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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243844/in-vitro-improvement-of-quail-primordial-germ-cell-expansion-through-activation-of-tgf-beta-signaling-pathway
#1
Saeed Yakhkeshi, Shaban Rahimi, Mohsen Sharafi, Seyedeh-Nafiseh Hassani, Sara Taleahmad, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Hossein Baharvand
Avian primordial germ cells (PGCs) have valuable potentials to cell-based approaches for transgenic bird production. In this regard, improvement of avian PGC expansion in vitro is necessary. Among experimental avian species, quail is a good model for transgenic technology, especially due to its short generation time. In the present study, we have examined the proliferative effects of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) on the quail PGCs. After isolation of quail PGCs from blood [Hamburger-Hamilton (HH stages 13-15)] and gonads (HH stages 28-30), these cells were cultured on quail embryonic fibroblasts (QEF)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242851/in-depth-ptdins-3-4-5-p3-signalosome-analysis-identifies-dapp1-as-a-negative-regulator-of-gpvi-driven-platelet-function
#2
Tom N Durrant, James L Hutchinson, Kate J Heesom, Karen E Anderson, Len R Stephens, Phillip T Hawkins, Aaron J Marshall, Samantha F Moore, Ingeborg Hers
The class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms play important roles in platelet priming, activation, and stable thrombus formation. Class I PI3Ks predominantly regulate cell function through their catalytic product, the signaling phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3], which coordinates the localization and/or activity of a diverse range of binding proteins. Notably, the complete repertoire of these class I PI3K effectors in platelets remains unknown, limiting mechanistic understanding of class I PI3K-mediated control of platelet function...
June 13, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242512/synthetic-integrin-binding-immune-stimulators-target-cancer-cells-and-prevent-tumor-formation
#3
Manuel Brehs, André J G Pötgens, Julia Steitz, Karine Thewes, Janett Schwarz, Anne C Conibear, Matthias Bartneck, Frank Tacke, Christian F W Becker
Immuno-oncology approaches mainly utilize monoclonal antibodies or protein-based scaffolds that bind with high affinity to cancer cells and can generate an immune response. Peptides can also bind with high affinity to cancer cells and are intermediate in size between antibodies and small molecules. They are also synthetically accessible and therefore easily modified to optimize their stability, binding affinity and selectivity. Here we describe the design of immune system engagers (ISErs), a novel class of synthetic peptide-based compounds that bind specifically to cancer cells and stimulate the immune system...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242293/variable-impairment-of-platelet-functions-in-patients-with-severe-genetically-linked-immune-deficiencies
#4
Magdolna Nagy, Tom G Mastenbroek, Nadine J A Mattheij, Susanne de Witt, Kenneth J Clemetson, Janbernd Kirschner, Ansgar S Schulz, Thomas Vraetz, Carsten Speckmann, Attila Braun, Judith M E M Cosemans, Barbara Zieger, Johan W M Heemskerk
In patients with dysfunctions of the Ca2+ channel ORAI1, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) or integrin-regulating kindlin-3 (FERMT3), severe immunodeficiency is frequently linked to abnormal platelet activity. In this paper, we studied in nine rare patients, including relatives, with confirmed genetic mutations of ORAI1, STIM1 or FERMT3, platelet responsiveness by multi-parameter assessment of whole blood thrombus formation under high-shear flow conditions. In platelets isolated from 5 out of 6 patients with ORAI1 or STIM1 mutations, store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) was (in)completely defective compared to control platelets...
December 14, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242271/snf1-sucrose-nonfermenting-1-related-kinase-promotes-angiogenesis-in-vivo
#5
Qiulun Lu, Zhonglin Xie, Chenghui Yan, Ye Ding, Zejun Ma, Shengnan Wu, Yu Qiu, Stephanie M Cossette, Michelle Bordas, Ramani Ramchandran, Ming-Hui Zou
OBJECTIVE: Snf1 (sucrose nonfermenting 1)-related kinase (SNRK) is a novel member of the AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)-related superfamily that is activated in the process of angiogenesis. Currently, little is known about the function of SNRK in angiogenesis in the physiological and pathological condition. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In this study, in Snrk global heterozygous knockout mice, retina angiogenesis and neovessel formation after hindlimb ischemia were suppressed...
December 14, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241625/vinculin-is-required-to-maintain-glomerular-barrier-integrity
#6
Franziska Lausecker, Xuefei Tian, Kazunori Inoue, Zhen Wang, Christopher E Pedigo, Hossam Hassan, Chang Liu, Margaret Zimmer, Stephanie Jinno, Abby L Huckle, Hellyeh Hamidi, Robert S Ross, Roy Zent, Christoph Ballestrem, Rachel Lennon, Shuta Ishibe
Cell-matrix interactions and podocyte intercellular junctions are key for maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. Vinculin, a cytoplasmic protein, couples actin filaments to integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and to cadherin-based intercellular junctions. Here, we examined the role of vinculin in podocytes by the generation of a podocyte-specific knockout mouse. Mice lacking podocyte vinculin had increased albuminuria and foot process effacement following injury in vivo. Analysis of primary podocytes isolated from the mutant mice revealed defects in cell protrusions, altered focal adhesion size and signaling, as well as impaired cell migration...
December 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240434/fibrinogen-motif-discriminates-platelet-and-cell-capture-at-peptide-modified-gold-micropore-arrays
#7
Kellie Adamson, Elaine Spain, Una Prendergast, Niamh Moran, Robert J Forster, Tia E Keyes
Human blood platelets and SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cancer cell capture at spontaneously adsorbed monolayers of fibrinogen binding motifs GRGDS (generic integrin adhesion), HHLGGAKQAGDV (exclusive to platelet integrin αIIbβ3) or octanethiol (adhesion inhibitor) at planar gold and ordered 1.6 micron diameter spherical cap gold cavity arrays was compared. In all cases, RGD promoted capture while alkanethiol monolayers inhibited adhesion. Conversely only platelets adhered to AGD modified surfaces, indicating the AGD motif is recognized preferentially by the platelet specific integrin, αIIbβ3...
December 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239050/therapeutic-potential-of-amniotic-fluid-stem-cells-to-treat-bilateral-ovarian-dystrophy-in-dairy-cows-in-a-subtropical-region
#8
L-B Chang, S-Y Peng, C-J Chou, Y-J Chen, J-S Shiu, P-A Tu, S-X Gao, Y-C Chen, T-K Lin, S-C Wu
Amniotic fluid is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) have become a new source of stem cells; they have low immunogenicity and are easily harvested. For this reason, they may be useful in clinical tissue engineering. Moreover, AFSCs have anti-inflammatory properties and can repair tissues. This study evaluated the utility of AFSC injection to treat bilateral ovarian dystrophy in Holstein-Friesian cows. Bovine AFSCs (BAFSCs) were collected at slaughter from Holstein-Friesian cows during the third or fourth month of pregnancy and cultured in vitro...
December 14, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238344/scrambled-eggs-apoptotic-cell-clearance-by-non-professional-phagocytes-in-the-drosophila-ovary
#9
REVIEW
Sandy B Serizier, Kimberly McCall
For half of a century, it has been known that non-professional phagocytes, such as fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells, are capable of efferocytosis (engulfment of apoptotic cells). Non-professional phagocytes differ from professional phagocytes in the range and efficiency of engulfment. Much of the recognition and underlying signaling machinery between non-professional and professional phagocytes is the same, but it is not known how the engulfment capacity of non-professional phagocytes is controlled...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237817/an-arf6-and-caveolae-dependent-pathway-links-hemidesmosome-remodeling-and-mechanoresponse
#10
Naël Osmani, Julien Pontabry, Jordi Comelles, Nina Fekonja, Jacky G Goetz, Daniel Riveline, Elisabeth Georges-Labouesse, Michel Labouesse
Hemidesmosomes (HDs) are epithelial-specific cell-matrix adhesions, which stably anchor the intracellular keratin network to the extracellular matrix. Although their main role is to protect the epithelial sheet from external mechanical strain, how HDs respond to mechanical stress remains poorly understood. Here we identify a pathway essential for HD remodeling, and outline its role with respect to α6β4 integrin recycling. We find that α6β4 integrin chains localize to the plasma membrane, caveolae and Arf6+ endocytic compartments...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237724/dual-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-and-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-5-blockade-attenuates-fibrotic-and-vascular-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-systemic-sclerosis
#11
Gianluca Bagnato, Natasha Irrera, Gabriele Pizzino, Domenico Santoro, William Neal Roberts, Gianfilippo Bagnato, Giovanni Pallio, Mario Vaccaro, Francesco Squadrito, Antonino Saitta, Domenica Altavilla, Alessandra Bitto
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by fibroblast activation and fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Alterations in cell-integrin interaction are sufficient to initiate pro-fibrotic processes. SSc fibroblasts express both αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins and their activation induces myofibroblasts differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the anb3 and anb5 inhibitor, cilengitide, on the development of vascular and fibrotic changes in the chronic oxidant stress murine model of systemic sclerosis...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237506/tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-chondrogenesis-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-promoted-by-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-through-the-integrin-mtor-signaling-pathway
#12
Peng Xia, Xiaoju Wang, Yanping Qu, Qiang Lin, Kai Cheng, Mingxia Gao, Shasha Ren, Tingting Zhang, Xueping Li
BACKGROUND: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a mechanical stimulus that plays a key role in regulating the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). However, the way in which it affects the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether LIPUS is able to influence TGF-β1-induced chondrogenesis of BMSCs through the integrin-mechanistic target of the Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. METHODS: BMSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and cultured in either standard or TGF-β1-treated culture medium...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237383/the-effect-of-flubendazole-on-adhesion-and-migration-in-sw480-and-sw620-colon-cancer-cells
#13
Veronika Hanusova, Lenka Skalova, Vera Kralova, Petra Matouskovs
Colon cancer is the most common type of gastrointestinal cancer. Despite advances during the last two decades, the efficacy of colorectal cancer treatment is still insufficient and new anticancer agents are necessary. In our study, colon cancer cells derived from a primary tumor (SW480) and lymph node metastasis (SW620) from the same patient were used and compared. The effect of FLU on cell adhesion and migration was monitored using the x-CELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis system. Expressions of molecules involved in adhesion and migration were analyzed using RT-PCR and western blot...
December 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235514/substrate-stiffness-influences-phenotype-and-function-of-human-antigen-presenting-dendritic-cells
#14
Svenja F B Mennens, Matteo Bolomini-Vittori, Jorieke Weiden, Ben Joosten, Alessandra Cambi, Koen van den Dries
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized immune cells that scan peripheral tissues for foreign material or aberrant cells and, upon recognition of such danger signals, travel to lymph nodes to activate T cells and evoke an immune response. For this, DCs travel large distances through the body, encountering a variety of microenvironments with different mechanical properties such as tissue stiffness. While immune-related pathological conditions such as fibrosis or cancer are associated with tissue stiffening, the role of tissue stiffness in regulating key functions of DCs has not been studied yet...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235102/eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-kinase-up-regulates-the-expression-of-proteins-implicated-in-cell-migration-and-cancer-cell-metastasis
#15
Jianling Xie, Kaikai Shen, Roman V Lenchine, Lee A Gethings, Paul J Trim, Marten F Snel, Ying Zhou, Justin W Kenney, Makoto Kamei, Marina Kochetkova, Xuemin Wang, Christopher G Proud
Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) negative regulates the elongation phase of mRNA translation and hence protein synthesis. Increasing evidence indicates that eEF2K plays an important role in the survival and migration of cancer cells and in tumour progression. As demonstrated by two-dimensional wound-healing and three-dimensional transwell invasion assays, knocking down or inhibiting eEF2K in cancer cells impairs migration and invasion of cancer cells. Conversely, exogenous expression of eEF2K or knocking down eEF2 (the substrate of eEF2K) accelerates wound healing and invasion...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233918/rhob-controls-the-rab11-mediated-recycling-and-surface-reappearance-of-lfa-1-in-migrating-t-lymphocytes
#16
Malin Samuelsson, Katarzyna Potrzebowska, Janne Lehtonen, Jason P Beech, Ekatarina Skorova, Heli Uronen-Hansson, Lena Svensson
The regulation of cell adhesion and motility is complex and requires the intracellular trafficking of integrins to and from sites of cell adhesion, especially in fast-moving cells such as leukocytes. The Rab family of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) is essential for vesicle transport, and vesicles mediate intracellular integrin trafficking. We showed that RhoB regulates the vesicular transport of the integrin LFA-1 along the microtubule network in migrating T lymphocytes. Impairment in RhoB function resulted in the accumulation of both LFA-1 and the recycling endosomal marker Rab11 at the rear of migrating T lymphocytes and decreased the association between these molecules...
December 12, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233040/integrin-%C3%AE-4-is-a-novel-transcriptional-target-of-tap73
#17
Ningxia Xie, Polina Vikhreva, Margherita Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Ivano Amelio, Richard A Knight, Gerry Melino
As a member of p53 family, p73 has attracted intense investigations due to its structural and functional similarities to p53. Among more than ten p73 variants, the transactivation (TA) domain-containing isoform TAp73 is the one that imitates the p53's behavior most. TAp73 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, which endows it the capacity of tumour suppression. Also, it can exert diverse biological influences on cells through activating a complex and context dependent transcriptional programme. The transcriptional activities further broaden its roles in more intricate biological processes...
December 13, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232694/hyperbranched-poly-%C3%AF%C2%B5-lysine-substrate-presenting-the-laminin-sequence-yigsr-induces-the-formation-of-spheroids-in-adult-bone-marrow-stem-cells
#18
Valeria Perugini, Steve T Meikle, Anna L Guildford, Matteo Santin
Unlike the fibroblast-like cells formed upon monolayer culture of human mesenchymal stem cells, the natural stem cell niche of the bone marrow and other types of tissues favours the formation of 3-dimensional (3D) cell clusters. The structuring and biological activity of these clusters are regulated by the contacts established by cells with both the basement membrane and neighbour cells and results in their asymmetric division and the consequent maintenance of both a stem population and a committed progeny...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232550/glut3-addiction-a-druggable-vulnerability-in-glioblastoma
#19
Severa Bunda, Gelareh Zadeh, Kenneth D Aldape
The link between GBM molecular subtype and response to treatment remains undefined. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Cosset and colleagues define a subpopulation of patients within the proneural/classical subtype sensitive to integrin blockade because of a Glut3 addiction. These findings reveal context-dependent druggable vulnerability in a subpopulation of GBM.
December 11, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230922/synthetic-cancer-targeting-innate-immune-stimulators-give-insights-into-avidity-effects
#20
Anne Claire Conibear, André Pötgens, Karine Thewes, Claudia Altdorf, Clarissa Hilzendeger, Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Becker
Multispecific and multivalent antibodies are seen as promising cancer therapeutics and numerous antibody fragments and derivatives have been developed to exploit avidity effects that result in increased selectivity. Most of these multispecific and multivalent antibody strategies make use of recombinant expression of antigen-binding modules. In contrast, chemical synthesis and chemoselective ligations can be used to generate a variety of molecules with different numbers and combinations of binding moieties in a modular and homogeneous fashion...
December 12, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
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