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Glucagon AND Polyphenol

Francesca Gullo, Michela Ceriani, Alessia D'Aloia, Enzo Wanke, Andrew Constanti, Barbara Costa, Marzia Lecchi
Increasing evidence supports a decisive role for neuroinflammation in the neurodegenerative process of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Microglia are essential mediators of neuroinflammation and can regulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines. We have recently shown that also in ex-vivo cortical networks of neurons, astrocytes and microglia, an increased level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was detected a few hours after exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shuli Man, Jiang Ma, Jingwen Yao, Jingxia Cui, Chunxia Wang, Yu Li, Long Ma, Fuping Lu
Our previous research obtained Litchi chinensis Sonn. seeds extract (LSE) which showed hypoglycaemic effects on type 2 diabetes (T2D) rats. In order to understand the detailed pathogenesis of diabetes intervened by LSE, the metabonomics strategy was used. As a result, LSE decreased the insulin resistance index and the levels of glucose in urine through elevating the mRNA level of insulin, while decreasing the expression of glucagon to enhance the function of the pancreas. Meanwhile, LSE regulated the glucose and fatty acid metabolisms via increasing the expression of glucose transporter (Glu) 2, Glu4, insulin receptor (IR), and IR substrate-2 (IRS2)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hoda M Eid, Michelle L Wright, N V Anil Kumar, Abdel Qawasmeh, Sherif T S Hassan, Andrei Mocan, Seyed M Nabavi, Luca Rastrelli, Atanas G Atanasov, Pierre S Haddad
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three or more metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity has become the epidemic of the twenty-first century with more than 1.6 billion overweight adults. Due to the strong connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes, obesity has received wide attention with subsequent coining of the term "diabesity." Recent studies have identified unique contributions of the immensely diverse gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
J Abraham Domínguez Avila, Joaquín Rodrigo García, Gustavo A González Aguilar, Laura A de la Rosa
Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an endocrine disease related to impaired/absent insulin signaling. Dietary habits can either promote or mitigate the onset and severity of T2DM. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been correlated with a decreased incidence of T2DM, apparently due to their high polyphenol content. Polyphenols are compounds of plant origin with several documented bioactivities related to health promotion. The present review describes the antidiabetic effects of polyphenols, specifically related to the secretion and effects of insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), an enteric hormone that stimulates postprandial insulin secretion...
May 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Caroline M Ryan, Weslie Khoo, Amanda C Stewart, Sean F O'Keefe, Joshua D Lambert, Andrew P Neilson
Cocoa and its constituent bioactives (particularly flavanols) have reported anti-diabetic and anti-obesity activities. One potential mechanism of action is inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP4), the enzyme that inactivates incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory peptide. The objective of this study was to determine the DPP4 inhibitory activities of cocoas with different processing histories, and identify processing factors and bioactive compounds that predict DPP4 inhibition...
February 22, 2017: Food & Function
Daisaku Masuda, Shizuya Yamashita
Fasting hypertriglyceridemia is positively associated with the morbidity of coronary heart disease (CHD), and postprandial (non-fasting) hypertriglyceridemia is also correlated with the risk status for CHD, which is related to the increase in chylomicron (CM) remnant lipoproteins produced from the intestine. CM remnant particles, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) or very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, are highly atherogenic and act by enhancing systemic inflammation, platelet activation, coagulation, thrombus formation, and macrophage foam cell formation...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
K Szkudelska, M Deniziak, P Roś, K Gwóźdź, T Szkudelski
Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in different plant species and having numerous health-promoting properties in animals and humans. However, its protective action against deleterious effects of ethanol is poorly elucidated. In the present study, the influence of resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) on some hormones and metabolic parameters was determined in rats ingesting 10 % ethanol solution for two weeks. Blood levels of insulin, glucagon and adiponectin were affected by ethanol, however, resveratrol partially ameliorated these changes...
March 31, 2017: Physiological Research
Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Miriam Rodríguez-Werner, Anke Schlösser, Martin Liehr, Ignacio Ipharraguerre, Peter Winterhalter, Gerald Rimbach
Black and purple carrots have attracted interest as colored extracts for coloring food due to their high content of anthocyanins. This study aimed to investigate the polyphenol composition of black carrots. Particularly, the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds of the variety Deep Purple carrot (DPC), which presents a very dark color, was performed by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses. The separation of polyphenols from a DPC XAD-7 extract into an anthocyanin fraction (AF) and co-pigment fraction (CF; primarily phenolic acids) was carried out by membrane chromatography...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
T C Haufe, A D Gilley, K M Goodrich, C M Ryan, A T Smithson, M W Hulver, D Liu, A P Neilson
Prediabetes is a condition affecting 35% of US adults and about 50% of US adults age 65+. Foods rich in polyphenols, including flavanols and other flavonoids, have been studied for their putative beneficial effects on many different health conditions including type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes. Studies have shown that some flavanols increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion. GLP-1 is a feeding hormone that increases insulin secretion after carbohydrate consumption, and increased GLP-1 secretion may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects on glycemic control after flavanol consumption...
June 15, 2016: Food & Function
Baishakhi De, Koushik Bhandari, Rajeev K Singla, Prakash Katakam, Tanmoy Samanta, Dilip Kumar Kushwaha, Rohit Gundamaraju, Analava Mitra
BACKGROUND: Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun are popular Indian medicinal plants with notable hypoglycemic potentials. Now the work reports chemo-profiling of the three species with in-vitro screening approach for natural enzyme inhibitors (NEIs) against enzymes pathogenic for type 2 diabetes. Further along with the chemometrics optimized extraction process technology, phyto-synergistic studies of the composite polyherbal blends have also been reported. OBJECTIVE: Chemometrically optimized extraction procedures, ratios of polyherbal composites to achieve phyto-synergistic actions, and in-vitro screening of NEIs amongst leaves of Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun...
October 2015: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Dora Reglodi, Justine Renaud, Andrea Tamas, Yousef Tizabi, Sergio B Socías, Elaine Del-Bel, Rita Raisman-Vozari
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of midbrain nigral dopaminergic neurons. Although its etiology remains unknown, the pathological role of several factors has been highlighted, namely oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, protein misfolding, and mitochondrial dysfunction, in addition to genetic predispositions. The current therapy is mainly symptomatic with l-DOPA aiming to replace dopamine. Novel therapeutic approaches are being investigated with the intention of influencing pathways leading to neuronal death and dysfunction...
August 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
Chien-Ning Huang, Chau-Jong Wang, Yi-Sun Yang, Chih-Li Lin, Chiung-Huei Peng
Diabetic nephropathy has a significant socioeconomic impact, but its mechanism is unclear and needs to be examined. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) inhibited high glucose-induced angiotensin II receptor-1 (AT-1), thus attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, we reported HPE inhibited dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4, the enzyme degrades type 1 glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1)), which mediated insulin resistance signals leading to EMT. Since free fatty acids can realistically bring about insulin resistance, using the palmitate-stimulated cell model in contrast with type 2 diabetic rats, in this study we examined if insulin resistance causes renal EMT, and the preventive effect of HPE...
January 2016: Food & Function
Barry Sears
Chronic disease is driven by inflammation. This article will provide an overview on how the balance of macronutrients and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can alter the expression of inflammatory genes. In particular, how the balance of the protein to glycemic load of a meal can alter the generation of insulin and glucagon and the how the balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can effect eicosanoid formation. Clinical results on the reduction of inflammation following anti-inflammatory diets are discussed as well as the molecular targets of anti-inflammatory nutrition...
2015: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Won-Young Song, Yoshiko Aihara, Takashi Hashimoto, Kazuki Kanazawa, Masashi Mizuno
The anorexigenic gut hormones, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), are released in response to food intake from the intestines. Dietary nutrients have been shown to stimulate these hormones. Some non-nutrients such as polyphenols show anorexigenic effects on humans. In the present study, we examined whether dietary polyphenols can stimulate secretion of these gut hormones. Caco-2 cells expressed mRNA of the gut hormones, CCK, PC1 (prohormone convertase 1), GCG (glucagon) and PYY...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Hiroko Jokura, Isamu Watanabe, Mika Umeda, Tadashi Hase, Akira Shimotoyodome
Epidemiological studies indicate that habitual coffee consumption lowers the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a direct and independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We previously demonstrated that coffee polyphenol ingestion increased secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which has been shown to exhibit anti-diabetic and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized coffee polyphenol consumption may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function by increasing GLP-1 release and/or reducing oxidative stress...
October 2015: Nutrition Research
Yoshie Fujii, Noriko Osaki, Tadashi Hase, Akira Shimotoyodome
The widespread prevalence of diabetes, caused by impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance, is now a worldwide health problem. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a major intestinal hormone that stimulates glucose-induced insulin secretion from β cells. Prolonged activation of the GLP-1 signal has been shown to attenuate diabetes in animals and human subjects. Therefore, GLP-1 secretagogues are attractive targets for the treatment of diabetes. Recent epidemiological studies have reported that an increase in daily coffee consumption lowers diabetes risk...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science
Lutgarda Bozzetto, Giovanni Annuzzi, Giovanni Pacini, Giuseppina Costabile, Claudia Vetrani, Marilena Vitale, Ettore Griffo, Angela Giacco, Claudia De Natale, Sara Cocozza, Giuseppe Della Pepa, Andrea Tura, Gabriele Riccardi, Angela A Rivellese
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Dietary polyphenols and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3) are associated with lower cardiovascular risk. This may relate to their influence on glucose metabolism and diabetes risk. We evaluated the effects of diets naturally rich in polyphenols and/or LCn3 of marine origin on glucose metabolism in people at high cardiometabolic risk. METHODS: According to a 2 × 2 factorial design, individuals with high waist circumference and at least one more component of the metabolic syndrome were recruited at the obesity outpatient clinic...
July 2015: Diabetologia
Hao Wang, Yuxia Guan, Anne Lykkegaard Widlund, Lance B Becker, Joseph A Baur, Patrick M Reilly, Carrie A Sims
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic shock (HS) may contribute to organ failure, by profoundly altering mitochondrial function. Resveratrol (RSV), a naturally occurring polyphenol, has been shown to promote mitochondrial function and regulate glucose homeostasis in diabetes. We hypothesized that RSV during resuscitation would ameliorate HS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and improve hyperglycemia following acute blood loss. METHODS: With the use a decompensated HS model, male Long-Evans rats (n = 6 per group) were resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution with or without RSV (30 mg/kg) and were killed before hemorrhage (sham), at severe shock, following resuscitation, and 18 hours after resuscitation...
December 2014: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
E Griffo, L Di Marino, L Patti, L Bozzetto, G Annuzzi, P Cipriano, A Mangione, G Della Pepa, S Cocozza, G Riccardi, A A Rivellese
Postprandial lipid abnormalities are considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Hence, it is important to find nutritional strategies that are able to positively influence these abnormalities. Since the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and polyphenols on postprandial lipids in humans is still under debate, we evaluated the acute response of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to test meals that are naturally rich in polyphenols and/or marine long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs. We hypothesized that LC n-3 PUFA would have a different effect on chylomicron and very low density lipoproteins when compared with polyphenols or their combination...
August 2014: Nutrition Research
Nigel Hoggard, Morven Cruickshank, Kim-Marie Moar, Charles Bestwick, Jens J Holst, Wendy Russell, Graham Horgan
Dietary strategies for alleviating health complications associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are being pursued as alternatives to pharmaceutical interventions. Berries such as bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) that are rich in polyphenols may influence carbohydrate digestion and absorption and thus postprandial glycaemia. In addition, berries have been reported to alter incretins as well as to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may also affect postprandial glycaemia. The present study investigated the acute effect of a standardised bilberry extract on glucose metabolism in T2D...
2013: Journal of Nutritional Science
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