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Paul Young

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329761/somatic-mutations-reveal-asymmetric-cellular-dynamics-in-the-early-human-embryo
#1
Young Seok Ju, Inigo Martincorena, Moritz Gerstung, Mia Petljak, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Raheleh Rahbari, David C Wedge, Helen R Davies, Manasa Ramakrishna, Anthony Fullam, Sancha Martin, Christopher Alder, Nikita Patel, Steve Gamble, Sarah O'Meara, Dilip D Giri, Torril Sauer, Sarah E Pinder, Colin A Purdie, Åke Borg, Henk Stunnenberg, Marc van de Vijver, Benita K T Tan, Carlos Caldas, Andrew Tutt, Naoto T Ueno, Laura J van 't Veer, John W M Martens, Christos Sotiriou, Stian Knappskog, Paul N Span, Sunil R Lakhani, Jórunn Erla Eyfjörd, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Andrea Richardson, Alastair M Thompson, Alain Viari, Matthew E Hurles, Serena Nik-Zainal, Peter J Campbell, Michael R Stratton
Somatic cells acquire mutations throughout the course of an individual's life. Mutations occurring early in embryogenesis are often present in a substantial proportion of, but not all, cells in postnatal humans and thus have particular characteristics and effects. Depending on their location in the genome and the proportion of cells they are present in, these mosaic mutations can cause a wide range of genetic disease syndromes and predispose carriers to cancer. They have a high chance of being transmitted to offspring as de novo germline mutations and, in principle, can provide insights into early human embryonic cell lineages and their contributions to adult tissues...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328739/effects-of-a-brief-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-group-intervention-on-baseline-brain-perfusion-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Zrinka Sosic-Vasic, Birgit Abler, Georg Grön, Paul Plener, Joana Straub
A number of neuroimaging studies have identified altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult samples, particularly in the lateral prefrontal, cingular and temporal regions. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations in adolescents with MDD are rare, although investigating young patients during a significant period of brain maturation might offer valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of MDD. We acquired perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labelling in 21 medication-naive adolescents with MDD before and after a five-session cognitive behavioural group therapy (group CBT)...
March 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328712/resistance-training-induced-elevations-in-muscular-strength-in-trained-men-are-maintained-after-2-weeks-of-detraining-and-not-differentially-affected-by-whey-protein-supplementation
#3
Paul S Hwang, Thomas L Andre, Sarah K McKinley-Barnard, Flor E Morales Marroquín, Joshua J Gann, Joon J Song, Darryn S Willoughby
Hwang, PS, Andre, TL, McKinley-Barnard, SK, Morales Marroquín, FE, Gann, JJ, Song, JJ, and Willoughby, DS. Resistance training-induced elevations in muscular strength in trained men are maintained after 2 weeks of detraining and not differentially affected by whey protein supplementation. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 869-881, 2017-Resistance training (RT) with nutritional strategies incorporating whey protein intake postexercise can stimulate muscle protein synthesis and elicit hypertrophy. The early phases of training-induced anabolic responses can be attenuated with longer-term training...
April 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327972/orthogonal-decomposition-of-left-ventricular-remodelling-in-myocardial-infarction
#4
Xingyu Zhang, Pau Medrano-Gracia, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, David A Bluemke, Brett R Cowan, J Paul Finn, Alan H Kadish, Daniel C Lee, Joao A C Lima, Alistair A Young, Avan Suinesiaputra
Background: Left ventricular size and shape is important for quantifying cardiac remodelling in response to cardiovascular disease. Geometric remodelling indices have been shown to have prognostic value in predicting adverse events in the clinical literature, but these often describe interrelated shape changes. We developed a novel method for deriving orthogonal remodelling components directly from any (moderately independent) set of clinical remodelling indices. Results: Six clinical remodelling indices (end-diastolic volume index, sphericity, relative wall thickness, ejection fraction, apical conicity and longitudinal shortening) were evaluated using cardiac magnetic resonance images of 300 patients with myocardial infarction, and 1991 asymptomatic subjects, obtained from the Cardiac Atlas Project...
February 6, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327927/pineoblastoma-the-experience-at-st-jude-children-s-research-hospital
#5
Kara A Parikh, Garrett T Venable, Brent A Orr, Asim F Choudhri, Frederick A Boop, Amar J Gajjar, Paul Klimo
BACKGROUND: Pineoblastomas are rare, supratentorial, primitive neuroectodermal tumors. OBJECTIVE: To document outcomes with multimodal therapy and evaluate the impact that the degree of surgical resection has on outcome. METHODS: A departmental brain tumor database was queried to identify all patients with pathologically proven pineoblastoma who were treated from January 1997 to June 2015 at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. For each patient, we recorded demographic, pathological, radiological, surgical, and clinical follow-up data...
March 15, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326289/experimentally-increasing-sedentary-behavior-results-in-decreased-life-satisfaction
#6
Meghan K Edwards, Paul D Loprinzi
Background: No study has experimentally manipulated sedentary behavior and evaluated its effect on life satisfaction. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a free-living, sedentary behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on life satisfaction. Methods: Active, young adults between the ages of 18-35 were recruited and randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n = 26) or a control group (n = 13). The intervention group participants were instructed to eliminate all exercise and restrict daily steps (as measured via pedometry) to 5000 or less per day for one week...
2017: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323582/white-matter-integrity-in-high-altitude-pilots-exposed-to-hypobaria
#7
Stephen A McGuire, Goldie R E Boone, Paul M Sherman, David F Tate, Joe D Wood, Beenish Patel, George Eskandar, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Laura M Rowland, Geoffrey D Clarke, Patrick M Grogan, John H Sladky, Peter V Kochunov
INTRODUCTION: Nonhypoxic hypobaric (low atmospheric pressure) occupational exposure, such as experienced by U.S. Air Force U-2 pilots and safety personnel operating inside altitude chambers, is associated with increased subcortical white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this discrete WMH change remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that occupational exposure to nonhypoxic hypobaria is associated with altered white matter integrity as quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA) measured using diffusion tensor imaging and relate these findings to WMH burden and neurocognitive ability...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322444/identification-and-characterization-of-site-specific-n-glycosylation-in-the-potassium-channel-kv3-1b
#8
Paul Christian Vicente, Jin Young Kim, Jeong-Ju Ha, Min-Young Song, Hyun-Kyung Lee, Dong-Hyun Kim, Jin-Sung Choi, Kang-Sik Park
The potassium ion channel Kv3.1b is a member of a family of voltage-gated ion channels that are glycosylated in their mature form. In the present study, we demonstrate the impact of N-glycosylation at specific asparagine residues on the trafficking of the Kv3.1b protein. Large quantities of asparagine 229 (N229)-glycosylated Kv3.1b reached the plasma membrane, whereas N220-glycosylated and unglycosylated Kv3.1b were mainly retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These ER-retained Kv3.1b proteins were susceptible to degradation when co-expressed with calnexin, whereas Kv3...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320432/facing-the-ongoing-challenge-of-the-febrile-young-infant
#9
REVIEW
Adrienne G DePorre, Paul L Aronson, Russell J McCulloh
This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2017. Other selected articles can be found online at http://ccforum.com/series/annualupdate2017 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901 .
March 21, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319023/isolated-bilateral-simplex-ureteric-ectopia-bladder-capacity-as-an-indicator-of-continence-outcome
#10
Vasilis Stavrinides, Paul Charlesworth, Dan Wood, Divyesh Desai, Abraham Cherian, Imran Mushtaq, Peter Cuckow, Naima Smeulders
INTRODUCTION: Isolated bilateral simplex ectopic ureters (BSEUs) are rare but pose a therapeutic challenge: ureteric reimplantation alone does not accomplish continence in all. Identifying the patients needing additional procedures for continence early could prevent multiple operations. OBJECTIVE: Potential preoperative indicators for postoperative continence are explored in eight BSEU girls without cloacal, anorectal, or spinal anomalies. STUDY DESIGN: With institutional approval, all patients with BSEU between 1985 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318486/structural-basis-of-transcription-arrest-by-coliphage-hk022-nun-in-an-escherichia-coli-rna-polymerase-elongation-complex
#11
Jin Young Kang, Paul Dominic B Olinares, James Chen, Elizabeth A Campbell, Arkady Mustaev, Brian T Chait, Max E Gottesman, Seth A Darst
Coliphage HK022 Nun blocks superinfection by coliphage λ by stalling RNA polymerase (RNAP) translocation specifically on λΔNA.To provide a structural framework to understand how Nun blocks RNAP translocation, we determined structures of Escherichia coli RNAP ternary elongation complexes (TECs) with and without Nun by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. Nun fits tightly into the TEC by taking advantage of gaps between the RNAP and the nucleic acids. The C-terminal segment of Nun interacts with the RNAP β and β' subunits inside the RNAP active site cleft as well as with nearly every element of the nucleic-acid scaffold, essentially crosslinking the RNAP and the nucleic acids to prevent translocation, a mechanism supported by the effects of Nun amino acid substitutions...
March 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317104/contact-and-contagion-bighorn-sheep-demographic-states-vary-in-probability-of-transmission-given-contact
#12
Kezia R Manlove, E Frances Cassirer, Raina K Plowright, Paul C Cross, Peter J Hudson
1.Understanding both contact and probability of transmission given contact are key to managing wildlife disease. However, wildlife disease research tends to focus on contact heterogeneity, in part because probability of transmission given contact is notoriously difficult to measure. Here we present a first step toward empirically investigating probability of transmission given contact in free-ranging wildlife. 2.We used measured contact networks to test whether bighorn sheep demographic states vary systematically in infectiousness or susceptibility to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an agent responsible for bighorn sheep pneumonia...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303382/a-rare-case-of-non-traumatic-multi-level-bilateral-pedicle-fractures-of-the-lumbar-spine-in-a-60-year-old-patient
#13
Timo Schmid, Paul Heini, Lorin Benneker
INTRODUCTION: We report a 60-year-old patient who sustained non-traumatic, multi-level, bilateral lumbar pedicle fractures in the setting of unilateral lumbar spondylolysis. A possible fracture mechanism is evaluated and a review of the literature is presented. Whereas contralateral pedicle fractures of lumbar vertebrae with unilateral spondylosis are well described in young athletes, there is only one case report of multi-level, bilateral pedicle fractures of the lumbar spine in a young patient who sustained a high-impact motorcycle accident...
March 16, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299968/setting-a-minimum-age-for-juvenile-justice-jurisdiction-in-california
#14
Elizabeth S Barnert, Laura S Abrams, Cheryl Maxson, Lauren Gase, Patricia Soung, Paul Carroll, Eraka Bath
Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297978/phase-behavior-of-charged-colloids-at-a-fluid-interface
#15
Colm P Kelleher, Rodrigo E Guerra, Andrew D Hollingsworth, Paul M Chaikin
We study the phase behavior of a system of charged colloidal particles that are electrostatically bound to an almost flat interface between two fluids. We show that, despite the fact that our experimental system consists of only 10^{3}-10^{4} particles, the phase behavior is consistent with the theory of melting due to Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson, and Young. Using spatial and temporal correlations of the bond-orientational order parameter, we classify our samples into solid, isotropic fluid, and hexatic phases...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294629/sport-concussion-management-using-facebook-a-feasibility-study-of-an-innovative-adjunct-icon
#16
Osman Hassan Ahmed, Anthony G Schneiders, Paul R McCrory, S John Sullivan
CONTEXT:   Sport concussion is currently the focus of much international attention. Innovative methods to assist athletic trainers in facilitating management after this injury need to be investigated. OBJECTIVE:   To investigate the feasibility of using a Facebook concussion-management program termed iCon (interactive concussion management) to facilitate the safe return to play (RTP) of young persons after sport concussion. DESIGN:   Observational study...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290961/kcnq1-gene-variants-in-large-asymptomatic-populations-considerations-for-genomic-screening-of-military-cohorts
#17
Paul Kruszka, Karin Weiss, Donald W Hadley
INTRODUCTION: The advances in genomic technology of large populations make the potential for genomic screening of military cohorts and recruits feasible, affording the potential to identify at-risk individuals before occurrence of potentially life-threatening events. Exploring sudden cardiac death, known to cause significant morbidity and mortality in young military service members, we focused on the most common gene associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS), KCNQ1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the publicly available database Exome Aggregation Consortium as a surrogate for a military population, variants in KCNQ1 were filtered on the basis of population prevalence, classification as a disease mutation in the Human Gene Mutation database, and classification as pathogenic or likely pathogenic in the ClinVar database...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289563/persistent-erectile-dysfunction-in-men-exposed-to-the-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-finasteride-or-dutasteride
#18
Tina Kiguradze, William H Temps, Paul R Yarnold, John Cashy, Robert E Brannigan, Beatrice Nardone, Giuseppe Micali, Dennis Paul West, Steven M Belknap
IMPORTANCE: Case reports describe persistent erectile dysfunction (PED) associated with exposure to 5α-reductase inhibitors (5α-RIs). Clinical trial reports and the manufacturers' full prescribing information (FPI) for finasteride and dutasteride state that risk of sexual adverse effects is not increased by longer duration of 5α-RI exposure and that sexual adverse effects of 5α-RIs resolve in men who discontinue exposure. OBJECTIVE: Our chief objective was to assess whether longer duration of 5α-RI exposure increases risk of PED, independent of age and other known risk factors...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287934/seasonal-patterns-in-eastern-equine-encephalitis-virus-antibody-in-songbirds-in-southern-maine
#19
Susan P Elias, Patrick Keenan, Joan L Kenney, Sara R Morris, Kristen M Covino, Sara Robinson, Kimberly A Foss, Peter W Rand, Charles Lubelczyk, Eleanor H Lacombe, John-Paul Mutebi, David Evers, Robert P Smith
The intent of this study was to assess passerine eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEv) seroprevalence during the breeding season in southern Maine by testing songbird species identified in the literature as amplifying hosts of this virus. In 2013 and 2014, we collected serum samples from songbirds at a mainland site and an offshore island migratory stopover site, and screened samples for EEEv antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. We compared seasonal changes in EEEv antibody seroprevalence in young (hatched in year of capture) and adult birds at the mainland site, and also compared early season seroprevalence in mainland versus offshore adult birds...
March 13, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287752/racial-bias-in-judgments-of-physical-size-and-formidability-from-size-to-threat
#20
John Paul Wilson, Kurt Hugenberg, Nicholas O Rule
Black men tend to be stereotyped as threatening and, as a result, may be disproportionately targeted by police even when unarmed. Here, we found evidence that biased perceptions of young Black men's physical size may play a role in this process. The results of 7 studies showed that people have a bias to perceive young Black men as bigger (taller, heavier, more muscular) and more physically threatening (stronger, more capable of harm) than young White men. Both bottom-up cues of racial prototypicality and top-down information about race supported these misperceptions...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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