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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471348/sexual-dimorphism-of-resting-state-network-connectivity-in-healthy-ageing
#1
Sharna D Jamadar, Francesco Sforazzini, Parnesh Raniga, Nicholas J Ferris, Bryan Paton, Michael J Bailey, Amy Brodtmann, Paul A Yates, Geoffrey A Donnan, Stephanie A Ward, Robyn L Woods, Elsdon Storey, John J McNeil, Gary F Egan
Objectives: The onset of many illnesses is confounded with age and sex. Increasing age is a risk factor for the development of many illnesses, and sexual dimorphism influences brain anatomy, function, and cognition. Here, we examine frequency-specific connectivity in resting-state networks in a large sample (n = 406) of healthy aged adults. Method: We quantify frequency-specific connectivity in three resting-state networks known to be implicated in age-related decline: the default mode, dorsal attention, and salience networks, using multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471310/age-related-reduction-of-trunk-muscle-torque-and-prevalence-of-trunk-sarcopenia-in-community-dwelling-elderly-validity-of-a-portable-trunk-muscle-torque-measurement-instrument-and-its-application-to-a-large-sample-cohort-study
#2
Eiji Sasaki, Shizuka Sasaki, Daisuke Chiba, Yuji Yamamoto, Atsushi Nawata, Eiichi Tsuda, Shigeyuki Nakaji, Yasuyuki Ishibashi
Trunk muscle weakness and imbalance are risk factors for postural instability, low back pain, and poor postoperative outcomes. The association between trunk muscle strength and aging is poorly understood, and establishing normal reference values is difficult. We aimed to establish the validity of a novel portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument (PTMI). We then estimated reference data for healthy young adults and elucidated age-related weakness in trunk muscle strength. Twenty-four university students were enrolled to validate values for PTMI, and 816 volunteers from the general population who were recruited to the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included to estimate reference data for trunk muscle strength...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470414/the-sitting-height-index-of-build-body-mass-sitting-height-%C3%A2-as-an-improvement-on-the-body-mass-index-for-children-adolescents-and-young-adults
#3
Richard Burton
The body mass index (BMI) is unsatisfactory in being affected by both relative leg length and height, and, for use with children and adolescents, therefore needs to be interpreted in relation to age. The sitting-height index of build (body mass)/(sitting height)³, is largely free of these disadvantages. Furthermore, because that index is independent of relative leg length, the latter can be treated as a separate indicator of nutritional history and health risks. Past studies on white children and adults have shown body mass to be approximately proportional to (sitting height)³...
February 22, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470388/adolescents-sexual-wellbeing-in-southwestern-uganda-a-cross-sectional-assessment-of-body-image-self-esteem-and-gender-equitable-norms
#4
Elizabeth Kemigisha, Viola N Nyakato, Katharine Bruce, Gad Ndaruhutse Ruzaaza, Wendo Mlahagwa, Anna B Ninsiima, Gily Coene, Els Leye, Kristien Michielsen
Measures of sexual wellbeing and positive aspects of sexuality in the World Health Organization definition for sexual health are rarely studied and remain poorly understood, especially among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess sexual wellbeing in its broad sense-i.e., body image, self-esteem, and gender equitable norms-and associated factors in young adolescents in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of adolescents ages 10-14 years in schools was carried out between June and July 2016...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470148/voluntary-wheel-running-increases-satellite-cell-abundance-and-improves-recovery-from-disuse-in-gastrocnemius-muscles-from-mice
#5
Matthew J Brooks, Ameena Hajira, Junaith S Mohamed, Stephen E Alway
Reloading of atrophied muscles after hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) can induce injury and prolong recovery. Low-impact exercise, such as voluntary wheel running, has been identified as a non-damaging rehabilitation therapy in rodents, but its effects on muscle function, morphology, and satellite cell activity after HSU are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that low impact wheel running would increase satellite cell proliferation and improve recovery of muscle structure and function after HSU in mice...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469908/limited-jaw-movements-and-somatization-but-not-pain-may-play-a-role-in-salivary-flow-in-female-patients-with-temporomandibular-disorders
#6
Irena Mladenovic, Jelena Krunic, Nikola Stojanovic, Dusanka Markovic, Silvia Rdt de Siqueira
AIMS: To explore the unstimulated salivary flow rate and subjective feeling of oral dryness in young adult women with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and their relation to the presence of chronic pain, depression, somatization, and limited mandibular mobility. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva flow rate and presence of oral dryness were determined in 45 women with TMD and 30 healthy controls. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) were used for assessment of TMD, chronic pain, depression, somatization, and mandibular mobility...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469066/clinico-pathological-profile-of-colorectal-cancer-in-first-two-decades-of-life-a-retrospective-analysis-from-tertiary-health-center
#7
D Sharma, G Singh
AIM: This retrospective observational study was done to analyze age, gender, site of primary tumor and histological characterstics in patients of colorectal carcinoma in the first two decades of life. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 373 patients of colorectal patients were registered in the Department of Radiation Oncology from January 2010 to December 2015. Patients who were <20 years of age were analyzed for clinicopathological characteristic. RESULTS: In our study, a total of 29 out of 373 patients (7...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469024/association-between-body-composition-and-pulmonary-function-in-children-and-young-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#8
Patrizia Calella, Giuliana Valerio, Matt Thomas, Helen McCabe, Jake Taylor, Malcolm Brodlie, Mario Siervo
OBJECTIVES: Body mass index (BMI) has significant limitations when assessing nutritional status in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We evaluated whether measurements of lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) are more sensitive nutritional parameters by testing their association with pulmonary function in adolescent patients with CF. METHODS: Sixty-nine male and female adolescents with CF were studied (age: 14.5 ± 2.3, BMI: 19.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2 )...
December 5, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468905/the-effect-of-viewing-fitness-imagery-on-body-dissatisfaction-sex-and-physical-activity-differences
#9
Conor J Rothwell, Deirdre Desmond
Exposure to cultural bodily ideals featuring thinness and muscularity can have deleterious effects on body satisfaction. The current study explores the effect of exposure to such imagery on body dissatisfaction and the influence of internalisation of cultural and athletic ideals. 188 (97 male) adults (18-25yrs; M = 20.97) were grouped according to a 2 × 2 × 2 mixed between-within subjects design (male/female; high/low physical activity; intervention/control). Participants were exposed to images of idealised physiques or neutral images...
February 22, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468900/health-promotion-in-young-people-identifying-the-predisposing-factors-of-self-care-health-habits
#10
Estefanía Ruiz-Palomino, Cristina Giménez-García, Rafael Ballester-Arnal, María Dolores Gil-Llario
Unhealthy behaviors are strongly associated with chronic diseases, disabilities, or mortality. Identifying the predisposing factors that influence on self-care healthy habits will improve an early detection of high-risk groups. Four hundred and sixty-six Spanish young people aged 18-25 years were assessed. Global perceived health self-care was predicted by Value of health and Conscientiousness, both in females ( R2  = 0.185; F = 29.661; p < 0.001) and males ( R2  = 0.154; F = 17.849; p < 0...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467817/mental-health-literacy-what-do-nigerian-adolescents-know-about-depression
#11
Deborah O Aluh, Obinna C Anyachebelu, Chibueze Anosike, Ezinne L Anizoba
Background: Depression is a leading cause of disability and has been projected to become the 2nd most burdensome disease by the year 2020; depression has also been found to be the strongest single risk factor for attempted or completed suicides. Adolescent-onset mood disorders are frequently unrecognized or misdiagnosed and often go untreated. While there is a growing literature on the mental health literacy of adults, there has not been a parallel interest in the mental health literacy of young people in Nigeria...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467798/female-nursing-partner-choice-in-a-population-of-wild-house-mice-mus-musculus-domesticus
#12
Nicola Harrison, Anna K Lindholm, Akos Dobay, Olivia Halloran, Andri Manser, Barbara König
Abstract: <AbstractText Label="Background" NlmCategory="UNASSIGNED">Communal nursing in house mice is an example of cooperation where females pool litters in the same nest and indiscriminately nurse own and other offspring despite potential exploitation. The direct fitness benefits associated with communal nursing shown in laboratory studies suggest it to be a selected component of female house mice reproductive behaviour. However, past studies on communal nursing in free-living populations have debated whether it is a consequence of sharing the same nest or an active choice...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467048/pregnancy-associated-spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection-pascad-an-etiology-for-chest-pain-in-the-young-peripartum-patient
#13
Richard Lee, David Carr
Cardiac emergencies in pregnancy and the postpartum period are rare but often life-threatening. An emergency physician's differential diagnosis for chest pain in the peripartum patient often includes serious etiologies such as pulmonary embolism or myocardial infarction (MI). A lesser-known but important consideration on the differential for MI is that of a spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). SCAD is defined as an intramural hematoma within the coronary artery that compresses the true lumen. Expansion by increased pressures may lead to subsequent myocardial ischemia and infarction...
February 22, 2018: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466689/the-protective-effects-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-on-ovarian-functions-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-chemotherapy
#14
Chen Wang, Xing-Fei Yu
In recent decades, the incidence rate of breast cancer has increased dramatically worldwide and has become one of the most prevalent cancers in women. According to the global data provided by the WHO, there were more than 1.7 million new cases of breast cancer in 2012, accounting for 25% of all reported cancer cases and 15% of all reported deaths among females. To most young patients, especially those younger than 40 years of age, chemotherapy should be taken into consideration as a treatment modality, even if the tumor size is small or without lymphatic metastasis...
January 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466381/transmission-of-fungal-partners-to-incipient-cecropia-tree-ant-colonies
#15
Veronika E Mayer, Maximilian Nepel, Rumsais Blatrix, Felix B Oberhauser, Konrad Fiedler, Jürg Schönenberger, Hermann Voglmayr
Ascomycete fungi in the nests of ants inhabiting plants (= myrmecophytes) are very often cultivated by the ants in small patches and used as food source. Where these fungi come from is not known yet. Two scenarios of fungus recruitment are possible: (1) random infection through spores or hyphal fragments from the environment, or (2) transmission from mother to daughter colonies by the foundress queen. It is also not known at which stage of the colony life cycle fungiculture is initiated, and whether the- symbiont fungi serve as food for the ant queen...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466175/-giant-aneurysms-in-coronary-arteries-of-a-young-woman
#16
L N Ilyina, E E Vlasova, V V Kukharchuk, A A Shiryaev, E V Merkulov, D M Galyautdinov, V P Vasiliev, P P Malyshev, E V Dzybinskaya, P V Chumachenko, M A Aphanasyev, R S Akchurin
Coronary arteries aneurysms with their thrombotic occlusion are known to be detected in young patients who have suffered Kawasaki disease in childhood. The other vascular beds are usually not involved. In the literature one can find not enough information regarding diagnostics of this pathology, as well as no specific treatment algorithm. We present here a clinical case of re-emergence of giant aneurysms of coronary arteries in the young female patient with subsequent immuno-histological confirmation of previous Kawasaki disease...
January 2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465706/creating-innovative-sti-testing-options-for-university-students-the-impact-of-an-sti-self-testing-program
#17
Melissa A Habel, Kathryn A Brookmeyer, Robin Oliver-Veronesi, Shelley Haffner
BACKGROUND: National-level data suggest that STI testing rates among young adults are low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of an STI self-testing program at a university health center. Few evaluations have been conducted on the acceptability of collegiate self-testing programs and their effect on testing uptake. METHODS: To assess acceptability and uptake of self-testing (urine and SCVS), we conducted a brief self-administered survey of students accessing a large US-based university health center from January - December 2015...
October 4, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465561/cross-sectional-study-of-cd4-cd8-ratio-recovery-in-young-adults-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-1-infection
#18
Katrina M Pollock, Hannah Pintilie, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved survival into adulthood for young people with perinatally acquired HIV-1 (yp-PaHIV), but long-term prognosis remains unclear. We hypothesized that on-going immune activation, reflected in the failure of CD4:CD8 ratio normalization would be observed in yp-PaHIV, despite ART.A cross-sectional study of routinely collected clinical data from a cohort of yp-PaHIV (≥16 years).Data were collected from records of individuals attending a specialist clinic for yp-PaHIV transitioning to adult care...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465557/follow-up-of-blood-glucose-distribution-characteristics-in-a-health-examination-population-in-chengdu-from-2010-to-2016
#19
Yuting Wang, Wangdong Xu, Qiongying Zhang, Ting Bao, Hanwei Yang, Wenxia Huang, Huairong Tang
The worldwide prevalence and incidence of diabetes and obesity are increasing in pandemic proportions. Thus, regular health examination is an important way for early detection of diabetes and glucose intolerance. The present study aims to detect the blood glucose distribution characteristics of the participants in the Health Examination Center at West China Hospital, Sichuan University from 2010 to 2016.A prospective cohort included 9168 Chinese participants, aged 18 years or more, who had available information on fasting blood glucose concentrations at the start of the study (2010)...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465415/dose-coefficients-for-children-and-young-adolescents-exposed-to-external-neutron-fields
#20
Keith Tchadwick Griffin, Matthew Mille, Choonsik Lee
The risks associated with exposure to external fields of ionizing radiation are important to quantify to provide guidance towards public and worker protection. In Publication 116 of 2010, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published adult male and female fluence-to-dose coefficients (henceforth referred to as dose coefficients) for external exposures to six types of idealized neutron fields. However, ICRP 116 dose coefficients are not appropriate for applications involving children due to their smaller body weight and stature...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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