are few clinical resemblances between this and the bornaviral encephalitides observed in mammals...
December 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155708/parrot-a-homology-based-strategy-to-quantify-and-compare-rna-sequencing-from-non-model-organisms
#18
Ruei-Chi Gan, Ting-Wen Chen, Timothy H Wu, Po-Jung Huang, Chi-Ching Lee, Yuan-Ming Yeh, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Hsien-Da Huang, Petrus Tang
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing promises the de novo genomic and transcriptomic analysis of samples of interests. However, there are only a few organisms having reference genomic sequences and even fewer having well-defined or curated annotations. For transcriptome studies focusing on organisms lacking proper reference genomes, the common strategy is de novo assembly followed by functional annotation. However, things become even more complicated when multiple transcriptomes are compared...
December 22, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130909/the-importance-of-incorporating-functional-habitats-into-conservation-planning-for-highly-mobile-species-in-dynamic-systems
#19
Matthew H Webb, Aleks Terauds, Ayesha Tulloch, Phil Bell, Dejan Stojanovic, Robert Heinsohn
The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic, with serious implications for conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. Here we quantify dynamic change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding (i.e. food and nesting sites) for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the swift parrot (Lathamus discolor)...
January 28, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128324/intraspecific-geographic-variation-in-rod-and-cone-visual-pigment-sensitivity-of-a-parrot-platycercus-elegans
#20
Ben Knott, Mathew L Berg, Raoul F H Ribot, John A Endler, Andrew T D Bennett
Variation in wavelength sensitivity among subspecies is unknown among vertebrates. The parrot Platycercus elegans has extreme plumage variation between subspecies ranging from pale yellow to crimson which, with differences in background colour and light environment between subspecies, makes it a good candidate for the evolution of within-species differences in vision. We report differences in visual pigments between populations of P. elegans from two subspecies, providing the first known support for population and subspecies variation in visual pigments within a vertebrate species; it is also the first instance of intraspecific variation in rod sensitivity within any vertebrate species...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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