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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909560/rhinencephalon-changes-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#1
Renzo Manara, Davide Brotto, Samuela Bugin, Maria Federica Pelizza, Stefano Sartori, Margherita Nosadini, Sara Azzolini, Giorgio Iaconetta, Cecilia Parazzini, Alessandra Murgia, Angela Peron, Paola Canevini, Francesca Labriola, Aglaia Vignoli, Irene Toldo
PURPOSE: Despite complex olfactory bulb embryogenesis, its development abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) have been poorly investigated. METHODS: Brain MRIs of 110 TSC patients (mean age 11.5 years; age range 0.5-38 years; 52 female; 26 TSC1, 68 TSC2, 8 without mutation identified in TSC1 or TSC2, 8 not tested) were retrospectively evaluated. Signal and morphological abnormalities consistent with olfactory bulb hypo/aplasia or with olfactory bulb hamartomas were recorded...
June 17, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909451/morphology-of-ovary-and-spermathecae-of-the-parasitoid-eibesfeldtphora-tonhascai-brown-diptera-phoridae
#2
Cliver Fernandes Farder-Gomes, Helen Cristina Pinto Santos, Marco Antonio Oliveira, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
Eibesfeldtphora tonhascai (Diptera: Phoridae) is a parasitoid of leaf-cutting ants and a potential biological control agent against these insect pests. This study describes the morphology of the ovary and spermatheca of E. tonhascai. The female reproductive tract of this parasitoid has a pair of meroistic polytrophic ovaries, two lateral oviducts that open into a common oviduct, an elongated accessory gland, and two spermathecae. Young oocytes are small and spherical, and their size increases as yolk is stored in the cytoplasm...
June 16, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909251/fnirs-reveals-enhanced-brain-activation-to-female-versus-male-infant-directed-speech-relative-to-adult-directed-speech-in-young-human-infants
#3
Simone Sulpizio, Hirokazu Doi, Marc H Bornstein, Joy Cui, Gianluca Esposito, Kazuyuki Shinohara
We hypothesized an association between auditory stimulus structure and activity in the brain that underlies infant auditory preference. In a within-infant design, we assessed brain activity to female and male infant directed relative to adult directed speech in 4-month-old infants using fNIRS. Results are compatible with the hypothesis that enhanced frontal brain activation, specifically in prefrontal cortex that is involved in emotion and reward, is evoked selectively by infant directed speech produced by female voices and may serve as a neuronal substrate for attention to and preference for "motherese" displayed by infants...
June 14, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908971/why-are-maternally-separated-females-inflexible-brain-activity-pattern-of-cox-and-c-fos
#4
María Banqueri, Marta Méndez, Jorge L Arias
Subjects' early life events will affect them later in life. When these events are stressful, such as child abuse in humans or repeated maternal separation in rodents, subjects can show some behavioral and brain alterations. This study used young adult female Wistar rats that were maternally raised (AFR), maternally separated from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND10 (MS10), or maternally separated from PND1 to PND21 (MS21), in order to assess the effects of maternal separation (MS) on spatial learning and memory, as well as cognitive flexibility, using the Morris Water Maze (MWM)...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908835/interactions-of-body-temperature-and-nutritional-status-on-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-in-pre-thermoregulatory-eastern-bluebird-chicks-sialia-sialis
#5
Sharon E Lynn, Michael D Kern
Early life experiences can affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of vertebrates, with potential fitness consequences later in life. In altricial species, for example, variation in parental behavior, e.g. brooding or feeding, can modify the activity of the HPA axis of the young by altering their exposure to noxious stimuli as they develop in the nest. We have shown that a drop in the body temperature of eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks, such as occurs when females are away from the nest, elevates their blood corticosterone levels...
June 14, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908725/validation-and-reference-values-for-three-dimensional-echocardiographic-right-ventricular-volumetry-in-children-a-multicenter-study
#6
Kai Thorsten Laser, Ayşe Karabiyik, Hermann Körperich, Jan-Pit Horst, Peter Barth, Deniz Kececioglu, Wolfgang Burchert, Robert DallaPozza, Ulrike Herberg
BACKGROUND: Functional assessment of the right ventricle using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) has fundamental relevance in young patients with congenital heart disease. Reference values for the pediatric population are scarce. This multicenter study was designed to (1) validate new evaluation software for RT3DE and (2) establish pediatric reference values. METHODS: For validation, right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were determined from real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic data sets of 38 subjects (n = 17 healthy individuals and n = 21 patients with congenital heart disease) using new dedicated evaluation software (RV-Function 2...
June 13, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908690/validation-of-resting-metabolic-rate-equations-in-obese-and-non-obese-young-healthy-adults
#7
Hayder Al-Domi, Alaa Al-Shorman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although validating resting metabolic rate (RMR) prediction equations in different populations is warranted to estimate total energy requirements, there are no data about the accuracy and applicability of RMR predictive equations in young healthy Jordanians. This study aimed to test the validity of predicted RMR using four prediction equations and its agreement with RMR measured using indirect calorimetry in healthy young obese and non-obese Jordanian adults. METHODS: Predicted RMR was tested for agreement with indirect calorimetry...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908411/transitions-through-stages-of-alcohol-involvement-the-potential-role-of-mood-disorders
#8
Rosa M Crum, Kerry M Green, Elizabeth A Stuart, Lareina N La Flair, Marc Kealhofer, Andrea S Young, Noa Krawczyk, Kayla N Tormohlen, Carla L Storr, Anika A H Alvanzo, Ramin Mojtabai, Lauren R Pacek, Bernadette A Cullen, Beth A Reboussin
INTRODUCTION: Although prior clinical and population-based studies have demonstrated comorbidity between mood and alcohol use disorders (AUD), there is a paucity of research assessing whether mood disorders predict transition across stages of alcohol involvement. METHOD: Hypothesizing that mood disorders predict transition across sex-specific alcohol involvement stages, we used prospective data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative survey of US adults, which included male (n = 14,564) and female (n = 20,089) participants surveyed in 2001-2 and re-interviewed in 2004-5...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908346/the-effects-of-resveratrol-and-exercise-on-age-and-gender-dependent-alterations-of-vascular-functions-and-biomarkers
#9
Sevtap Han, Nur Banu Bal, Gökhan Sadi, Suzan E Usanmaz, M Orhan Uludag, Emine Demirel-Yilmaz
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resveratrol and regular aerobic exercise on vascular functions and biomarkers related to vessel responsiveness in an age and gender-dependent manner. The study used young (3 months) and old (12 months) male and female Wistar albino rats. Resveratrol was given in the drinking water (0.05 mg/ml; approximately 7.5 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. In the exercise group, all rats performed treadmill running at 20 m/min on a 0° incline, 40 min/day, 3 times a week, for 6 weeks...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908056/probabilistic-discrete-event-systems-modeling-of-nonlinear-transitions-between-electronic-and-combustible-cigarette-smoking-with-the-2014-national-youth-tobacco-survey-data
#10
Xinguang Chen, Bin Yu, Ding-Geng Chen
A growing number of young people smoke electronic (e-) cigarettes, presenting an emerging challenge to tobacco control. Analyses are needed to better understand the dynamics of mutual transitions between e-cigarette and conventional combustible (c-) cigarette smoking to advance evidence-based tobacco control. In this study we modeled the nonlinear dynamics of c- and e-cigarette smoking behavior transitions using the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) data. A model with five Markov-Chain transition stages linked by 21 transitional paths/probabilities was constructed, guided by the probabilistic discrete event systems (PDES) theory...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908023/prevalence-of-and-attitudes-to-waterpipe-smoking-among-saudi-arabian-physicians
#11
Mohammed Al Ghobain, Anwar Ahmed, Zynab Abdrabalnabi, Wjdan Mutairi, Ali Al Khathaami
Background: Tobacco smoking kills more than 5 million people annually and it is the most important cause of preventable death. Waterpipe smoking is common in the Middle East and is prevalent among young people. There is a misconception that it is less harmful than cigarette smoking. Physicians are considered role models in the community and their behaviours and attitudes towards smoking can have direct effects on cessation. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate current prevalence, attitudes and associated factors in regard to waterpipe smoking among Saudi Arabian physicians...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906637/molecular-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-delta-and-hepatitis-b-viruses-circulating-in-two-major-provinces-east-and-north-west-of-pakistan
#12
Mahwish Aftab, Iram Amin, Muhammad Idrees, Amjad Ali, Shazia Rafique, Shagufta Naz
OBJECTIVES: HBV and HDV are major public health problems with millions affected globally and Pakistan accounts for a significant proportion of the global Hepatitis burden. This cross sectional study was designed to assess the general epidemiological and virological features of HBV and HDV in the Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhawa (KP) provinces of Pakistan. METHODS: A total of 1890 HBV patients from March 2016 to May 2017 were recruited in the study and the presence of HDV was retrospectively evaluated in all participants...
June 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905621/early-life-somatic-complaints-longitudinal-associations-with-maternal-and-child-psychopathology
#13
Melissa L Engel, Dominika A Winiarski, Brooke L Reidy, Patricia A Brennan
OBJECTIVE: Somatic complaints, often associated with concurrent and future internalizing symptoms and disorders in adult samples, were examined longitudinally from preschool to school age in a sample of children at an increased familial risk for psychopathology. The behavioral correlates and sex differences of somatic complaints and the persistence of these complaints across early childhood were examined. METHOD: A longitudinal sample of 185 mothers completed a laboratory visit when children were preschool aged and an online follow-up when children were school aged...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905584/human-papilloma-virus-and-the-nurse-s-role-in-education-and-prevention
#14
Jennifer S Sherry, Sandra K Collins, Richard C McKinnies, Anthony Fleege, Marcea L Walter
In the United States, an estimated 20 million people, or 15% of the population, are currently infected with human papilloma virus (HPV). The prevalence of HPV is increasing in females aged 14 to 24 years. Assessing allied health students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HPV was performed using a 34-question survey. The survey was in four sections: general information, measuring knowledge of HPV and the vaccine, HPV vaccine, and HPV screening and diagnosis. Physicians were noted by 31.6% of the participants as the first individual who gave them information about HPV...
June 14, 2018: Health Care Manager
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905076/genetic-variation-in-9p21-and-the-plasma-proteome
#15
Sara Mahdavi, David J A Jenkins, Christoph H Borchers, Ahmed El-Sohemy
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-coding region of 9p21 have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms by which these genetic variants contribute to the pathogenesis of CVD remain unknown since no annotated proteins are present in this region of DNA. The objective of the current study was to determine if 9p21 genotypes are associated with distinct plasma proteins in young adults. Subjects were 1,611 young adults aged 20-29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study (1,098 females and 513 males)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904975/the-eyes-don-t-see-what-the-mind-doesn-t-know-pleural-endometriosis-on-effusion-cytology
#16
Parikshaa Gupta, Nalini Gupta, Amanjit Bal, Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Valliappan Muthu, Arvind Rajwanshi
Thoracic endometriosis is the presence of endometrial tissue in the pleura, lung parenchyma and/or airways. It is an extremely rare occurence and is challenging to diagnose clinically due to variable clinical presentations. A high index of clinical suspicion and recognition of the association of the clinical symptoms with menstruation is important to establish a clinical diagnosis of pleural endometriosis. The definitive diagnosis requires tissue diagnosis, demonstrating the presence of endometrial tissue in pleura, either by cytological or histopathological examination...
June 14, 2018: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903846/dietary-patterns-over-time-and-microalbuminuria-in-youth-and-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-the-search-nutrition-ancillary-study
#17
Tina Costacou, Jamie Crandell, Anna R Kahkoska, Angela D Liese, Dana Dabelea, Jean M Lawrence, David J Pettitt, Kristi Reynolds, Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis, Amy K Mottl
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between diet quality and microalbuminuria in youth-onset type 1 diabetes using three indices: a modified Mediterranean diet score for children and adolescents (mKIDMED), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Youth and young adults from the SEARCH (Search for Diabetes in Youth) Nutrition Ancillary Study diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 2002-2008, who had repeated dietary assessments at baseline and follow-up visits and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) measured at the outcome visit (2012-2015) ( n = 461), were selected for study...
June 14, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903698/characteristics-of-adults-use-of-facebook-and-the-potential-impact-on-health-behavior-secondary-data-analysis
#18
Kelly Bosak, Shin Hye Park
BACKGROUND: Social influences are a primary factor in the adoption of health behaviors. Social media platforms, such as Facebook, disseminate information, raise awareness, and provide motivation and support for positive health behaviors. Facebook has evolved rapidly and is now a part of many individuals' daily routine. The high degree of individual engagement and low attrition rate of this platform necessitate consideration for a potentially positive impact on health behavior. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of Facebook by adults...
June 14, 2018: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903608/management-of-pediatric-patients-with-dsd-and-ambiguous-genitalia-balancing-the-child-s-moral-claims-to-self-determination-with-parental-values-and-preferences
#19
David A Diamond, Jonathan Swartz, Amy Tishelman, Judith Johnson, Yee-Ming Chan
INTRODUCTION: A central ethical dilemma in management of the patient with a disorder of sex development (DSD) is the potential conflict between respect for the fundamental right of the child for physical and emotional integrity and self-determination, and the right of parents to serve as surrogate decision-makers and act in their child's best interest. METHODS: Over the past 2 years we have encountered three complex DSD cases on the spectrum of mixed gonadal dysgenesis to ovotesticular DSD in which gender assignment and therefore optimal surgical management was uncertain...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903544/the-impact-of-traumatic-experiences-on-risky-sexual-behaviors-in-black-and-white-young-adult-women
#20
Kimberly B Werner, Renee M Cunningham-Williams, Whitney Sewell, Arpana Agrawal, Vivia V McCutcheon, Mary Waldron, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Trauma exposure has been linked to risky sexual behavior (RSB), but few studies have examined the impact of distinct trauma types on RSB in one model or how the association with trauma and RSB may differ across race. PURPOSE: The objective of the current study was to examine the contribution of trauma exposure types to RSB-substance-related RSB and partner-related RSB identified through factor analysis-in young Black and White adult women. METHODS: We investigated the associations of multiple trauma types and RSB factor scores in participants from a general population sample of young adult female twins (n = 2,948)...
June 11, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
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