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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631762/-safety-and-tolerability-of-oral-hypoglycemic-therapies-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#1
Giuseppe Ambrosio, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Massimo Federici, Pasquale Perrone Filardi
Oral hypoglycemic drugs for type 2 diabetes aim at preventing the metabolic effects of hyperglycemia and cardiovascular (CV) events. The evidence of the possible CV risk related to the prescription of some antidiabetic drugs prompted regulatory agencies to require safety studies. This review provides an updated analysis of CV safety profiles for antidiabetic drugs used for the treatment of patients with high CV risk.The most recent studies analyze different aspects of CV morbidity, such as ischemic events, heart failure and arrhythmia, and their interactions with hyperglycemia...
June 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624434/brain-glucose-metabolism-role-of-wnt-signaling-in-the-metabolic-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Pedro Cisternas, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
The brain is an organ that has a high demand for glucose. In the brain, glucose is predominantly used in energy production, with almost 70% of the energy used by neurons. The importance of the energy requirement in neurons is clearly demonstrated by the fact that all neurodegenerative disorders exhibit a critical metabolic impairment that includes decreased glucose uptake/utilization and decreased mitochondrial activity, with a consequent diminution in ATP production. In fact, in Alzheimer's disease, the measurement of the general metabolic rate of the brain has been reported to be an accurate tool for diagnosis...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616805/effects-of-insulin-plus-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-glp-1ras-in-treating-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Weihao Wang, Hongyan Liu, Shumin Xiao, Shuaihui Liu, Xin Li, Pei Yu
INTRODUCTION: Combination therapy with insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) has already been proven an efficient treatment option for type 2 diabetes. This combination can effectively improve glycated hemoglobin levels, cause weight loss and reduce the dosage of insulin. In addition, it can also reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. Several randomized controlled trials have confirmed that this treatment may be just as effective for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients...
June 14, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611686/hypoxia-related-hormonal-appetite-modulation-in-humans-during-rest-and-exercise-mini-review
#4
REVIEW
Tadej Debevec
Obesity is associated with numerous chronic ailments and represents one of the major health and economic issues in the modernized societies. Accordingly, there is an obvious need for novel treatment approaches. Recently, based on the reports of reduced appetite and subsequent weight loss following high-altitude sojourns, exposure to hypoxia has been proposed as a viable weight-reduction strategy. While altitude-related appetite modulation is complex and not entirely clear, hypoxia-induced alterations in hormonal appetite modulation might be among the key underlying mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606341/cardiovascular-protection-by-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-potential-mechanisms
#5
Bart Staels
The mechanism of action of empagliflozin in reducing the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes vs placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a high risk of cardiovascular disease in the Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) trial is currently unknown. An antiatherosclerotic effect is considered unlikely given the speed of the observed decrease in cardiovascular mortality. Hemodynamic effects, such as reductions in blood pressure and intravascular volume, and involving osmotic diuresis, may provide a more plausible explanation...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604591/influence-of-hot-and-cold-environments-on-the-regulation-of-energy-balance-following-a-single-exercise-session-a-mini-review
#6
REVIEW
Keyne Charlot, Cécile Faure, Sophie Antoine-Jonville
Understanding the regulation of human food intake in response to an acute exercise session is of importance for interventions with athletes and soldiers, as well as overweight individuals. However, the influence of hot and cold environments on this crucial function for the regulation of body mass and motor performance has not been summarized. The purpose of this review was to exhaustively search the literature on the effect of ambient temperature during an exercise session on the subsequent subjective feeling of appetite, energy intake (EI) and its regulation...
June 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596247/incretin-based-treatments-and-mortality-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Jiali Liu, Ling Li, Ke Deng, Chang Xu, Jason W Busse, Per Olav Vandvik, Sheyu Li, Gordon H Guyatt, Xin Sun
Objective To assess the impact of incretin based treatment on all cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials.Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and ClinicalTrials.gov.Eligibility criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors with placebo or active anti-diabetic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes...
June 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585879/continuous-glucose-monitoring-a-review-of-recent-studies-demonstrating-improved-glycemic-outcomes
#8
David Rodbard
Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) has been demonstrated to be clinically valuable, reducing risks of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, glycemic variability (GV), and improving patient quality of life for a wide range of patient populations and clinical indications. Use of CGM can help reduce HbA1c and mean glucose. One CGM device, with accuracy (%MARD) of approximately 10%, has recently been approved for self-adjustment of insulin dosages (nonadjuvant use) and approved for reimbursement for therapeutic use in the United States...
June 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581207/improving-postprandial-hyperglycemia-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-already-on-basal-insulin-therapy-a-review-of-current-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Guillermo E Umpierrez, Timothy S Bailey, Danielle Carcia, Charles Shaefer, Jay H Shubrook, Neil Skolnik
A large number of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on basal insulin do not reach their glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) goals and require additional therapy to address postprandial hyperglycemia. Guidelines from expert bodies have outlined several approaches to accomplish post-prandial glucose (PPG) control, and recent literature suggests several more. This article provides strategies for primary care physicians caring for patients with T2D who do not achieve glycemic control with basal insulin alone...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580018/the-burden-of-obesity-in-the-current-world-and-the-new-treatments-available-focus-on-liraglutide-3-0%C3%A2-mg
#10
REVIEW
Marcio C Mancini, Maria Edna de Melo
The prevalence of obesity increases worldwide. Treating obesity and its associated health problems has a significant economic impact on health care systems. The unsatisfactory long-term outcomes observed in the obesity treatment are due to its complex pathophysiology and the inherent difficulties associated with maintenance of lifestyle modifications. Determined by genetic and environmental factors, obesity has been officially recognized as a chronic disease, an action that allowed the recognition of anti-obesity drugs as legitimate therapeutic options to address the growing obesity endemic...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576430/gastric-bypass-surgery-mimetic-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Brian R Boettcher
Gastric bypass surgery is effectively a polypharmacological approach for treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The gastric bypass mimetic approaches reviewed are fixed-dose combinatorial pharmacological approaches. There are two key concepts incorporated into these gastric bypass surgery mimetic approaches. The first key concept is that the combination of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is essential for success of any gastric bypass surgery mimetic approach...
May 30, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572879/effects-of-glycaemic-management-on-diabetic-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Richard J MacIsaac, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci
Hyperglycaemia contributes to the onset and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Observational studies have not consistently demonstrated a glucose threshold, in terms of HbA1c levels, for the onset of DKD. Tight glucose control has clearly been shown to reduce the incidence of micro- or macroalbuminuria. However, evidence is now also emerging to suggest that intensive glucose control can slow glomerular filtration rate loss and possibly progression to end stage kidney disease. Achieving tight glucose control needs to be balanced against the increasing appreciation that glucose targets for the prevention of diabetes related complications need be individualised for each patient...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569363/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-and-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#13
M Monami, B Nreu, A Scatena, S Giannini, F Andreozzi, G Sesti, E Mannucci
BACKGROUND: The pharmacological stimulation of GLP-1 receptors is associated with an increase in heart rate. A pooled analysis of patient-level data from phase III trials with albiglutide revealed a significant increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation. Aim of the present meta-analysis is to summarize all available evidence on the effects of individual GLP-1 receptor agonists (RA), and of the whole class, on the incidence of atrial fibrillation. METHODS: A Medline search for GLP-1 RA (exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, or semaglutide) was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials with a duration ≥12 weeks, enrolling patients with type 2 diabetes and comparing a GLP-1 RA with placebo or any other non-GLP-1 RA drug...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567798/management-for-intussusception-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Steven Gluckman, Jonathan Karpelowsky, Angela C Webster, Richard G McGee
BACKGROUND: Intussusception is a common abdominal emergency in children with significant morbidity. Prompt diagnosis and management reduces associated risks and the need for surgical intervention. Despite widespread agreement on the use of contrast enema as opposed to surgery for initial management in most cases, debate persists on the appropriate contrast medium, imaging modality, pharmacological adjuvant, and protocol for delayed repeat enema, and on the best approach for surgical management for intussusception in children...
June 1, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557822/gut-microbiota-and-the-gut-brain-axis-new-insights-in-the-pathophysiology-of-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Nicolien de Clercq, Myrthe N Frissen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
OBJECTIVE: Emerging pre-clinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we will discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut axis in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate gastrointestinal and brain interactions...
May 27, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556815/the-antidiabetic-mechanisms-of-polyphenols-related-to-increased-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp1-and-insulin-signaling
#16
REVIEW
J Abraham Domínguez Avila, Joaquín Rodrigo García, Gustavo A González Aguilar, Laura A de la Rosa
Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an endocrine disease related to impaired/absent insulin signaling. Dietary habits can either promote or mitigate the onset and severity of T2DM. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been correlated with a decreased incidence of T2DM, apparently due to their high polyphenol content. Polyphenols are compounds of plant origin with several documented bioactivities related to health promotion. The present review describes the antidiabetic effects of polyphenols, specifically related to the secretion and effects of insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), an enteric hormone that stimulates postprandial insulin secretion...
May 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556176/lixisenatide-a-once-daily-prandial-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-for-the-treatment-of-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Jennifer M Trujillo, Jennifer Goldman
Lixisenatide, a short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), has been available in Europe since 2013 and was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as an adjunct to diet and exercise. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of lixisenatide in patients with T2D. We conducted a search of the EMBASE database, limited to human studies with abstracts available in English. Published conference abstracts, limited to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes meetings in 2015, as well as abstracts presented at the ADA meeting in 2016, were also screened...
May 27, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538228/glycemic-control-in-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#18
Wilfred Ip, Mark G Kirchhof
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that manifests as scaly erythematous plaques as a consequence of keratinocyte hyperproliferation and inflammation. It is commonly associated with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. While there are numerous approved treatment options available, they have limitations including availability, toxicities such as immunosuppression, and high cost. There is increasing evidence to suggest that several hypoglycemic agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, thiazolidinediones and biguanides, exert beneficial effects in psoriasis...
May 25, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533136/effect-of-artificial-pancreas-systems-on-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-outpatient-randomised-controlled-trials
#19
Alanna Weisman, Johnny-Wei Bai, Marina Cardinez, Caroline K Kramer, Bruce A Perkins
BACKGROUND: Closed-loop artificial pancreas systems have been in development for several years, including assessment in numerous varied outpatient clinical trials. We aimed to summarise the efficacy and safety of artificial pancreas systems in outpatient settings and explore the clinical and technical factors that can affect their performance. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing artificial pancreas systems (insulin only or insulin plus glucagon) with conventional pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII] with blinded continuous glucose monitoring [CGM] or unblinded sensor-augmented pump [SAP] therapy) in adults and children with type 1 diabetes...
May 19, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526416/treatment-strategy-for-type-2-diabetes-with-obesity-focus-on-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists
#20
REVIEW
Qiuhe Ji
PURPOSE: The progressive nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) calls for step-wise intensification of therapy for maintaining normal glycemic levels and lowering cardiovascular (CV) risk. Because obesity is a prominent risk factor and comorbidity of T2DM, it further elevates the CV risk in T2DM. Therefore, it is vital to manage weight, obesity, and glycemic parameters for effective T2DM management. Few oral antidiabetic drugs (sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones) and insulin are not suitable for obese patients with T2DM because these drugs cause weight gain...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
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