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Mahmoud El Azzouny, Melissa J Longacre, Israr-Ul H Ansari, Robert T Kennedy, Charles F Burant, Michael J MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells requires metabolic signals including the generation of glucose-derived short chain acyl-CoAs in the cytosol from mitochondrially-derived metabolites. One concept of insulin secretion is that ATP citrate lyase generates short chain acyl-CoAs in the cytosol from mitochondrially-derived citrate. Of these, malonyl-CoA, is believed to be an important signal in insulin secretion. Malonyl-CoA is also a precursor for lipids...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Mengling Peng, Jing Han, Longlong Li, Haitian Ma
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jihae Chung, Ignacio Granja, Michael G Taylor, Giannis Mpourmpakis, John R Asplin, Jeffrey D Rimer
Crystalline materials are crucial to the function of living organisms, in the shells of molluscs, the matrix of bone, the teeth of sea urchins, and the exoskeletons of coccoliths. However, pathological biomineralization can be an undesirable crystallization process associated with human diseases. The crystal growth of biogenic, natural and synthetic materials may be regulated by the action of modifiers, most commonly inhibitors, which range from small ions and molecules to large macromolecules. Inhibitors adsorb on crystal surfaces and impede the addition of solute, thereby reducing the rate of growth...
August 25, 2016: Nature
Utpala Parthasarathy, O P Nandakishore, O B Rosana, K Nirmal Babu, R Senthil Kumar, V A Parthasarathy
The genus Garcinia shows a considerable variation in its morphological characters such as leaf, flower and fruit with taxonomic ambiguity. It is a potential under-exploited multipurpose crop that gained considerable attention for the presence of (-) hydroxycitric acid, an anti-obesity compound, in its fruit rind and leaves. Here, we evaluated the genetic relationship through molecular markers among the selected 9 species commonly available in the Western Ghats and the Northeastern Himalayan foot hills of India...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Jisu Kim, Jonghoon Park, Kiwon Lim
Athletes make great efforts to increase their endurance capacity in many ways. Using nutrition supplements for stimulating lipolysis is one such strategy to improve endurance performance. These supplements contain certain ingredients that affect fat metabolism; furthermore, in combination with endurance training, they tend to have additive effects. A large body of scientific evidence shows that nutrition supplements increase fat metabolism; however, the usefulness of lipolytic supplements as ergogenic functional foods remains controversial...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Federico Pietrocola, Jonathan Pol, Erika Vacchelli, Shuan Rao, David P Enot, Elisa E Baracco, Sarah Levesque, Francesca Castoldi, Nicolas Jacquelot, Takahiro Yamazaki, Laura Senovilla, Guillermo Marino, Fernando Aranda, Sylvère Durand, Valentina Sica, Alexis Chery, Sylvie Lachkar, Verena Sigl, Norma Bloy, Aitziber Buque, Simonetta Falzoni, Bernhard Ryffel, Lionel Apetoh, Francesco Di Virgilio, Frank Madeo, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Laurence Zitvogel, Beth Levine, Josef M Penninger, Guido Kroemer
Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) mimic the biochemical effects of nutrient deprivation by reducing lysine acetylation of cellular proteins, thus triggering autophagy. Treatment with the CRM hydroxycitrate, an inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, induced the depletion of regulatory T cells (which dampen anticancer immunity) from autophagy-competent, but not autophagy-deficient, mutant KRAS-induced lung cancers in mice, thereby improving anticancer immunosurveillance and reducing tumor mass. Short-term fasting or treatment with several chemically unrelated autophagy-inducing CRMs, including hydroxycitrate and spermidine, improved the inhibition of tumor growth by chemotherapy in vivo...
July 11, 2016: Cancer Cell
Chih-Wei Chang, Tzu-Zung Huang, Wen-Hsin Chang, Yi-Chun Tseng, Yu-Tse Wu, Mei-Chich Hsu
BACKGROUND: The purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), known as the "queen of fruit," is widely consumed and unique not only because of its outstanding appearance and flavor but also its remarkable and diverse pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of acute mangosteen supplementation on physical fatigue during exercise. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was carried out by 12 healthy adults...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Ningning Han, Longlong Li, Mengling Peng, Haitian Ma
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major active ingredient of Garcinia Cambogia extracts, had shown to suppress body weight gain and fat accumulation in animals and humans. While, the underlying mechanism of (-)-HCA has not fully understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of long-term supplement with (-)-HCA on body weight gain and variances of amino acid content in rats. Results showed that (-)-HCA treatment reduced body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio in rats. The content of hepatic glycogen, muscle glycogen, and serum T4 , T3 , insulin, and Leptin were increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups...
August 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Ramalingam Sripradha, Magadi Gopalakrishna Sridhar, Nachimuthu Maithilikarpagaselvi
BACKGROUND: Excess fructose consumption causes dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and various complications. Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), one of the principal components of the fruit Garcinia cambogia, has been shown to possess antiobesity properties. The objective was to investigate the effects of HCA on redox imbalance and activation of stress sensitive kinases in high fructose-fed rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n=40) were randomly divided into four groups with 10 rats in each group...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Jing Han, Longlong Li, Dian Wang, Haitian Ma
BACKGROUND: Chicken as a delicious food for a long history, and it is well known that excess fat deposition in broiler chickens will not only induced metabolic diseases, but also lead to adverse effect in the consumer's health. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major active ingredient of Garcinia Cambogia extracts, had shown to suppress fat accumulation in animals and humans. While, the precise physiological mechanism of HCA has not yet been full clarified, especially its action in broiler chickens...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Sony S Thazhath, Tongzhi Wu, Michelle J Bound, Helen L Checklin, Scott Standfield, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K Rayner
OBJECTIVE: Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), derived from the fruit Garcinia cambogia, reduces the rate of glucose absorption and lowers postprandial glycemia in rodents, but its effect in humans is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of small intestinal perfusion with HCA on glucose absorption, as well as the incretin and glycemic responses to a subsequent intraduodenal glucose infusion, in both healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Twelve healthy participants and 8 patients with type 2 diabetes received an intraduodenal infusion of HCA (2800 mg in water) or control (water) over 60 min, followed by an intraduodenal infusion of 60 g glucose over 120 min, in a double-blind, randomized crossover design...
May 2016: Nutrition
Patricia Fassina, Fernanda Scherer Adami, Valdeni Terezinha Zani, Isabel Cristina Kasper Machado, Juliano Garavaglia, Magali Terezinha Quevedo Grave, Renata Ramos, Simone Morelo Dal Bosco
INTRODUCTION: due to the significant increase in the obesity rate in recent years, public health has been facing in many countries of the world, one of the major problems caused by this disease. Because of this, natural products arise, herbal, to assist in the treatment of obesity due to their safer effects. Among these, stands out the extract obtained from dried fruits of Garcinia Cambogia (GC), which has been studied and used as a natural supplement for weight loss. OBJECTIVE: to investigate the GC administration as a coadjuvant factor in the treatment of obesity regarding to its effectiveness, way of action, recommended daily amount, side effects and contraindications, as a way of food and nutritional security for the population...
2015: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe
Ketogenic diets are markedly neuroprotective, but the basis of this effect is still poorly understood. Recent studies demonstrate that ketone bodies increase neuronal levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), possibly owing to succinate-mediated inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase activity. Moreover, there is reason to suspect that ketones can activate Sirt1 in neurons, in part by increasing cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of Sirt1's obligate cofactor NAD(+). Another recent study has observed reduced activity of mTORC1 in the hippocampus of rats fed a ketogenic diet - an effect plausibly attributable to Sirt1 activation...
November 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Prapaipit Suwitchayanon, Piyatida Pukclai, Osamu Ohno, Kiyotake Suenaga, Hisashi Kato-Noguchi
In this study, an allelopathic substance was isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. by column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate. Trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate inhibited the growth of cress hypocotyls and roots at concentrations greater than 10 mM. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of the hypocotyls and roots of cress were 20...
May 2015: Natural Product Communications
Takahiro Ishii, Kenichi Nonaka, Akihiro Sugawara, Masato Iwatsuki, Rokuro Masuma, Tomoyasu Hirose, Toshiaki Sunazuka, Satoshi Ōmura, Kazuro Shiomi
Two new hydroxycitric acid lactone derivatives named cinatrins D (1) and E (2), and a new γ-lactam, virgaricin B (3), along with a known similar compound, virgaricin (4), were isolated from a fermentation broth of the fungus Virgaria boninensis FKI-4958. The absolute stereo structures of the new compounds were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods and chemical modifications. All three newly discovered compounds possessed weak antibacterial activity.
October 2015: Journal of Antibiotics
Danial Barati, Joshua D Walters, Seyed Ramin Pajoum Shariati, Seyedsina Moeinzadeh, Esmaiel Jabbari
Carboxylate-rich organic acids play an important role in controlling the growth of apatite crystals and the extent of mineralization in the natural bone. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of organic acids on calcium phosphate (CaP) nucleation on nanofiber microsheets functionalized with a glutamic acid peptide and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on the CaP-nucleated microsheets. High molecular weight poly(dl-lactide) (DL-PLA) was mixed with low molecular weight L-PLA conjugated with Glu-Glu-Gly-Gly-Cys peptide, and the mixture was electrospun to generate aligned nanofiber microsheets...
May 12, 2015: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ruchi Badoni Semwal, Deepak Kumar Semwal, Ilze Vermaak, Alvaro Viljoen
The fruit rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta, commonly known as Garcinia cambogia (syn.), is extensively used traditionally as a flavourant in fish curries due to its sharp sour taste. Additional ethnobotanical uses include its use as a digestive and a traditional remedy to treat bowel complaints, intestinal parasites and rheumatism. This small fruit, reminiscent of a pumpkin in appearance, is currently most popularly used and widely advertised as a weight-loss supplement. Studies have shown that the extracts as well as (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind, exhibited anti-obesity activity including reduced food intake and body fat gain by regulating the serotonin levels related to satiety, increased fat oxidation and decreased de novo lipogenesis...
April 2015: Fitoterapia
Guillermo Mariño, Federico Pietrocola, Frank Madeo, Guido Kroemer
Nutrient depletion, which is one of the physiological triggers of autophagy, results in the depletion of intracellular acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) coupled to the deacetylation of cellular proteins. We surmise that there are 3 possibilities to mimic these effects, namely (i) the depletion of cytosolic AcCoA by interfering with its biosynthesis, (ii) the inhibition of acetyltransferases, which are enzymes that transfer acetyl groups from AcCoA to other molecules, mostly leucine residues in cellular proteins, or (iii) the stimulation of deacetylases, which catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from leucine residues...
2014: Autophagy
Mohamed A Farag, Aisha H Abou Zeid, Manal A Hamed, Zeinab Kandeel, Hanaa M El-Rafie, Radwa H El-Akad
Brachychiton acerifolius, or Sterculia acerifolia as formerly known, is a member of a genus reported for a myriad of bioactive compounds. Metabolome analysis of B. acerifolius--leaves, flowers and seeds--and quantification of its major compounds are demonstrated in this study. Metabolites were analysed via UPLC-PDA-qTOF-(±) ESI-MS and UPLC/ITMS, with a total of 56 metabolites characterised including 30 flavonoids, 2 anthocyanins, 6 phenolic acids (i.e. citric and hydroxycitric acid conjugates) and 8 fatty acids (FAs)...
2015: Natural Product Research
V M Nisha, A Priyanka, S S Anusree, K G Raghu
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an emerging potential therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome due to its role in synthesis, secretion, and folding of proteins. It leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which, along with mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced antioxidant defense, causes chronic cell injury. The present investigation aims to observe the alterations in adipocytes due to ER stress and the protective effect of hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a bioactive from Garcinia species, to develop the same as a nutraceutical...
November 2014: Free Radical Research
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