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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911101/in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-evaluation-of-inflammation-and-apoptosis-induced-after-smile-procedures-for-different-refractive-error-range
#1
Leonardo Mastropasqua, Roberta Calienno, Claudia Curcio, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Mario Nubile, Niccolò Salgari, Manuela Lanzini
PURPOSE: To detect corneal inflammation and apoptosis induced after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) at different refractive corrections for moderate to high values of myopia. METHODS: Fifty patients (50 eyes) suffering from medium to high myopia (spherical equivalent refraction from -3.75 to -10.00 diopters (D) with refractive astigmatism under -0.75 D) underwent SMILE in order to correct myopic error. In vivo evaluation was done by corneal confocal microscopy (IVCM) and ex vivo by immunohistochemistry...
December 2, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908893/tracking-monocyte-recruitment-and-macrophage-accumulation-in-atherosclerotic-plaque-progression-using-a-novel-hcd68gfp-apoe-reporter-mouse
#2
Eileen McNeill, Asif J Iqbal, Daniel Jones, Jyoti Patel, Patricia Coutinho, Lewis Taylor, David R Greaves, Keith M Channon
OBJECTIVE: To create a model of atherosclerosis using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-targeted monocytes/macrophages, allowing analysis of both endogenous GFP(+) and adoptively transferred GFP(+) myeloid cells in arterial inflammation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: hCD68GFP reporter mice were crossed with ApoE(-/-) mice. Expression of GFP was localized to macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques and in angiotensin II-induced aortic aneurysms and correlated with galectin 3 and mCD68 expression. Flow cytometry confirmed GFP(+) expression in CD11b(+)/CD64(+), CD11c(+)/MHC-II(HI), and CD11b(+)/F4/80(+) myeloid cells...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906115/established-cell-surface-markers-efficiently-isolate-highly-overlapping-populations-of-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-by-fluorescence-activated-cell-sorting
#3
Claire C Maesner, Albert E Almada, Amy J Wagers
BACKGROUND: Fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) has enabled the direct isolation of highly enriched skeletal muscle stem cell, or satellite cell, populations from postnatal tissue. Several distinct surface marker panels containing different positively selecting surface antigens have been used to distinguish muscle satellite cells from other non-myogenic cell types. Because functional and transcriptional heterogeneity is known to exist within the satellite cell population, a direct comparison of results obtained in different laboratories has been complicated by a lack of clarity as to whether commonly utilized surface marker combinations select for distinct or overlapping subsets of the satellite cell pool...
November 8, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905913/sera-from-severe-trauma-patients-with-pneumonia-and-without-infectious-complications-have-differential-effects-on-neutrophil-biology
#4
B Relja, R Taraki, M P J Teuben, K Mörs, N Wagner, S Wutzler, F Hildebrand, M Perl, I Marzi
BACKGROUND: Major trauma patients (TP) developing imbalanced immune response are at high risk for infectious post-injury complications including pneumonia. Neutrophils play a central role in the host defense against bacteria and thereby pathogenesis of infections. While there are numerous studies about neutrophil function after trauma, data about their biology in patients who suffer from pneumonia following trauma are sparse. Here, we studied the effect of serum isolated from patients who do and do not develop infection (inf...
December 1, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897162/batf3-selectively-determines-acquisition-of-cd8-dendritic-cell-phenotype-and-function
#5
Janin Chandra, Paula T Y Kuo, Anne M Hahn, Gabrielle T Belz, Ian H Frazer
Batf3 is a transcription factor that impacts the development of CD103(+) tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs). However, whether Batf3 is absolutely required for the development of CD8(+) DCs remains controversial. Id2 is required for CD8(+) DC development. Here we show that bone marrow chimeric mice with a deletion of Id2 in the CD11c compartment lose the ability to reject a skin graft expressing a non-self protein antigen or mount a delayed hypersensitivity response. In contrast, Batf3((-/-)) mice remained competent for skin graft rejection and delayed hypersensitivity, and retained a CD8(+) DC population with markers characteristic of the CD11b(+) DC lineage, including CD11b, CD4 and CD172α, as well as the key regulator transcription factor IRF4, but lacked IRF8 expression...
November 29, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896432/repression-of-telomere-associated-genes-by-microglia-activation-in-neuropsychiatric-disease
#6
Golo Kronenberg, Ria Uhlemann, Johanna Schöner, Stephanie Wegner, Valérie Boujon, Nikolas Deigendesch, Matthias Endres, Karen Gertz
Microglia senescence may promote neuropsychiatric disease. This prompted us to examine the relationship between microglia activation states and telomere biology. A panel of candidate genes associated with telomere maintenance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cell-cycle regulation were investigated in M1- and M2-polarized microglia in vitro as well as in MACS-purified CD11b+ microglia/brain macrophages from models of stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and chronic stress. M1 polarization, ischemia, and Alzheimer pathology elicited a strikingly similar transcriptomic profile with, in particular, reduced expression of murine Tert...
November 28, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895172/pulmonary-dendritic-cell-subsets-shape-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-specific-cd8-t-cell-immunodominance-hierarchy-in-neonates
#7
Allison M W Malloy, Tracy J Ruckwardt, Kaitlyn M Morabito, Annie W Lau-Kilby, Barney S Graham
Young infants are generally more susceptible to viral infections and experience more severe disease than do adults. CD8(+) T cells are important for viral clearance, and although often ineffective in neonates they can be protective when adequately stimulated. Using a murine CB6F1/J hybrid model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, we previously demonstrated that the CD8(+) T cell immunodominance hierarchy to two RSV-derived epitopes, K(d)M282-90 and D(b)M187-195, was determined by the age at infection...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889334/leukocytes-in-expressed-breast-milk-of-asthmatic-mothers
#8
D-L Dixon, K D Forsyth
OBJECTIVE: Infants are born immunologically immature. However, breastfeeding mothers retain an immunological link to their infants. While it is generally accepted that infants are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula-fed infants, the benefit of long-term exclusive breastfeeding by atopic mothers remains controversial. Inconsistency in the conferral of benefit may be due to differences in the immunological constituents passed to the recipient infant. The aim of this investigation was to examine the profile of human milk cells and cytokines from asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic mothers...
November 23, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888476/histological-detection-of-dynamic-glial-responses-in-the-dysmyelinating-tabby-jimpy-mutant-brain
#9
Masanao Ikeda, M Ibrahim Hossain, Li Zhou, Masao Horie, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Arata Horii, Hirohide Takebayashi
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are glial cells that form myelin sheaths surrounding the axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Jimpy (jp) mutant mice are dysmyelinating disease models that show developmental abnormalities in myelinated OLs in the CNS. The causative gene in jp mice is the proteolipid protein (PLP) located on the X chromosome. Mutations in the jp allele result in exon 5 skipping and expression of abnormal PLP containing a C-terminal frame shift. Many lines of evidence suggest that abnormal PLP in OLs results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death...
November 25, 2016: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886260/mtor-regulates-neuroprotective-effect-of-immunized-cd4-foxp3-t-cells-in-optic-nerve-ischemia
#10
Guochun Chen, Luosheng Tang, Wei Wei, Zhuo Li, Yunping Li, Xuanchu Duan, Huihui Chen
The therapeutic potential of targeting CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) remains controversial under the condition of neuroinflammation. This study aims to explore the neuroprotective role of Tregs in optic nerve ischemia (ONI) and evaluate the therapeutic strategy of Tregs transfer with a focus on targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Intraocular pressure was transiently increased in adult C57BL/6 mice to induce ONI. Mucosal tolerance of myelin basic protein (MBP) markedly increased retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival after ONI through enhanced Tregs suppression...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882863/porphyromonas-gingivalis-suppresses-adaptive-immunity-in-periodontitis-atherosclerosis-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Ingar Olsen, Martin A Taubman, Sim K Singhrao
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen in chronic periodontitis, has been found to associate with remote body organ inflammatory pathologies, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although P. gingivalis has a plethora of virulence factors, much of its pathogenicity is surprisingly related to the overall immunosuppression of the host. This review focuses on P. gingivalis aiding suppression of the host's adaptive immune system involving manipulation of cellular immunological responses, specifically T cells and B cells in periodontitis and related conditions...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882430/identification-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-associated-with-bone-marrow-cell-subsets-in-patients-with-stemi-a-biorepository-evaluation-from-the-cctrn-time-and-latetime-clinical-trials
#12
Ariadna Contreras, Aaron F Orozco, Micheline Resende, Robert C Schutt, Jay H Traverse, Timothy D Henry, Dejian Lai, John P Cooke, Roberto Bolli, Michelle L Cohen, Lem Moyé, Carl J Pepine, Phillip C Yang, Emerson C Perin, James T Willerson, Doris A Taylor
Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNC) therapy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has produced inconsistent results, possibly due to BM-MNC product heterogeneity. Patient-specific cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) may contribute to variations in BM-MNC composition. We sought to identify associations between BM-MNC subset frequencies and specific CRFs in STEMI patients. Bone marrow was collected from 191 STEMI patients enrolled in the CCTRN TIME and LateTIME trials...
January 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878564/the-role-of-b7-family-costimulatory-molecules-and-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-and-systemic-sclerosis
#13
Nóra Legány, László Berta, László Kovács, Attila Balog, Gergely Toldi
B7 costimulatory molecules are present on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and influence intracellular expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a molecule with important immunoregulatory functions. We determined the frequency of activated (CD11b+) monocytes expressing B7-1, B7-2, B7-H1, and B7-H2 molecules, and that of CD3+ and CD4+ T cells expressing the corresponding CD28, CTLA-4, PD-1, and ICOS receptors in peripheral blood samples of 20 healthy adults and 9 SSc and 15 pSS patients using flow cytometry...
November 23, 2016: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874143/total-synthesis-of-natural-derivatives-and-artificial-analogs-of-13-oxyingenol-and-their-biological-evaluation
#14
Takayuki Ohyoshi, Yuki Tamura, Ichiro Hayakawa, Go Hirai, Yamato Miyazawa, Shota Funakubo, Mikiko Sodeoka, Hideo Kigoshi
We have established an efficient synthetic methodology for the 13-oxyingenol natural derivative (13-oxyingenol-13-dodecanoate-20-hexanoate), featuring a ring-closing olefin metathesis reaction for the "direct" construction of a highly strained inside-outside framework and a Mislow-Evans-type [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement for the stereoselective introduction of the hydroxy group at C5. We also synthesized artificial analogs of 13-oxyingenol and ingenol by using our synthetic strategy. In vitro activation assays of protein kinase C (PKC) α and δ revealed that the dodecanoyl group at O13 on 13-oxyingenol analogs had a significant role in PKCδ activation...
November 22, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873219/immortalization-of-primary-microglia-a-new-platform-to-study-hiv-regulation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#15
Yoelvis Garcia-Mesa, Taylor R Jay, Mary Ann Checkley, Benjamin Luttge, Curtis Dobrowolski, Saba Valadkhan, Gary E Landreth, Jonathan Karn, David Alvarez-Carbonell
The major reservoirs for HIV in the CNS are in the microglia, perivascular macrophages, and to a lesser extent, astrocytes. To study the molecular events controlling HIV expression in the microglia, we developed a reliable and robust method to immortalize microglial cells from primary glia from fresh CNS tissues and commercially available frozen glial cells. Primary human cells, including cells obtained from adult brain tissue, were transformed with lentiviral vectors expressing SV40 T antigen or a combination of SVR40 T antigen and hTERT...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868136/increased-activity-and-apoptosis-of-eosinophils-in-blister-fluids-skin-and-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-bullous-pemphigoid
#16
Judith Engmann, Urda Rüdrich, Georg Behrens, Eleni Papakonstantinou, Manuela Gehring, Alexander Kapp, Ulrike Raap
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease that is more common in elderly individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the functional activity of eosinophils in patients with BP compared with healthy donors. Blood, skin and blister-derived eosinophils were strongly activated in patients with BP, seen by increased surface expression of CD69 compared with controls. CD11b was also increased in BP blood eosinophils, which may explain the striking accumulation of eosinophils in BP (1×10-6 per ml blister fluid)...
November 21, 2016: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868108/inflammatory-monocytes-hinder-antiviral-b-cell-responses
#17
Stefano Sammicheli, Mirela Kuka, Pietro Di Lucia, Nereida Jimenez de Oya, Marco De Giovanni, Jessica Fioravanti, Claudia Cristofani, Carmela G Maganuco, Benedict Fallet, Lucia Ganzer, Laura Sironi, Marta Mainetti, Renato Ostuni, Kevin Larimore, Philip D Greenberg, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Luca G Guidotti, Matteo Iannacone
Antibodies are critical for protection against viral infections. However, several viruses, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), avoid the induction of early protective antibody responses by poorly understood mechanisms. Here we analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of B cell activation to show that, upon subcutaneous infection, LCMV-specific B cells readily relocate to the interfollicular and T cell areas of the draining lymph node where they extensively interact with CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes...
October 21, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864465/posttraumatic-therapeutic-hypothermia-alters-microglial-and-macrophage-polarization-toward-a-beneficial-phenotype
#18
Jessie S Truettner, Helen M Bramlett, W Dalton Dietrich
Posttraumatic inflammatory processes contribute to pathological and reparative processes observed after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent findings have emphasized that these divergent effects result from subsets of proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) microglia and macrophages. Therapeutic hypothermia has been tested in preclinical and clinical models of TBI to limit secondary injury mechanisms including proinflammatory processes. This study evaluated the effects of posttraumatic hypothermia (PTH) on phenotype patterns of microglia/macrophages...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864142/glycogen-storage-disease-type-ib-neutrophils-exhibit-impaired-cell-adhesion-and-migration
#19
Goo-Young Kim, Young Mok Lee, Joon Hyun Kwon, Hyun Sik Jun, Janice Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib), characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis, neutropenia, and neutrophil dysfunction, is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT). Neutrophils play an essential role in the defense against invading pathogens. The recruitment of neutrophils towards the inflammation sites in response to inflammatory stimuli is a tightly regulated process involving rolling, adhesion, and transmigration. In this study, we investigated the role of G6PT in neutrophil adhesion and migration using in vivo and in vitro models...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864046/acute-colitis-chronically-alters-immune-infiltration-mechanisms-and-sensory-neuro-immune-interactions
#20
Melissa A Campaniello, Chris Mavrangelos, Samuel Eade, Andrea M Harrington, L Ashley Blackshaw, Stuart M Brierley, Scott D Smid, Patrick A Hughes
OBJECTIVE: Little is understood regarding how disease progression alters immune and sensory nerve function in colitis. We investigated how acute colitis chronically alters immune recruitment and the impact this has on re-activated colitis. To understand the impact of disease progress on sensory systems we investigated the mechanisms underlying altered colonic neuro-immune interactions after acute colitis. DESIGN: Inflammation was compared in mouse models of health, acute tri-nitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) colitis, Remission and Reactivated colitis...
November 15, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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