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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538228/glycemic-control-in-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#1
Wilfred Ip, Mark G Kirchhof
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that manifests as scaly erythematous plaques as a consequence of keratinocyte hyperproliferation and inflammation. It is commonly associated with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. While there are numerous approved treatment options available, they have limitations including availability, toxicities such as immunosuppression, and high cost. There is increasing evidence to suggest that several hypoglycemic agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, thiazolidinediones and biguanides, exert beneficial effects in psoriasis...
May 25, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533136/effect-of-artificial-pancreas-systems-on-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-outpatient-randomised-controlled-trials
#2
Alanna Weisman, Johnny-Wei Bai, Marina Cardinez, Caroline K Kramer, Bruce A Perkins
BACKGROUND: Closed-loop artificial pancreas systems have been in development for several years, including assessment in numerous varied outpatient clinical trials. We aimed to summarise the efficacy and safety of artificial pancreas systems in outpatient settings and explore the clinical and technical factors that can affect their performance. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing artificial pancreas systems (insulin only or insulin plus glucagon) with conventional pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII] with blinded continuous glucose monitoring [CGM] or unblinded sensor-augmented pump [SAP] therapy) in adults and children with type 1 diabetes...
May 19, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526416/treatment-strategy-for-type-2-diabetes-with-obesity-focus-on-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists
#3
REVIEW
Qiuhe Ji
PURPOSE: The progressive nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) calls for step-wise intensification of therapy for maintaining normal glycemic levels and lowering cardiovascular (CV) risk. Because obesity is a prominent risk factor and comorbidity of T2DM, it further elevates the CV risk in T2DM. Therefore, it is vital to manage weight, obesity, and glycemic parameters for effective T2DM management. Few oral antidiabetic drugs (sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones) and insulin are not suitable for obese patients with T2DM because these drugs cause weight gain...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526184/cardiovascular-protection-by-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-potential-mechanisms
#4
Bart Staels
The mechanism of action of empagliflozin in reducing the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes vs placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a high risk of cardiovascular disease in the Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) trial is currently unknown. An antiatherosclerotic effect is considered unlikely given the speed of the observed decrease in cardiovascular mortality. Hemodynamic effects, such as reductions in blood pressure and intravascular volume, and involving osmotic diuresis, may provide a more plausible explanation...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515711/the-impact-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-on-bone-metabolism-and-its-possible-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Chenhe Zhao, Jing Liang, Yinqiu Yang, Mingxiang Yu, Xinhua Qu
The impact of antidiabetic drugs on bone metabolism is drawing increasing attention due to the discovery of a correlation between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and osteoporosis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a novel and promising class of drugs for T2DM, which may also have clinical applications in bone tissue disorders. This review examines the impact of GLP-1 on bone metabolism, including enhancement of bone mineral density and improvement of bone quality. However, the precise effect of GLP-1 on fracture risk has not been unambiguously defined...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511711/sglt2-inhibitors-a-novel-choice-for-the-combination-therapy-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Honghong Zou, Baoqin Zhou, Gaosi Xu
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of end stage renal disease. The comprehensive management of DKD depends on combined target-therapies for hyperglycemia, hypertension, albuminuria, and hyperlipaemia, etc. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, the most recently developed oral hypoglycemic agents acted on renal proximal tubules, suppress glucose reabsorption and increase urinary glucose excretion. Besides improvements in glycemic control, they presented excellent performances in direct renoprotective effects and the cardiovascular (CV) safety by decreasing albuminuria and the independent CV risk factors such as body weight and blood pressure, etc...
May 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510260/markers-of-enteral-adaptation-in-pediatric-cases-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#7
Masahiro Chiba, Yutaka Sanada, Akira Toki
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to ascertain if prospective determinations of specific gut hormones and growth factors could predict bowel adaptation in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). METHODS: We studied parenteral nutrition (PN) independency as the short-term result and discontinuation of enteral nutrition (EN) as the long-term result from a retrospective chart review of 7 patients with SBS, who were managed in the absence of growth retardation. The correlation between increased numbers of enteral feedings or enteral nutrients and fasting levels of serum gastrin, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), citrulline, and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity was analyzed...
May 16, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506519/sodium-glucose-co-transporters-and-their-inhibition-clinical-physiology
#8
REVIEW
Ele Ferrannini
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) is selectively expressed in the human kidney, where it executes reabsorption of filtered glucose with a high capacity; it may be overactive in patients with diabetes, especially in the early, hyperfiltering stage of the disease. As a therapeutic target, SGLT2 has been successfully engaged by orally active, selective agents. Initially developed as antihyperglycemic drugs, SGLT2 inhibitors have deployed a range of in vivo actions. Consequences of their primary effect, i...
May 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501906/medication-use-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-in-obese-individuals
#9
REVIEW
John P H Wilding
Obesity is a major cause of type 2 diabetes and may complicate type 1 diabetes. Weight loss for obese individuals with diabetes has many health benefits, often leads to improvement in glucose control and sometimes, in type 2 diabetes, near normalisation of abnormal glucose metabolism. Weight loss is difficult to maintain and attempts to lose weight may be undermined by some diabetes treatments such as sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones and insulin. Whilst lifestyle support should be the primary approach to aid individuals who wish to lose weight, pharmacological approaches can also be considered...
May 14, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489279/dipeptidyl-peptidase-dpp-4-inhibitors-and-glucagon-like-peptide-glp-1-analogues-for-prevention-or-delay-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-associated-complications-in-people-at-increased-risk-for-the-development-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
Bianca Hemmingsen, David P Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogues are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 analogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
May 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484968/a-practical-review-of-c-peptide-testing-in-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Emma Leighton, Christopher Ar Sainsbury, Gregory C Jones
C-peptide is a widely used measure of pancreatic beta cell function. It is produced in equimolar amounts to endogenous insulin but is excreted at a more constant rate over a longer time. Methods of estimation include urinary and unstimulated and stimulated serum sampling. Modern assays detect levels of c-peptide which can be used to guide diabetes diagnosis and management. We explore the evidence behind the various tests available. We recommend the glucagon stimulation c-peptide testing owing to its balance of sensitivity and practicality...
May 8, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484425/protein-digestion-derived-peptides-and-the-peripheral-regulation-of-food-intake
#12
REVIEW
Juliette Caron, Dorothée Domenger, Pascal Dhulster, Rozenn Ravallec, Benoit Cudennec
The gut plays a central role in energy homeostasis. Food intake regulation strongly relies on the gut-brain axis, and numerous studies have pointed out the significant role played by gut hormones released from enteroendocrine cells. It is well known that digestive products of dietary protein possess a high satiating effect compared to carbohydrates and fat. Nevertheless, the processes occurring in the gut during protein digestion involved in the short-term regulation of food intake are still not totally unraveled...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483790/effect-of-hormone-secretory-syndromes-on-neuroendocrine-tumor-prognosis
#13
Wouter T Zandee, Kimberly Kamp, R C S van Adrichem, R A Feelders, Wouter W de Herder
The treatment of hormone hypersecretory syndromes caused by neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can be a major challenge. NETs originating from the small intestine often secrete serotonin causing flushing, diarrhea and valve fibrosis, leading to dehydration or heart failure in severe cases. NETs from the pancreas can secrete a wider variety of hormones, like insulin, glucagon and gastrin leading to distinct clinical syndromes. Historically mortality in patients with functioning NETs was high due to the complications caused by the hypersecretion of hormones...
May 8, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483748/cardiovascular-safety-outcomes-of-new-antidiabetic-therapies
#14
Marlys H LeBras, Arden R Barry, Sheri L Koshman
PURPOSE: The cardiovascular safety outcomes of newer antidiabetic agents were reviewed. SUMMARY: Seven randomized, placebo-controlled trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or at risk for cardiovascular disease were reviewed. The trials examined the cardiovascular safety outcomes of the following agents: alogliptin, saxagliptin, and sitagliptin (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors); liraglutide, lixisenatide, and semaglutide (glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists); and empagliflozin (a sodium glucose cotransport-2 inhibitor)...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479155/treatment-with-glp1-receptor-agonists-reduce-serum-crp-concentrations-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
Mohsen Mazidi, Ehsan Karimi, Peyman Rezaie, Gordon A Ferns
AIM: To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RAs) therapy on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. METHOD: PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched for the period up until March 16, 2016. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of GLP-1 RAs on serum CRP were identified. A random effects model (using the DerSimonian-Laird method) and generic inverse variance methods were used for quantitative data synthesis...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477413/emergency-treatment-of-hypoglycaemia-a-guideline-and-evidence-review
#16
REVIEW
M Villani, B de Courten, S Zoungas
AIM: To examine the current treatment guidelines for the emergency management of hypoglycaemia and the evidence underpinning recommendations. METHODS: International diabetes agencies were searched for hypoglycaemia treatment guidelines. Guidelines were assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument. An electronic database search was conducted for evidence regarding emergency treatment of hypoglycaemia in adults, and relevant articles were critically appraised...
May 6, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474401/a-review-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-and-their-effects-on-lowering-postprandial-plasma-glucose-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
REVIEW
D R Owens, L Monnier, M Hanefeld
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities, with CV disease being the most common cause of death in adults with T2DM. Although glucocentric therapies may improve glycaemic control (as determined by glycated haemoglobin levels), evidence suggests that this approach alone has limited beneficial effects on CV outcomes relative to improvements in lipid and blood pressure control. This may be explained in part by the fact that current antidiabetic treatment regimens primarily address overall glycaemia and/or fasting plasma glucose, but not the postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) excursions that have a fundamental causative role in increasing CV risk...
May 4, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473471/are-targeted-therapies-for-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-on-the-horizon
#18
REVIEW
Mitchel Tate, David J Grieve, Rebecca H Ritchie
Diabetes increases the risk of heart failure approximately 2.5-fold, independent of coronary artery disease and other comorbidities. This process, termed diabetic cardiomyopathy, is characterized by initial impairment of left ventricular (LV) relaxation followed by LV contractile dysfunction. Post-mortem examination reveals that human diastolic dysfunction is closely associated with LV damage, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis and fibrosis, with impaired coronary microvascular perfusion. The pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning the characteristic features of diabetic cardiomyopathy remain poorly understood, although multiple factors including altered lipid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, as well as epigenetic changes, are implicated...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473214/diabetes-medications-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Cecilia Chi, Jennifer Snaith, Jenny E Gunton
INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. The evidence relating to the effects of glucose-lowering medications on CV outcomes is of variable quality and there are numerous trials ongoing. RESULTS: In this review, we summarise the available literature on CV outcomes of the following diabetes treatments: metformin, the sulfonylureas, acarbose, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i), sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and insulin...
April 10, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473083/acr-appropriateness-criteria-%C3%A2-radiologic-management-of-mesenteric-ischemia
#20
Nicholas Fidelman, Ali F AbuRahma, Brooks D Cash, Baljendra S Kapoor, M-Grace Knuttinen, Jeet Minocha, Paul J Rochon, Colette M Shaw, Charles E Ray, Jonathan M Lorenz
Mesenteric vascular insufficiency is a serious medical condition that may lead to bowel infarction, morbidity, and mortality that may approach 50%. Recommended therapy for acute mesenteric ischemia includes aspiration embolectomy, transcatheter thrombolysis, and angioplasty with or without stenting for the treatment of underlying arterial stenosis. Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia may respond to transarterial infusion of vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, papaverine, glucagon, and prostaglandin E1. Recommended therapy for chronic mesenteric ischemia includes angioplasty with or without stent placement and, if an endovascular approach is not possible, surgical bypass or endarterectomy...
May 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
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