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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238364/design-and-performance-of-subgrade-biogeochemical-reactors
#1
Jeff Gamlin, Doug Downey, Brad Shearer, Paul Favara
Subgrade biogeochemical reactors (SBGRs), also commonly referred to as in situ bioreactors, are a unique technology for treatment of contaminant source areas and groundwater plume hot spots. SBGRs have most commonly been configured for enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) applications for chlorinated solvent treatment. However, they have also been designed for other contaminant classes using alternative treatment media. The SBGR technology typically consists of removal of contaminated soil via excavation or large-diameter augers, and backfill of the soil void with gravel and treatment amendments tailored to the target contaminant(s)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231068/recent-advances-on-iron-oxide-magnetic-nanoparticles-as-sorbents-of-organic-pollutants-in-water-and-wastewater-treatment
#2
Angela M Gutierrez, Thomas D Dziubla, J Zach Hilt
The constant growth in population worldwide over the past decades continues to put forward the need to provide access to safe, clean water to meet human needs. There is a need for cost-effective technologies for water and wastewater treatment that can meet the global demands and the rigorous water quality standards and at the same maximizing pollutant efficiency removal. Current remediation technologies have failed in keeping up with these factors without becoming cost-prohibitive. Most recently, nanotechnology has been sought as the best alternative to increase access to water supplies by remediating those already contaminated and offering ways to access unconventional sources...
February 23, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230731/certain-grain-foods-can-be-meaningful-contributors-to-nutrient-density-in-the-diets-of-u-s-children-and-adolescents-data-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2009-2012
#3
Yanni Papanikolaou, Victor L Fulgoni
Grain foods may play an important role in delivering nutrients to the diet of children and adolescents. The present study determined grain food sources of energy/nutrients in U.S. children and adolescents using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012. Analyses of grain food sources were conducted using a 24-h recall in participants 2-18 years old (N = 6109). Sources of nutrients contained in grain foods were determined using U.S. Department of Agriculture nutrient composition databases and excluded mixed dishes...
February 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230308/iron-catalyzed-decarboxylative-alkyl-etherification-of-vinylarenes-with-aliphatic-acids-as-the-alkyl-source
#4
Wujun Jian, Liang Ge, Yihang Jiao, Bo Qian, Hongli Bao
Because of the lack of effective alkylating reagents, alkyl etherification of olefins with general alkyl groups has not been previously reported. In this work, a variety of alkyl diacyl peroxides and peresters generated from aliphatic acids have been found to enable the first iron-catalyzed alkyl etherification of olefins with general alkyl groups. Primary, secondary and tertiary aliphatic acids are suitable for this reaction, delivering products with yields up to 97 %. Primary and secondary alcohols react well, affording products in up to 91 % yield...
February 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226251/effects-of-sulfate-on-heavy-metal-release-from-iron-corrosion-scales-in-drinking-water-distribution-system
#5
Huifang Sun, Baoyou Shi, Fan Yang, Dongsheng Wang
Trace heavy metals accumulated in iron corrosion scales within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) could potentially be released to bulk water and consequently deteriorate the tap water quality. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the release of trace heavy metals in DWDS under changing source water conditions. Experimental pipe loops with different iron corrosion scales were set up to simulate the actual DWDS. The effects of sulfate levels on heavy metal release were systemically investigated...
February 13, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217776/iron-acquisition-in-fungal-pathogens-of-humans
#6
Gaurav Bairwa, Won Hee Jung, James W Kronstad
The devastating infections that fungal pathogens cause in humans are underappreciated relative to viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases. In recent years, the contributions to virulence of reductive iron uptake, siderophore-mediated uptake and heme acquisition have been identified in the best studied and most life-threatening fungal pathogens: Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus. In particular, exciting new work illustrates the importance of iron acquisition from heme and hemoglobin in the virulence of pathogenic yeasts...
February 20, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217111/integration-of-metagenomic-and-stable-carbon-isotope-evidence-reveals-the-extent-and-mechanisms-of-carbon-dioxide-fixation-in-high-temperature-microbial-communities
#7
Ryan de Montmollin Jennings, James J Moran, Zackary J Jay, Jacob P Beam, Laura M Whitmore, Mark A Kozubal, Helen W Kreuzer, William P Inskeep
Although the biological fixation of CO2 by chemolithoautotrophs provides a diverse suite of organic compounds utilized by chemoorganoheterotrophs as a carbon and energy source, the relative amounts of autotrophic C in chemotrophic microbial communities are not well-established. The extent and mechanisms of CO2 fixation were evaluated across a comprehensive set of high-temperature, chemotrophic microbial communities in Yellowstone National Park by combining metagenomic and stable (13)C isotope analyses. Fifteen geothermal sites representing three distinct habitat types (iron-oxide mats, anoxic sulfur sediments, and filamentous "streamer" communities) were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216891/effects-of-potassium-sulfate-k2so4-on-the-element-contents-polyphenol-content-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-milk-thistle-silybum-marianum
#8
Gulsum Yaldiz
BACKGROUND: Silybum marianum L. (Milk thistle) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world. It's sprout is used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease for centuries. The seeds of milk thistle contain silymarin, an isomeric mixture of flavonolignans [silybin, silychristin, and silydianin]. Silymarin acts as a strong anti-hepatotoxic. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of potassium sulfate [K2SO4] fertilizer doses on polyphenol content, some nutrient elements, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of milk thistle at experimental fields of Ordu University in Turkey...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214907/a-pilot-study-of-bacterial-regrowth-in-water-pipelines
#9
Laura Mancini, Stefania Marcheggiani, Cinzia Grasso, Cristina Romanelli, Antonio Mistretta, Marina Marranzano
Bacterial regrowth in water distribution systems results in deterioration of bacteriological quality of drinking water, as well as accelerated corrosion of the pipelines. The aim of the present study was to analyze the phenomena of colonization and bacterial regrowth in source water and in the water distribution systems of three distribution networks in the province of Catania (Sicily, Italy). The BART™ (Biological Activity Reaction Test) method was used, which is also capable of determining the potential aggressiveness of microbial species in water...
November 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213707/hydropower-reservoirs-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-assessment-using-the-allium-cepa-root-model
#10
Cassiano Lazarotto Rambo, Patrícia Zanotelli, Daniela Dalegrave, Dinara De Nez, Jozimar Szczepanik, Fábio Carazek, Francini Franscescon, Denis Broock Rosemberg, Anna Maria Siebel, Jacir Dal Magro
Hydropower offers a reliable source of electricity in several countries, and Brazil supplies its energy needs almost entirely through hydropower plants. Nevertheless, hydropower plants comprise large buildings and water reservoirs and dams, resulting in huge ecological disruptions. Here, we analyzed the impact of four hydropower reservoirs construction in metals and pesticides incidence and the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of sediment elutriate of rivers from southern Brazil. Our analyses have evidenced the elevated incidence of different metals (lead, iron, cadmium, and chrome) and pesticides (methyl parathion, atrazine, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207797/mutation-increasing-%C3%AE-carotene-concentrations-does-not-adversely-affect-concentrations-of-essential-mineral-elements-in-pepper-fruit
#11
Nasya B Tomlekova, Philip J White, Jacqueline A Thompson, Emil A Penchev, Stephan Nielen
Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are prevalent in human populations throughout the world. Vitamin A deficiency affects hundreds of millions of pre-school age children in low income countries. Fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can be a major dietary source of precursors to Vitamin A biosynthesis, such as β-carotene. Recently, pepper breeding programs have introduced the orange-fruited (of) trait of the mutant variety Oranzheva kapiya, which is associated with high fruit β-carotene concentrations, to the mutant variety Albena...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206742/influence-of-the-mixing-energy-consumption-affecting-coagulation-and-floc-aggregation
#12
Yamuna Srinivasan Vadasarukkai, Graham A Gagnon
The operational significance of energy-intensive rapid mixing processes remains unaddressed in coagulation and flocculation of insoluble precipitates (flocs), which play an important role in the removal of impurities from drinking water supplies. In this study, the influence of rapid mixing and associated mixing energy on floc aggregation was examined for a surface water source characterized by a high fraction of aquatic humic matter. Infrared spectral analyses showed that the colloidal complexes resulting from ligand exchange between iron and dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) were not substantially influenced by the mixing energy input...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197871/monitoring-and-risk-assessment-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-in-agricultural-soil-from-two-industrialized-areas
#13
Leesun Kim, Jin-Woo Jeon, Ji-Young Son, Min-Kyu Park, Chul-Su Kim, Hwang-Ju Jeon, Tae-Hoon Nam, Kyeongsoon Kim, Byung-Jun Park, Sung-Deuk Choi, Sung-Eun Lee
For monitoring and risk assessment, levels and distributions of Σ29 PCBs in paddy soil samples collected from Gwangyang (10 sites) and Ulsan (20 sites), heavily industrialized cities in Korea, were investigated using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Overall, total concentrations of Σ29 PCBs in Gwangyang (216.4-978.6 pg g(-1) dw) and Ulsan (273.8-1824.1 pg g(-1) dw) were higher than those (106.6-222.6 pg g(-1) dw) in agricultural soil from Anseong in Korea. The TEQ (toxic equivalency) values from Gwangyang (0...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194672/assessment-of-the-effects-of-orally-administered-ferrous-sulfate-on-oncopeltus-fasciatus-heteroptera-lygaeidae
#14
Amparo Ferrero, Amparo Torreblanca, María Dolores Garcerá
Iron is an essential nutrient needed for multiple biological processes, but it is also an effective pro-oxidant in its reduced form. Environmental sources of iron toxic species include reduced soils from rice plantations, polluted natural areas from metal industry waste, or iron oxides used in soil bioremediation. Few studies have been conducted to assess the toxicity of iron species in insects. The present work aims to assess the oxidative stress effects of ferrous sulfate administered in drinking water after acute exposure (96 h) to adults of the insect model Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas)...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193844/heme-assimilation-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-requires-cell-surface-anchored-protein-shu1-and-vacuolar-transporter-abc3
#15
Thierry Mourer, Vincent Normant, Simon Labbe
The Schizosaccharomyces pombe shu1(+) gene encodes a cell-surface protein required for assimilation of exogenous heme. In this study, shaving experiments showed that Shu1 is released from membrane preparations when spheroplast lysates are incubated with phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Shu1 cleavability by PI-PLC and its predicted hydropathy profile strongly suggested that Shu1 is a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein. When heme biosynthesis is selectively blocked in hem1Δ mutant cells, the heme analog zinc mesoporphyrin IX (ZnMP) first accumulates into vacuoles and then subsequently, within the cytoplasm in a rapid and Shu1-dependent manner...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193158/transcriptional-and-physiological-analyses-of-fe-deficiency-response-in-maize-reveal-the-presence-of-strategy-i-components-and-fe-p-interactions
#16
Laura Zanin, Silvia Venuti, Anita Zamboni, Zeno Varanini, Nicola Tomasi, Roberto Pinton
BACKGROUND: Under limited iron (Fe) availability maize, a Strategy II plant, improves Fe acquisition through the release of phytosiderophores (PS) into the rhizosphere and the subsequent uptake of Fe-PS complexes into root cells. Occurrence of Strategy-I-like components and interactions with phosphorous (P) nutrition has been hypothesized based on molecular and physiological studies in grasses. RESULTS: In this report transcriptomic analysis (NimbleGen microarray) of Fe deficiency response revealed that maize roots modulated the expression levels of 724 genes (508 up- and 216 down-regulated, respectively)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190843/application-of-internal-standard-method-for-several-3d-transition-metallic-elements-in-flame-atomic-absorption-spectrometry-using-a-multi-wavelength-high-resolution-spectrometer
#17
Yusuke Toya, Toshiko Itagaki, Kazuaki Wagatsuma
We investigated a simultaneous internal standard method in flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), in order to better the analytical precision of 3d-transition metals contained in steel materials. For this purpose, a new spectrometer system for FAAS, comprising a bright xenon lamp as the primary radiation source and a high-resolution Echelle monochromator, was employed to measure several absorption lines at a wavelength width of ca. 0.3 nm at the same time, which enables the absorbances of an analytical line and also an internal standard line to be estimated...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190688/antimony-as-a-global-dilemma-geochemistry-mobility-fate-and-transport
#18
REVIEW
Indika Herath, Meththika Vithanage, Jochen Bundschuh
Elevated concentrations of antimony (Sb) in environmental, biological and geochemical systems originating from natural, geological and anthropogenic sources are of particular global concern. This review presents a critical overview of natural geochemical processes which trigger the mobilization of Sb from its host mineral phases and related rocks to the surrounding environments. The primary source of Sb contamination in the environment is geogenic. The geochemical characteristics of Sb are determined by its oxidation states, speciation and redox transformation...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189073/lower-levels-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-metals-and-the-marine-omega-3-fatty-acid-dha-in-farmed-compared-to-wild-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#19
Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Erik-Jan Lock, Josef D Rasinger, Ole Jakob Nøstbakken, Rita Hannisdal, Egil Karlsbakk, Vidar Wennevik, Abdullah S Madhun, Lise Madsen, Ingvild Eide Graff, Robin Ørnsrud
Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188987/effectiveness-of-phosphate-removal-during-anaerobic-digestion-of-waste-activated-sludge-by-dosing-iron-iii
#20
Xiang Cheng, Jue Wang, Bing Chen, Yu Wang, Jiaqi Liu, Lubo Liu
Phosphate-Fe(II) precipitation induced by Fe(III) reduction during the anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge was investigated for the removal of phosphorus and its possible recovery. The experiments were conducted with three Fe(III) sources at 35 °C and 55 °C. The results show that ferrihydrite-Fe(III) was effectively reduced during the anaerobic sludge digestion by 63% and 96% under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Whereas FeCl3-Fe(III) was only mesophilically reducible and the reduction of hematite-Fe(III) was unnoticeable at either temperature...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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