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Endothelial damage

Lauren Brasile, Nicholas Henry, Bart Stubenitsky
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported on a novel organ-specific immunomodifying therapy that provides protection from early allograft rejection in the absence of systemic immunosuppressive drugs. This novel therapy is a nano-barrier membrane called ImmunoCloak, consisting of a matrix of laminin, proteoglycans, fibronectin and collagens. The membrane "immunocloaks" the luminal surfaces within the renal vasculature by covering the point of contact between donor vascular endothelial cells and the recipient's immune cells; without adversely affecting renal function...
October 19, 2016: Transplantation
Gisele de A Padilha, Lucas F B Horta, Lillian Moraes, Cassia L Braga, Milena V Oliveira, Cíntia L Santos, Isalira P Ramos, Marcelo M Morales, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Regina C S Goldenberg, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Pedro L Silva, Patricia R M Rocco
BACKGROUND: In patients with emphysema, invasive mechanical ventilation settings should be adjusted to minimize hyperinflation while reducing respiratory effort and providing adequate gas exchange. We evaluated the impact of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) on pulmonary and diaphragmatic damage, as well as cardiac function, in experimental emphysema. METHODS: Emphysema was induced by intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase in Wistar rats, once weekly for 4 weeks...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Shotaro Sakka, Koji Kawai, Ippei Tsujimoto, Masahiro Kurobe, Daishi Ichioka, Shuya Kantori, Takahiro Kojima, Takahiro Suetomi, Akira Jouraku, Jun Miyazaki, Tomoya Hoshi, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
A 37-year-old man presented at our hospital. Pathological examination of a right orchiectomy specimen, radiographic examination, and tumor marker profile resulted in a diagnosis of retroperitoneal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (intermediate risk according to IGCC classification). Laboratory testing revealed mild elevation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Induction chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) was started, but he complained of chest pain on day 10 of the second cycle of BEP...
September 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
V V Muthusamy
Cardiovascular disease burden is increasing all over the world. The diagnosis of hypertension is considered when a person has persistently elevated BP (Systolic BP more than 140 mmHg and/or Diastolic BP more than 90 mmHg). Dyslipidemia denotes abnormal levels of lipids in the blood (Total Cholesterol >200 mg%, Low density lipoprotein (LDL) >100 mg%, Triglycerides (TGL) >150 mg% and High density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg in men and < 50 mg in women. Hypertension and Dyslipidemia constitute the important components of metabolic syndrome as per the definition of NCEP Guidelines-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Byeong Hwa Jeon
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein that plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA damage and redox regulation against oxidative stress. APE1/Ref-1 is essential for cellular survival and embryonic lethal in knockout mouse models. Heterozygous APE1/Ref-1 mice showed impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, reduced vascular NO levels, and are hypertensive. APE1/Ref-1 reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species production by negatively regulating the activity of the NADPH oxidase...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rhian M Touyz
Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to hypertension include endothelial dysfunction and vascular ignalling. These changes are initially adaptive but chronically become maladaptive leading to vascular damage and loss of function. Common to these processes are changes in the characteristics of vascular cells to a pro-infl ammatory, vasoconstrictory and proliferative phenotype, infl uenced by activation of the RAS and oxidative stress. Increased ROS production and decreased cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, contribute to oxidative stress, which infl uences redox-sensitive Ang II ignalling that promotes vascular injury in hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Denes Pall, Eva Katona, Miklós Zrinyi, Szabolcs Lengyel, Gyorgy Paragh, Bela Fulesdi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess whether a difference exists between endothelial function, intima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in healthy non-hypertensive, white-coat hypertensive (WCH) and sustained hypertensive (SH) adolescents. DESIGN AND METHOD: All young people attending high school in Debrecen, Hungary (n = 10,359) participated in the study. Three blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken separated by 5 min intervals...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pierre Paradis, Tlili Barhoumi, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman Mian, Julio C Fraulob-Aquino, Asia Rehman, Nourredine Idris-Khodja, Ernesto L Schiffrin
OBJECTIVE: Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is involved in cardiovascular disease. Whether MMP2 plays a role in hypertension and vascular damage is unknown. We hypothesized that Mmp2 knockout will prevent angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension and vascular injury. DESIGN AND METHOD: Mmp2 knockout (Mmp2) and wild-type (WT) mice were infused with Ang II (1000 ng/kg/min, SC) for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by telemetry, and mesenteric artery (MA) endothelial function and vascular remodeling by pressurized myography...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
George Bakris
Resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg despite adherence to a combination of at least three optimally dosed antihypertensive medications, one of which is a diuretic. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the more common patient comorbidities associated with resistant hypertension. Recommended low-salt diet and triple antihypertensive drug regimens that include a diuretic, should be complemented by the sequential addition of other antihypertensive drugs. CKD is associated with premature vascular ageing, characterized by accelerated arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ana Vrdoljak, Vanja Ivković, Sandra Karanović, Živka Dika, Ivana Vuković, Jelena Kos, Mario Laganović, Tajana Željković Vrkić, Margareta Fištrek Prlić, Ivan Pećin, Bojan Jelaković
OBJECTIVE: It was observed that glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) is associated with progression of kidney disease in diabetics, patients in stage 1 hypertension (HT), and we found previously that eGFR decreased faster also in prehypertensives (PHT) with GHF. Here we analyzed whether GHF in PHT is associated with other biomarkers of early renal impairment. DESIGN AND METHOD: From 954 subjects enrolled in ENAH follow-up study, 371(137 m;mean age = 46years) were eligible for further analysis:100 with optimal,72 with normal BP,70 with PHT(high normal BP),and 129 with newly diagnosed untreated HT...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rhian M Touyz
Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to hypertension include injury to small arteries, characterised by endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, fibrosis and inflammation, (so called hypertensive vascular phenotype). These changes are initially adaptive but in the long term become maladaptive leading to vascular damage and loss of function, particularly important in small resistance arteries, critically involved in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and consequently in blood pressure control...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Joanna Majerczak, Marcin Grandys, Krzysztof Duda, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Aneta Balcerczyk, Leszek Kolodziejski, Dorota Szymoniak-Chochol, Ryszard T Smolenski, Grzegorz Bartosz, Stefan Chlopicki, Jerzy A Zoladz
In this study we have evaluated the effect of 20-weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relation to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40- minute sessions, mainly of moderate-intensity (∼50% of VO2max ), performed 4 times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Bo Gao, Wang Sun, Xianzhi Meng, Dongbo Xue, Weihui Zhang
Hematological abnormalities are frequently observed in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). A previous study demonstrated that the apoptosis and damage of endothelial cells could cause the hematological abnormalities in LC. Protein kinases are one of the most important factors that regulate cell behavior, and are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of a number of diseases. In a previous study, whole genome profiling was used to identify differentially expressed genes in human bone marrow endothelial cells treated with serum from 26 patients with LC...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Man Zhao, Shuliang Yu, Man Zhang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major obstacle to bladder cancer chemotherapy. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the development of MDR, including extrusion of the drug by cell membrane pumps, associated with P‑glycoprotein (P‑gp) and multidrug resistance‑associated protein (MRP); increased DNA damage repair, associated with topoisomerase II (Topo II); suppression of drug‑induced apoptosis, associated with p53; and regulation of cancer cell growth, associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jeffery G Grigsby, Donald M Allen, Ana S Ferrigno, Sandeep Vellanki, Cindy E Pouw, Whitney A Hejny, Andrew T C Tsin
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well established as the main agent responsible for vascular leakage and angiogenesis in the diabetic retina. While VEGF can have positive effects on hyperglycemia stressed retinal tissues, it also plays a role in events progressing to the oxygen-stressed, i.e. hypoxic, diabetic retina. Some VEGF makes it way to the retina from systemic sources and some is produced locally within the eye. Hyperglycemia, oxidants, inflammation, and advanced glycation end-products are all stimulants to VEGF production, both in the hypoxic and the pre-hypoxic retina...
October 7, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Suman Pradhan, Christine Pellino, Kayleigh MacMaster, Dennis Coyle, Alison A Weiss
Seizures and neurologic involvement have been reported in patients infected with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with neurologic involvement is associated with more severe outcome. We investigated the extent of renal and neurologic damage in mice following injection of the highly potent form of Stx, Stx2a, and less potent Stx1. As observed in previous studies, Stx2a brought about moderate to acute tubular necrosis of proximal and distal tubules in the kidneys. Brain sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) appeared normal, although some red blood cell congestion was observed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mehmet Erol Can, Hasan Basri Çakmak, Gamze Dereli Can, Hatice Ünverdi, Yasin Toklu, Sema Hücemenoğlu
Purpose. To investigate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane on wound healing. Methods. Twenty-four right eyes of 24 New Zealand rabbits equally divided into 2 groups for the study design. After the creation of 5 × 5 mm conjunctival damage, it was secured with PRF membrane, which was generated from the rabbit's whole blood samples in PRF membrane group, whereas damage was left unsutured in the control group. Three animals were sacrificed in each group on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 28th postoperative days...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Danka Đevenica, Anita Markotić, Nikolina Režić-Mužinić, Igor Jelaska, Tatijana Zemunik, Hrvoje Delić, Vedrana Čikeš Čulić
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate effects of hyperbaric (HB) treatment by determination of CD15s and CD11b leukocyte proinflammatory markers expression. In addition, this study describes changes in CD77 and CD34 expression on rat endothelial cells in renal, pulmonary and cardiac tissue following exposure to hyperbaric pressure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of CD11b and CD15s on leukocytes, as well as CD77 and CD34 expression on endothelial cells in cell suspensions of renal, pulmonary and cardiac tissue in rats after hyperbaric treatment and in control rats were determined by flow cytometry...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Mohit Sharma, Raghu Radhakrishnan
Limited mouth opening (LMO) in Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) has been attributed to both the submucosal and muscle fibrosis (MF). While, reflectory trismus was proposed before as an auxiliary mechanism by another group; the stretch mediated muscle damage (MSD), histopathological changes in blood vessels (like endothelial dysfunction, endothelial hypertrophy and endarteritis obliterans) and upregulated anaerobic isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), have been proposed by us as complementary events leading to MF...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
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