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Glucagon AND Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724168/efficacy-and-safety-of-glp-1-receptor-agonists-across-the-spectrum-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Lawrence A Leiter, Michael A Nauck
For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) generally exert robust glucose-lowering effects that are at least as effective as insulin. As monotherapies, changes from baseline in HbA1c with GLP-1RAs ranged from -1.9 to -0.7% in phase 3 trials. In addition, GLP-1RAs confer a low risk of hypoglycaemia and have a body-weight advantage (changes from baseline ranging from -4.0 to -0.4 kg). There is also evidence of significant reductions in risk for cardiovascular events with some of these agents, with a number of other trials underway...
July 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713266/significance-of-microbiota-in-obesity-and-metabolic-diseases-and-the-modulatory-potential-by-medicinal-plant-and-food-ingredients
#2
REVIEW
Hoda M Eid, Michelle L Wright, N V Anil Kumar, Abdel Qawasmeh, Sherif T S Hassan, Andrei Mocan, Seyed M Nabavi, Luca Rastrelli, Atanas G Atanasov, Pierre S Haddad
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three or more metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity has become the epidemic of the twenty-first century with more than 1.6 billion overweight adults. Due to the strong connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes, obesity has received wide attention with subsequent coining of the term "diabesity." Recent studies have identified unique contributions of the immensely diverse gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711685/misunderstandings-and-controversies-about-the-insulin-secreting-properties-of-antidiabetic-sulfonylureas
#3
REVIEW
Jean-Claude Henquin
After 60 years of use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, hypoglycemic sulfonylureas remain a recommended option in current therapeutic charts. Their binding to sulfonylurea receptor-1, the regulatory subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the plasma membrane of pancreatic β-cells, leads to closure of the channels, membrane depolarization and influx of Ca(2+) through voltage-gated calcium channels. The resulting increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) triggers exocytosis of insulin granules. Sulfonylureas and glucose thus produce the same triggering signal but, unlike sulfonylureas, glucose does so via acceleration of β-cell metabolism...
July 12, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708480/optimizing-diabetes-treatment-in-the-presence-of-obesity
#4
REVIEW
Mary Angelynne Esquivel, M Cecilia Lansang
Evidence of a neurophysiologic mechanism that involves hormones from adipocytes, pancreatic islet cells, and the gastrointestinal tract implicated in both obesity and diabetes has led to a search for drugs that not only either target obesity and diabetes or reduce hemoglobin A1c, but also have weight loss as a potential side effect. The authors review medications approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (including pramlintide, also approved for type 1 diabetes) that also have weight loss as a side effect...
July 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705763/structure-and-function-of-peptide-binding-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#5
REVIEW
Fan Wu, Gaojie Song, Chris de Graaf, Raymond C Stevens
G protein-coupled proteins (GPCRs) are the largest family of cell surface receptors and are important human drug targets. Of the 826 human GPCRs, 118 of them recognize endogenous peptide or protein ligands, and 30 of the 118 are targeted by approved drug molecules, including the very high profile class B glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R). In this review, we analyze the 21 experimentally determined three-dimensional structures of the known peptide-binding GPCRs in relation to the endogenous peptides and drug molecules that modulate their cell signaling processes...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701318/%C3%A2-liraglutide-for-weight-management
#6
(no author information available yet)
Since 1950, 25 anti-obesity drugs have been withdrawn from use across the world, largely as a result of adverse effects.(1) For several years, orlistat has been the only drug licensed in the UK for weight management.(2) In January 2017, a new presentation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue liraglutide (▾Saxenda - Novo Nordisk) was launched in the UK as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity for weight management in adults. Here, we review the evidence for its efficacy and safety and consider its place in managing people who are overweight or obese...
July 2017: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688914/glucagon-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-as-novel-anti-inflammatory-and-immunomodulatory-compounds
#7
REVIEW
Daniella B R Insuela, Vinicius F Carvalho
Glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are polypeptide hormones that are produced by pancreatic α-cells and the intestine, respectively, whose main function is to control glucose homeostasis. The glucagon and GLP-1 levels are imbalanced in diabetes. Furthermore, type 1diabetic patients and animals present with a diminished inflammatory response, which is related to some morbidities of diabetes, such as a higher incidence of infectious diseases, including sepsis. The focus of this review is to briefly summarize the state of the art concerning the effects of glucagon and GLP-1 on the inflammatory response...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677502/pten-insulin-resistance-and-cancer
#8
Aiqing Li, Minzi Qiu, Hongbo Zhou, Tao Wang, Wen Guo
BACKGROUND: The tumor suppressor PTEN serves as a negative regulator of PI3K/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway that regulates cellular functions such as cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and migration. The PI3K/PTEN/Akt signaling cascades might also have effect on glucose uptake via translocation of GLUT-4. Insulin controls energy storage and the whole body glucose homeostasis. Its binding to insulin receptor on the surface of diverse cells allows glucose entry into cells, and activates a variety of cellular actions...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675686/the-challenges-of-achieving-postprandial-glucose-control-using-closed-loop-systems-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#9
REVIEW
Véronique Gingras, Nadine Taleb, Amélie Roy-Fleming, Laurent Legault, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
For patients with type 1 diabetes, closed-loop delivery systems (CLS) combining an insulin pump, a glucose sensor and a dosing algorithm allowing a dynamic hormonal infusion have been shown to improve glucose control when compared to conventional therapy. Yet, reducing glucose excursion as well as simplification of prandial insulin doses remains a challenge. The objective of this literature review is to examine current meal-time strategies in the context of automated delivery systems in adults and children with type 1 diabetes...
July 4, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674957/a-review-of-the-long-term-efficacy-tolerability-and-safety-of-exenatide-once-weekly-for-type-2-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Stefano Genovese, Edoardo Mannucci, Antonio Ceriello
INTRODUCTION: Exenatide once weekly (ExeOW, Bydureon(®), Astra Zeneca), a drug belonging to the class of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, is the first agent approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) that can be administered on a weekly basis. METHODS: Data concerning treatment of T2D with ExeOW are reviewed with special reference to its long-term efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Relevant literature was identified through the PubMed database from inception to January 2015...
July 3, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670548/dose-modification-of-antidiabetic-agents-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure
#11
REVIEW
D C Sharma, Arthur Asirvatham, Parminder Singh
Heart failure is the most common comorbidity of diabetes. The incidence of heart failure in patients with diabetes is about 9%-22%, which is four times higher Than that in patients without diabetes. Heart failure and diabetes are collectively associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared to either condition alone. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased risk of heart failure in patients with diabetes; moreover, poor glycemic control accounts for the increased risk of heart failure...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669754/the-impact-of-gut-hormones-on-the-neural-circuit-of-appetite-and-satiety-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Davide Zanchi, Antoinette Depoorter, Laura Egloff, Sven Haller, Laura Mählmann, Undine E Lang, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, André Schmidt, Stefan Borgwardt
The brain-gut-axis is an interdependent system affecting neural functions and controlling our eating behaviour. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have facilitated its investigation. We systematically looked into functional and neurochemical brain imaging studies investigating how key molecules such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose and insulin influence the function of brain regions regulating appetite and satiety. Of the 349 studies published before July 2016 identified in the database search, 40 were included (27 on healthy and 13 on obese subjects)...
June 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667587/insulin-glargine-lixisenatide-a-review-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Lesley J Scott
Subcutaneous insulin glargine/lixisenatide (Suliqua™) is a titratable, fixed-ratio combination of a long-acting basal insulin analogue and a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist for the treatment of adult patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. Once-daily insulin glargine/lixisenatide, in combination with metformin, provided effective glycaemic control and was generally well tolerated in the 30-week, multinational, phase 3 LixiLan-O and LixiLan-L trials in insulin-naive and -experienced adult patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes...
June 30, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662997/next-generation-immunohistochemistry-emerging-substitutes-to-genetic-testing
#14
REVIEW
Juliana Andrici, Anthony J Gill, Jason L Hornick
The identification of at-risk kindreds facilitates screening and risk reduction strategies for patients with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. Recently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has emerged as a cost-effective strategy for detecting or inferring the presence of mutations in both tumors and the germline of patients presenting with tumors associated with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. In this review we discuss the use of novel IHC markers, including PRKAR1A, β-catenin, SDHB, fumarate hydratase and 2SC, HRASQ61R, BAP1, parafibromin and glucagon, which have either established applications or show promise for surgical pathologists to complement morphological or clinical suspicion of hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes...
June 27, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660193/abscisic-acid-a-novel-nutraceutical-for-glycemic-control
#15
REVIEW
Elena Zocchi, Raquel Hontecillas, Andrew Leber, Alexandra Einerhand, Adria Carbo, Santina Bruzzone, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Noah Philipson, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Laura Sturla, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Abscisic acid is naturally present in fruits and vegetables, and it plays an important role in managing glucose homeostasis in humans. According to the latest U.S. dietary survey, about 92% of the population might have a deficient intake of ABA due to their deficient intake of fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes the in vitro, preclinical, mechanistic, and human translational findings obtained over the past 15 years in the study of the role of ABA in glycemic control. In 2007, dietary ABA was first reported to ameliorate glucose tolerance and obesity-related inflammation in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657399/combination-sglt2-inhibitor-and-glp-1-receptor-agonist-therapy-a-complementary-approach-to-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#16
Robert S Busch, Michael P Kane
Among persons with type 2 diabetes (t2d), the development of glucose intolerance involves dysfunction in several organs and tissues, including the muscle, liver, pancreas, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue, and brain. individuals with t2d typically have a number of comorbidities, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and being overweight or obese, and are, consequently, at high cardiovascular risk. guidelines recommend a comprehensive care strategy that includes treatment of diabetes-related complications and comorbidities beyond those related to hyperglycemia...
June 28, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645216/iglarlixi-a-fixed-ratio-combination-of-insulin-glargine-100-u-ml-and-lixisenatide-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#17
Jennifer Goldman, Jennifer M Trujillo
OBJECTIVE: To review the safety and efficacy of iGlarLixi, a titratable fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 U/mL (iGlar) and lixisenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of MEDLINE for all English-language primary articles through June 2016, using the terms LixiLan, iGlarLixi and insulin glargine and lixisenatide, and a search of abstracts presented at the 2016 Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association were performed...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637887/mitigating-cardiovascular-risk-in-type-2-diabetes-with-antidiabetes-drugs-a-review-of-principal-cardiovascular-outcome-results-of-empa-reg-outcome-leader-and-sustain-6-trials
#18
Sanjay Kaul
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a diabetes guidance in 2008 mandating that all new antidiabetes drugs rule out excess cardiovascular (CV) risk, defined as an upper bound of the two-sided 95% CI for major adverse CV events (MACE) of less than 1.80 preapproval and 1.30 postapproval. Over 25 large, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials involving nearly 195,000 subjects thus far have been completed or are ongoing in accordance with this guidance. The results of seven trials have been presented so far-three with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, one with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, and three with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA)...
July 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637406/socioeconomic-status-the-missing-link-between-obesity-and-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Alexei Volaco, Ana Maria Cavalcanti, Roberto Pecoits Filho, Dalton Bertolim Précoma
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is an epidemic expansion of the obesity rates worldwide. The increasing number of obese individuals associated with the aging of population leads to increasing number of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at the same rate. The traditional factors that link obesity to T2DM are related to genetics, hypercaloric diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress. Individuals from lower socioeconomic status (SES) have restricted autonomy and opportunities that could lead to more stress and consequently increase in stress hormones, such as cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon, and growth hormone, which might ultimately change fat deposition, increasing visceral fat and increasing the risk of T2DM mellitus development...
June 21, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631762/-safety-and-tolerability-of-oral-hypoglycemic-therapies-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#20
Giuseppe Ambrosio, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Massimo Federici, Pasquale Perrone Filardi
Oral hypoglycemic drugs for type 2 diabetes aim at preventing the metabolic effects of hyperglycemia and cardiovascular (CV) events. The evidence of the possible CV risk related to the prescription of some antidiabetic drugs prompted regulatory agencies to require safety studies. This review provides an updated analysis of CV safety profiles for antidiabetic drugs used for the treatment of patients with high CV risk.The most recent studies analyze different aspects of CV morbidity, such as ischemic events, heart failure and arrhythmia, and their interactions with hyperglycemia...
June 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
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