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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735520/gemst-a-taylor-made-combination-that-reverts-neuroanatomical-changes-in-stroke
#1
Arturo Mangas, Javier Yajeya, Noelia González, Isabel Ruiz, Marianny Pernìa, Michel Geffard, Rafael Coveñas
In a single transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke and using immunohistochemical techniques, the effects of a new therapeutic approach named Gemst (a member of the Poly-L-Lysine innovative therapies) have been studied in the rat brain. The expression of inflammatory (CD45, CD11b), oxidative (NO-tryptophan, NO2-tyrosine) and indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase pathway (kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxy anthranilic acid) markers has been evaluated in early and late phases of stroke. For this purpose, we have developed eight highly specific monoclonal antibodies directed against some of these markers...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733781/bitc-and-s-carvone-restrain-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-ameliorate-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#2
Sary Alsanea, Dexi Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the preventative activity of benzyl isothiocyante and S-carvone against high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic complications. METHODS: Ten-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were fed a high-fat diet and injected intraperitoneally twice per week with benzyl isothiocyante, S-carvone, or vehicle for 8 weeks. The body weight, food intake, and body composition were monitored, and glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests were performed at the end of the experiment...
July 21, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732201/small-molecules-for-early-endosome-specific-patch-clamping
#3
Cheng-Chang Chen, Elisabeth S Butz, Yu-Kai Chao, Yulia Grishchuk, Lars Becker, Stefan Heller, Susan A Slaugenhaupt, Martin Biel, Christian Wahl-Schott, Christian Grimm
To resolve the subcellular distribution of endolysosomal ion channels, we have established a novel experimental approach to selectively patch clamp Rab5 positive early endosomes (EE) versus Rab7/LAMP1-positive late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LY). To functionally characterize ion channels in endolysosomal membranes with the patch-clamp technique, it is important to develop techniques to selectively enlarge the respective organelles. We found here that two small molecules, wortmannin and latrunculin B, enlarge Rab5-positive EE when combined but not Rab7-, LAMP1-, or Rab11 (RE)-positive vesicles...
July 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732024/4-nitrophenylsulfonyl-piperazines-mitigate-radiation-damage-to-multiple-tissues
#4
Ewa D Micewicz, Kwanghee Kim, Keisuke S Iwamoto, Josephine A Ratikan, Genhong Cheng, Gayle M Boxx, Robert D Damoiseaux, Julian P Whitelegge, Piotr Ruchala, Christine Nguyen, Prabhat Purbey, Joseph Loo, Gang Deng, Michael E Jung, James W Sayre, Andrew J Norris, Dörthe Schaue, William H McBride
Our ability to use ionizing radiation as an energy source, as a therapeutic agent, and, unfortunately, as a weapon, has evolved tremendously over the past 120 years, yet our tool box to handle the consequences of accidental and unwanted radiation exposure remains very limited. We have identified a novel group of small molecule compounds with a 4-nitrophenylsulfonamide (NPS) backbone in common that dramatically decrease mortality from the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (hARS). The group emerged from an in vitro high throughput screen (HTS) for inhibitors of radiation-induced apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730145/prokaryotic-rna-associated-to-bacterial-viability-induces-polymorphonuclear-neutrophil-activation
#5
Nahuel Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Luis A Castillo, Verónica I Landoni, Daiana Martire-Greco, M Ayelén Milillo, Paula Barrionuevo, Gabriela C Fernández
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cellular line of antibacterial host defense. They sense pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PMN sense bacterial viability and explore which viability factor could be involved in this phenomenon. For this purpose, different functions were evaluated in isolated human PMN using live Escherichia coli (Ec) and heat-killed Ec (HK-Ec)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728289/-the-protective-effect-of-pigment-epithelial-derived-factor-modified-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-rats-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#6
W Zhang, H T Duan, S Chen, Y X Wang, J H Kong, M Dong, X Bi, J Song
Objective: To investigate the effect of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) gene-modified human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on rats with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Experimental study. Human umbilical cord MSC were transfected by lentivirus packaging PEDF-MSC-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and GFP-MSC plasmid vectors, and the expression of PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured in the cell culture medium. Fifty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group (group A), DR control group (group B), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) treated group (group C), GFP-MSC treated group (group D) and PEDF-MSC-GFP treated group (group E), with 10 rats in each group...
July 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725968/microglial-mediated-pdgf-cc-activation-increases-cerebrovascular-permeability-during-ischemic-stroke
#7
Enming Joseph Su, Chunzhang Cao, Linda Fredriksson, Ingrid Nilsson, Christina Stefanitsch, Tamara K Stevenson, Juanjuan Zhao, Margret Ragsdale, Yu-Yo Sun, Manuel Yepes, Chia-Yi Kuan, Ulf Eriksson, Dudley K Strickland, Daniel A Lawrence, Li Zhang
Treatment of acute ischemic stroke with the thrombolytic tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can significantly improve neurological outcomes; however, thrombolytic therapy is associated with an increased risk of intra-cerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Previously, we demonstrated that during stroke tPA acting on the parenchymal side of the neurovascular unit (NVU) can increase blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and ICH through activation of latent platelet-derived growth factor-CC (PDGF-CC) and signaling by the PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα)...
July 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724382/activation-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-attenuates-surgery-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-through-anti-inflammatory-activity
#8
Lingling Sun, Rui Dong, Xin Xu, Xi Yang, Mian Peng
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays a major role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Accumulated evidence indicates that cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) can mediate anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in part by controlling microglial activity. However, the impact of CB2R on postoperative cognition has not been investigated. We hypothesized that CB2R is involved in surgery-induced cognitive impairment in adult mice. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intramedullary fixation surgery for tibial fracture under isoflurane anesthesia and CB2R agonist (JWH133) or CB2R antagonist (AM630) treatment...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722316/the-mincle-ligand-trehalose-dibehenate-differentially-modulates-m1-like-and-m2-like-macrophage-phenotype-and-function-via-syk-signaling
#9
Kristel Kodar, Jacquie L Harper, Melanie J McConnell, Mattie S M Timmer, Bridget L Stocker
INTRODUCTION: Macrophages play a significant role in the progression of diseases, such as cancer, making them a target for immune-modulating agents. Trehalose dibehenate (TDB) is known to activate M1-like macrophages via Mincle, however, the effect of TDB on M2-like macrophages, which are found in the tumor microenvironment, has not been studied. METHODS: qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, cytokine ELISA, and Western Blotting were used to study the effect of TDB on GM-CSF and M-CSF/IL-4 derived bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) from C57BL/6 and Mincle(-/-) mice...
July 19, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720143/mhc-class-ii-expression-and-potential-antigen-presenting-cells-in-the-retina-during-experimental-autoimmune-uveitis
#10
Deborah A Lipski, Rémi Dewispelaere, Vincent Foucart, Laure E Caspers, Matthieu Defrance, Catherine Bruyns, François Willermain
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists regarding which cell types are responsible for autoantigen presentation in the retina during experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) development. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize the retinal resident and infiltrating cells susceptible to express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II during EAU. METHODS: EAU was induced in C57BL/6 mice by adoptive transfer of autoreactive lymphocytes from IRBP1-20-immunized animals...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720095/fibrocyte-measurement-in-peripheral-blood-correlates-with-number-of-cultured-mature-fibrocytes-in-vitro-and-is-a-potential-biomarker-for-interstitial-lung-disease-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Søren Andreas Just, Hanne Lindegaard, Eva Kildall Hejbøl, Jesper Rømhild Davidsen, Niels Bjerring, Søren Werner Karlskov Hansen, Henrik Daa Schrøder, Inger Marie Jensen Hansen, Torben Barington, Christian Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) can be a severe extra-articular disease manifestation in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). A potential role of fibrocytes in RA associated ILD (RA-ILD) has not previously been described. We present a modified faster method for measuring circulating fibrocytes, without intracellular staining. The results are compared to the traditional culture method, where the number of monocytes that differentiate into mature fibrocytes in vitro are counted. The results are following compared to disease activity in patients with severe asthma, ILD, RA (without diagnosed ILD) and RA with verified ILD (RA-ILD)...
July 18, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719855/high-fat-diet-and-aging-interact-to-produce-neuroinflammation-and-impair-hippocampal-and-amygdalar-dependent-memory
#12
Sarah J Spencer, Heather D'Angelo, Alita Soch, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier, Ruth M Barrientos
More Americans are consuming diets higher in saturated fats and refined sugars than ever before, and based on increasing obesity rates, this is a growing trend among older adults as well. While high saturated fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to sensitize the inflammatory response to a subsequent immune challenge in young adult rats, the inflammatory effect of HFD in the already-vulnerable aging brain has not yet been assessed. Here, we explored whether short-term (3 days) consumption of HFD would serve as a neuroinflammatory trigger in aging animals, leading to cognitive deficits...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719602/prehospital-immune-responses-and-development-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-following-traumatic-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Jon Hazeldine, David N Naumann, Emma Toman, David Davies, Jonathan R B Bishop, Zhangjie Su, Peter Hampson, Robert J Dinsdale, Nicholas Crombie, Niharika Arora Duggal, Paul Harrison, Antonio Belli, Janet M Lord
BACKGROUND: Almost all studies that have investigated the immune response to trauma have analysed blood samples acquired post-hospital admission. Thus, we know little of the immune status of patients in the immediate postinjury phase and how this might influence patient outcomes. The objective of this study was therefore to comprehensively assess the ultra-early, within 1-hour, immune response to trauma and perform an exploratory analysis of its relationship with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715352/commensal-bacterial-modulation-of-the-host-immune-response-to-ameliorate-pain-in-a-murine-model-of-chronic-prostatitis
#14
Stephen F Murphy, Anthony J Schaeffer, Joseph D Done, Marsha L Quick, Utkucan Acar, Praveen Thumbikat
The human commensal microflora plays an essential role in modulating the immune response to control homeostasis. Staphylococcus epidermidis, a commensal bacterium most commonly associated with the skin exerts such effects locally, modulating local immune responses during inflammation and preventing superinfection by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Although the prostate is considered by many to be sterile, multiple investigations have shown that small numbers of gram-positive bacterial species such as S...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714582/altered-levels-of-soluble-cd18-may-associate-immune-mechanisms-with-outcome-in-sepsis
#15
Tue Wenzel Kragstrup, Kristian Juul-Madsen, Stig Hill Christiansen, Xianwei Zhang, Jan Krog, Thomas Vorup-Jensen, Anders Gade Kjaergaard
The pathogenesis of sepsis involves a dual inflammatory response, with a hyper-inflammatory phase followed by, or in combination with, a hypo-inflammatory phase. The adhesion molecules LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) and Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) support leukocyte adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecules and phagocytosis through complement opsonisation, both processes relevant to the immune response during sepsis. Here, we investigate the role of soluble (s)CD18 in sepsis with emphasis on sCD18 as a mechanistic biomarker of immune reactions and outcome of sepsis...
July 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713424/prolonged-survival-of-subcutaneous-allogeneic-islet-graft-by-donor-chimerism-without-immunosuppressive-treatment
#16
Brend Ray-Sea Hsu, Shin-Huei Fu, Aline Yen Ling Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate whether tolerance-induced protection of islets in the renal subcapsular space can also prevent subcutaneous allogeneic islets from being rejected. We used bone marrow stem cells from C57BL/6 (H2(b)) mice to construct donor chimerism in conditioned diabetic BALB/c (H2(d)) mice and investigated the effect of donor chimerism on engraftment and survival of subcutaneously transplanted allogeneic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. We also studied the anti-inflammatory effect of mesenchymal stem cell on islet engraftment...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710252/an-unbiased-linkage-approach-reveals-that-the-p53-pathway-is-coupled-to-nk-cell-maturation
#17
Roxanne Collin, Charles St-Pierre, Lorie Guilbault, Victor Mullins-Dansereau, Antonia Policheni, Fanny Guimont-Desrochers, Adam-Nicolas Pelletier, Daniel H Gray, Elliot Drobetsky, Claude Perreault, Erin E Hillhouse, Sylvie Lesage
Natural killer cells constitute potent innate lymphoid cells that play a major role in both tumor immunosurveillance and viral clearance via their effector functions. A four-stage model of NK cell functional maturation has been established according to the expression of CD11b and CD27, separating mature NK (mNK) cells into distinct populations that exhibit specific phenotypic and functional properties. To identify genetic factors involved in the regulation of NK cell functional maturation, we performed a linkage analysis on F2 (B6...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710250/near-infrared-1064-nm-laser-modulates-migratory-dendritic-cells-to-augment-the-immune-response-to-intradermal-influenza-vaccine
#18
Kaitlyn Morse, Yoshifumi Kimizuka, Megan P K Chan, Mai Shibata, Yusuke Shimaoka, Shu Takeuchi, Benjamin Forbes, Christopher Nirschl, Binghao Li, Yang Zeng, Roderick T Bronson, Wataru Katagiri, Ayako Shigeta, Ruxandra F Sîrbulescu, Huabiao Chen, Rhea Y Y Tan, Kosuke Tsukada, Timothy Brauns, Jeffrey Gelfand, Ann Sluder, Joseph J Locascio, Mark C Poznansky, Niroshana Anandasabapathy, Satoshi Kashiwagi
Brief exposure of skin to near-infrared (NIR) laser light has been shown to augment the immune response to intradermal vaccination and thus act as an immunologic adjuvant. Although evidence indicates that the NIR laser adjuvant has the capacity to activate innate subsets including dendritic cells (DCs) in skin as conventional adjuvants do, the precise immunological mechanism by which the NIR laser adjuvant acts is largely unknown. In this study we sought to identify the cellular target of the NIR laser adjuvant by using an established mouse model of intradermal influenza vaccination and examining the alteration of responses resulting from genetic ablation of specific DC populations...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708898/retreatment-strategies-following-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-smile-in-vivo-tissue-responses
#19
Andri K Riau, Yu-Chi Liu, Chris H L Lim, Nyein C Lwin, Ericia P Teo, Gary H Yam, Donald T Tan, Jodhbir S Mehta
With any refractive correction, including Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE), there may be a residual refractive error that requires a retreatment. Here, we investigated the tissue responses following various retreatment procedures in a rabbit model of SMILE. All rabbits underwent a -6.00D correction with SMILE. Two weeks later, they underwent -1.00D enhancement by: (i) VisuMax Circle, followed by excimer ablation (S+C); (ii) secondary SMILE anterior to the primary procedure (S+SE); or (iii) surface ablation (S+P), and were examined for 28 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706956/ethyl-caffeate-ameliorates-collagen-induced-arthritis-by-suppressing-th1-immune-response
#20
Shikui Xu, Aixue Zuo, Zengjun Guo, Chunping Wan
The present study was designed to assess the antiarthritic potential of ECF in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and explore its underlying mechanism. Methods. In vitro, lymphocyte proliferation assay was measured by CCK-8 kit. In vivo, the therapeutic potential of ECF on CIA was investigated; surface marker, Treg cell, and intracellular cytokines (IL-17A and IFN-γ) were detected by flow cytometry. Th1 cell differentiation assay was performed, and mRNA expression in interferon-γ-related signaling was examined by q-PCR analysis...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
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