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Glucagon AND Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439603/semaglutide-in-type-2-diabetes-is-it-the-best-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-glp-1r-agonist
#1
Sheila A Doggrell
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced by the gut, and in a glucose-dependent manner stimulates insulin secretion while inhibiting glucagon secretion, reduces appetite and energy intake, and delays gastric emptying. The GLP-1R agonist semaglutide has recently been registered for use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Area covered: This review is of semaglutide in type 2 diabetes, and considers which properties of this GLP-1R agonist, may be responsible for its clinical outcome benefits in this condition...
February 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429477/-novel-antidiabetic-drugs-and-cardiovascular-complications
#2
Manan Pareek, Martin Bødtker Mortensen, Bo Løfgren, Mette Lundgren Nielsen, Michael Hecht Olsen, Niels Holmark Andersen
This review summarizes the cardiovascular non-inferiority trials of novel antidiabetic drugs performed since 2008, when regulatory agencies started mandating thorough examination of their cardiovascular safety. So far, eight randomized trials on three different drug classes have been completed. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists may reduce cardiovascular risk and possibly mortality, while dipeptidyl dipeptidase-4 inhibitors may increase the risk of heart failure...
February 5, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415555/stable-liquid-glucagon-beyond-emergency-hypoglycemia-rescue
#3
Leah M Wilson, Jessica R Castle
Glycemic control is the mainstay of preventing diabetes complications at the expense of increased risk of hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia negatively impacts the quality of life of patients with type 1 diabetes and can lead to morbidity and mortality. Currently available glucagon emergency kits are effective at treating hypoglycemia when correctly used, however use is complicated especially by untrained persons. Better formulations and devices for glucagon treatment of hypoglycemia are needed, specifically stable liquid glucagon...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412836/a-role-for-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-the-regulation-of-%C3%AE-cell-autophagy
#4
Catherine Arden
Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular recycling pathway that serves to recycle damaged organelles/proteins or superfluous nutrients during times of nutritional stress to provide energy to maintain intracellular homeostasis and sustain core metabolic functions. Under these conditions, autophagy functions as a cell survival mechanism but impairment of this pathway can lead to pro-death stimuli. Due to their role in synthesising and secreting insulin, pancreatic β-cells have a high requirement for robust degradation pathways...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412834/targeted-intestinal-delivery-of-incretin-secretagogues-towards-new-diabetes-and-obesity-therapies
#5
Fiona M Gribble, Claire L Meek, Frank Reimann
A new strategy under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity is to mimic some of the effects of bariatric surgery by delivering food-related stimuli to the distal gastrointestinal tract where they should enhance the release of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptideYY (PYY). Methods include inhibition of food digestion and absorption in the upper GI tract, or oral delivery of stimuli in capsules or pelleted form to protect them against gastric degradation. A variety of agents have been tested in humans using capsules, microcapsules or pellets, delivering nutrients, bile acids, fatty acids and bitter compounds...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412833/newer-glp-1-receptor-agonists-and-obesity-diabetes
#6
Emily Brown, Daniel J Cuthbertson, John P Wilding
Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and may complicate type 1 diabetes. In parallel with the global epidemic of obesity, the incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing exponentially. To reverse these alarming trends, weight loss becomes a major therapeutic priority in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Given that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) improve glycaemic control and cause weight loss, they are receiving increasing attention for the treatment of diabetes-obesity...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412829/problem-or-solution-the-strange-story-of-glucagon
#7
R V Scott, S R Bloom
Globally, 13% of the world's adult population is obese, and more than 400 million people suffer from diabetes. These conditions are both associated with significant morbidity, mortality and financial cost. Therefore, finding new pharmacological treatments is an imperative. Relative hyperglucagonaemia is seen in all types of diabetes, and has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Consequently, clinical trials are underway using drugs which block glucagon activity to treat type 2 diabetes. Conversely, exogenous glucagon can increase energy expenditure...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412821/role-of-islet-peptides-in-beta-cell-regulation-and-type-2-diabetes-therapy
#8
Dawood Khan, Charlotte R Moffet, Peter R Flatt, Catriona Kelly
The endocrine pancreas is composed of islets of Langerhans, which secrete a variety of peptide hormones critical for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Insulin is the primary regulator of glucose and its secretion from beta-cells is tightly regulated in response to physiological demands. Direct cell-cell communication within islets is essential for glucose-induced insulin secretion. Emerging data suggest that islet connectivity is also important in the regulating the release of other islet hormones including glucagon and somatostatin...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412819/gut-hormone-polyagonists-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#9
Sara J Brandt, Anna Götz, Matthias H Tschöp, Timo D Müller
Chemical derivatives of the gut-derived peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are among the best-in-class pharmacotherapies to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, GLP-1 analogs have modest weight lowering capacity, in the range of 5-10%, and the therapeutic window is hampered by dose-dependent side effects. Over the last few years, a new concept has emerged: combining the beneficial effects of several key metabolic hormones into a single molecular entity. Several unimolecular GLP-1-based polyagonists have shown superior metabolic action compared to GLP-1 monotherapies...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412815/dipeptidyl-peptidase-inhibitor-therapy-in-type-2-diabetes-control-of-the-incretin-axis-and-regulation-of-postprandial-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#10
REVIEW
Erin E Mulvihill
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a widely expressed, serine protease which regulates the bioactivity of many peptides through cleavage and inactivation including the incretin hormones, glucagon like peptide -1 (GLP-1) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Inhibitors of DPP4 are used therapeutically to treat patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) as they potentiate incretin action to regulate islet hormone secretion and improve glycemia and post-prandial lipid excursions. The widespread clinical use of DPP4 inhibitors has increased interest in the molecular mechanisms by which these drugs mediate their beneficial effects...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412814/peptide-degradation-and-the-role-of-dpp-4-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#11
Carolyn F Deacon
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are now a widely used, safe and efficacious class of antidiabetic drugs, which were developed prospectively using a rational drug design approach based on a thorough understanding of the endocrinology and degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 is an intestinal hormone with potent insulinotropic and glucagonostatic effects and can normalise blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the native peptide is not therapeutically useful because of its inherent metabolic instability...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412812/intestinal-peptide-changes-after-bariatric-and-minimally-invasive-surgery-relation-to-diabetes-remission
#12
REVIEW
Lidia Castagneto Gissey, James Casella Mariolo, Geltrude Mingrone
Bariatric surgery is very effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss but it is also associated with improvement of obesity metabolic complications, primarily type 2 diabetes (T2D). Remission of T2D or at least a net improvement of glycemic control persists for at least 5 years. The bypass of duodenum and of the first portion of the jejunum up to the Treitz ligament as in Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), or the bypass of the duodenum, the entire jejunum and the first tract of the ileum, such as in Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion (BPD), achieve different results on insulin sensitivity...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412811/incretin-based-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-bone-fragility-in-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Guillaume Mabilleau, Benoît Gobron, Béatrice Bouvard, Daniel Chappard
Bone fractures are common comorbidities of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bone fracture incidence seems to develop due to increased risk of falls, poor bone quality and/or anti-diabetic medications. Previously, a relation between gut hormones and bone has been suspected. Most recent evidences suggest indeed that two gut hormones, namely glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), may control bone remodeling and quality. The GIP receptor is expressed in bone cells and knockout of either GIP or its receptor induces severe bone quality alterations...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412121/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-impact-on-body-weight-and-blood-pressure-compared-with-other-antidiabetic-drugs
#14
Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Nikiforos Stavropoulos, Dimitrios Patoulias, Konstantinos Petidis, Charalampos Grassos, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Constantinos Tsioufis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporters 2 inhibitors have emerged as a novel antidiabetic class of drugs offering significant ameliorating effects on a variety of cardiovascular risk factors, secondary to their mechanism of action, including blood pressure and body weight. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to discuss available data on the impact of SGLT-2 inhibitors on blood pressure and body weight compared with other available antidiabetic drugs and to present potential mechanisms mediating these effects...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411931/neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-based-therapies-in-ischaemic-stroke-a-systematic-review-based-on-pre-clinical-studies
#15
Ida R Marlet, Joakim N E Ölmestig, Tina Vilsbøll, Jørgen Rungby, Christina Kruuse
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies, GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) are widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Increasing evidence suggests that they may provide neuroprotection. The aim of this MiniReview was to systematically evaluate the proposed mechanism of action for GLP-1-based therapies in ischaemic brain damage in animals. We performed a literature search using Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Library. GLP-1-based therapies administered before, during or after experimental stroke in diabetic and non-diabetic animals were evaluated...
February 7, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407005/would-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-have-efficacy-in-binge-eating-disorder-and-bulimia-nervosa-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#16
Susan L McElroy, Nicole Mori, Anna I Guerdjikova, Paul E Keck
Binge eating, eating an abnormally large amount of food in a discrete period of time with a sense of loss of control over eating, is a defining feature of the eating disorders binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Both BED and BN are important public health problems for which there are few medical treatments. However, almost all drugs with central nervous system-mediated weight loss properties studied thus far in randomized, placebo-controlled trials in persons with BED or BN have been efficacious for reducing binge eating behavior...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383638/possible-mechanisms-of-direct-cardiovascular-impact-of-glp-1-agonists-and-dpp4-inhibitors
#17
REVIEW
Vasiliki Bistola, Vaia Lambadiari, George Dimitriadis, Ioannis Ioannidis, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Nikolaos Tentolouris, Apostolos Tsapas, John Parissis
Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditional antidiabetic therapies targeting hyperglycemia reduce diabetic microvascular complications but have minor effects on macrovascular complications, including cardiovascular disease. Instead, cardiovascular complications are improved by antidiabetic medications (metformin) and other therapies (statins, antihypertensive medications) ameliorating insulin resistance and other associated metabolic abnormalities. Novel classes of antidiabetic drugs have proven efficacious in improving glycemia, while at the same time exert beneficial effects on pathophysiologic mechanisms of diabetes-related cardiovascular disease...
January 31, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382104/action-of-phytochemicals-on-insulin-signaling-pathways-accelerating-glucose-transporter-glut4-protein-translocation
#18
REVIEW
Abu Sadat Md Sayem, Aditya Arya, Hamed Karimian, Narendiran Krishnasamy, Ameya Ashok Hasamnis, Chowdhury Faiz Hossain
Diabetes is associated with obesity, generally accompanied by a chronic state of oxidative stress and redox imbalances which are implicated in the progression of micro- and macro-complications like heart disease, stroke, dementia, cancer, kidney failure and blindness. All these complications rise primarily due to consistent high blood glucose levels. Insulin and glucagon help to maintain the homeostasis of glucose and lipids through signaling cascades. Pancreatic hormones stimulate translocation of the glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from an intracellular location to the cell surface and facilitate the rapid insulin-dependent storage of glucose in muscle and fat cells...
January 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369916/diabetes-medications-and-cardiovascular-disease-at-long-last-progress
#19
Beatrice C Lupsa, Silvio E Inzucchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although intensive control of hyperglycemia has been proven to decrease the risk of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes, it has had little apparent effect on reducing cardiovascular complications - the leading cause of mortality in this disease. We review the cardiovascular effects of various glucose-lowering medications, with a particular focus on the recent studies demonstrating clear benefits from members of several drug categories. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, several randomized controlled studies have revealed significant improvements in cardiovascular outcomes from a thiazolidinedione, two sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and two glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365983/glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonists-and-protection-against-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Fotios Barkas, Moses Elisaf, Haralampos Milionis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
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