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Doreen Mucheru, Mary-Claire Hanlon, Linda E Campbell, Mark McEvoy, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks
BACKGROUND: People with psychosis die on average 25 years earlier than those in the general population, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) contributing to much of the excess mortality. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the relationship between lifestyle risk factors for CVD - poor nutrition, smoking and low physical activity levels - and dyslipidaemia, hypertension and hyperglycaemia while controlling for potential confounders in 1825 people from the Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) in Australia...
June 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Dragana Dragoljevic, Michael J Kraakman, Prabhakara R Nagareddy, Devi Ngo, Waled Shihata, Helene L Kammoun, Alexandra Whillas, Man Kit Sam Lee, Annas Al-Sharea, Gerard Pernes, Michelle C Flynn, Graeme I Lancaster, Mark A Febbraio, Jaye Chin-Dusting, Beatriz Y Hanaoka, Ian P Wicks, Andrew J Murphy
Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an approximately two-fold elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV)-related mortality. Patients with RA present with systemic inflammation including raised circulating myeloid cells, but fail to display traditional CV risk-factors, particularly dyslipidaemia. We aimed to explore if increased circulating myeloid cells is associated with impaired atherosclerotic lesion regression or altered progression in RA. Methods and results: Using flow cytometry, we noted prominent monocytosis, neutrophilia, and thrombocytosis in two mouse models of RA...
June 14, 2018: European Heart Journal
Xin Hong, Qing Ye, Jing He, Zhiyong Wang, Huafeng Yang, Shengxiang Qi, Xupeng Chen, Chenchen Wang, Hairong Zhou, Chao Li, Zhenzhen Qin, Fei Xu
OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs), and investigate the association between relevant characteristics and CRF clustering among adults in eastern China. DESIGN: Community-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data were collected by interview survey, physical measurements and laboratory examinations from the 2011 Nanjing Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 41 072 residents aged ≥18 years volunteered to participate in the survey, with a response rate of 91...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Leonardo Roever, Elmiro Santos Resende, Angélica Lemos Debs Diniz, Nilson Penha-Silva, João Lucas O'Connell, Paulo Fernando Silva Gomes, Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Anaisa Silva Roerver-Borges, Fernando César Veloso, Fernanda Rodrigues de Souza, Poliana Rodrigues Alves Duarte, Thiago Montes Fidale, Antonio Casella-Filho, Paulo Magno Martins Dourado, Antonio Carlos Palandri Chagas, Sadeq Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis, Rogério de Melo Costa Pinto, Gustavo B F Oliveira, Álvaro Avezum, Mansueto Neto, André Rodrigues Durães, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da Silva, Antonio José Grande, Celise Denardi, Renato Delascio Lopes, Nitesh Nerlekar, Shahab Alizadeh, Adrian V Hernandez, Maria Inês da Rosa, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS-related stroke is set to increase dramatically in coming decades. MetS is a complex disease that includes endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, ectopic obesity, and dyslipidaemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. One function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) is the cholesterol-efflux pathway, which is the pathway where cholesterol is removed from macrophages within the arterial walls back into the bloodstream and out to the liver...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lieke E J M Scheepers, Andrea M Burden, Ilja C W Arts, Bart Spaetgens, Patrick Souverein, Frank de Vries, Annelies Boonen
Objectives: When urate lowering therapy is indicated in patients with gout, medication adherence is essential. This study assesses non-persistence and non-adherence in patients with newly diagnosed gout, and identifies factors associated with poor medication adherence. Methods: A retrospective data analysis was performed within the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (1987-2014) among incident gout patients, aged ⩾40 years and starting allopurinol (n = 48 280)...
June 8, 2018: Rheumatology
Wan-Qiang Lv, Xue Zhang, Kun Fan, Xin Xia, Qiang Zhang, Hui-Min Liu, Bu-Ying Jiang, Wei-Dong Zhang, Hong-Wen Deng
Adiposity has been associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in observational studies, but their association may differ according to specific characteristics of studies. In Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses, genetic variants are used as instrumental variables (IVs) of exposures to examine causal effects to overcome confounding factors and reverse causation. We performed MR analyses for adiposity (n = 322,154) on risk of CAD (60,801 cases and 123,504 controls) based on the currently largest genome-wide association studies...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Josep Maria Pepió Vilaubí, Domingo Orozco-Beltrán, Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves, Dolors Rodriguez Cumplido, Carina Aguilar Martin, Adriana Lopez-Pineda, Vicente F Gil-Guillen, Jose A Quesada, Concepcion Carratala-Munuera
To provide a better understanding of the actions taken within health systems and their results, this study aims to assess clinicians’ adherence to clinical practice guidelines regarding recommended treatments in patients with cardiovascular disease in primary care settings, and to determine the associated factors. We conducted an ambispective cohort study in 21 primary care centres in 8 Spanish regions. Patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease, stroke and/or peripheral arterial disease were included...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Theresa Burkard, Thomas Huegle, J Bradley Layton, Robert J Glynn, Marlene Bloechliger, Noel Frey, Susan S Jick, Christoph R Meier, Julia Spoendlin
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between statin therapy initiation and incident hand osteoarthritis (HOA). METHODS: We performed a propensity score-matched cohort study using data from the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Statin initiators had ≥1 statin prescription between 1996 and 2015 and were matched 1:1 on their propensity score to non-initiators within 10 sequential 2-year cohort entry blocks. After a 180-day run-in period, patients were followed in an "as treated" approach until a recorded diagnosis of HOA or until censoring (change in exposure status, development of an exclusion criterion, maximum follow-up 5...
June 8, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Mika Kivimäki, Jaana Pentti, Jane E Ferrie, G David Batty, Solja T Nyberg, Markus Jokela, Marianna Virtanen, Lars Alfredsson, Nico Dragano, Eleonor I Fransson, Marcel Goldberg, Anders Knutsson, Markku Koskenvuo, Aki Koskinen, Anne Kouvonen, Ritva Luukkonen, Tuula Oksanen, Reiner Rugulies, Johannes Siegrist, Archana Singh-Manoux, Sakari Suominen, Töres Theorell, Ari Väänänen, Jussi Vahtera, Peter J M Westerholm, Hugo Westerlund, Marie Zins, Timo Strandberg, Andrew Steptoe, John Deanfield
BACKGROUND: Although some cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines suggest a need to manage work stress in patients with established cardiometabolic disease, the evidence base for this recommendation is weak. We sought to clarify the status of stress as a risk factor in cardiometabolic disease by investigating the associations between work stress and mortality in men and women with and without pre-existing cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: In this multicohort study, we used data from seven cohort studies in the IPD-Work consortium, initiated between 1985 and 2002 in Finland, France, Sweden, and the UK, to examine the association between work stress and mortality...
June 5, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Viviane de Menezes Caceres, Nigel Stocks, Robert Adams, Dandara Gabriela Haag, Karen Glazer Peres, Marco Aurélio Peres, David Alejandro González-Chica
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA) of low intensity and duration with quality of life (QoL) among individuals at risk or with cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether PA of different intensity and duration moderates the relationship between CVD and its risk factors (obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia) and QoL in adults. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional studies using data from the EpiFloripa Cohort Study (Southern Brazil; n = 1,220, 38...
2018: PloS One
Nathan K P Wong, Stephen J Nicholls, Joanne T M Tan, Christina A Bursill
Almost 600 million people are predicted to have diabetes mellitus (DM) by 2035. Diabetic patients suffer from increased rates of microvascular and macrovascular complications, associated with dyslipidaemia, impaired angiogenic responses to ischaemia, accelerated atherosclerosis, and inflammation. Despite recent treatment advances, many diabetic patients remain refractory to current approaches, highlighting the need for alternative agents. There is emerging evidence that high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are able to rescue diabetes-related vascular complications through diverse mechanisms...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alessandro Giollo, Lesley-Anne Bissell, Maya H Buch
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a heightened risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with both traditional CV risk factors and inflammation contributing to this risk. Areas covered: This review highlights the burden of CVD in RA and associated traditional CV risk factors, including the complexity of dyslipidaemia in RA and the so-called 'lipid paradox'. Furthermore, the recognised RA disease specific factors associated with higher risk of CVD and the role of systemic inflammation in the pathogenesis of CVD in RA will be addressed...
June 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Pedro Marques da Silva, J Sequeira Duarte, Pedro von Hafe, Victor Gil, Jorge Nunes de Oliveira, Germano de Sousa
Even with the improvement in lifestyle interventions, a better control of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, and improvements in CV outcomes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) still persists as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Portugal and Europe. Atherogenic dyslipidaemias, namely hypercholesterolaemia, have a crucial and causal role in the development of atherosclerotic CVD. The clinical approach of a patient with dyslipidaemia involves a watchful diagnosis, sustained in lipid and lipoprotein laboratory procedures, which must be harmonized and standardized...
June 2018: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
Anthony Pease, Arul Earnest, Sanjeeva Ranasinha, Natalie Nanayakkara, Danny Liew, Natalie Wischer, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Sophia Zoungas
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk stratification is complex in type 1 diabetes. We hypothesised that traditional and diabetes-specific cardiovascular risk factors were prevalent and strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adults with type 1 diabetes attending Australian diabetes centres. METHODS: De-identified, prospectively collected data from patients with type 1 diabetes aged ≥ 18 years in the 2015 Australian National Diabetes Audit were analysed...
June 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Karen King, Alan Macken, Ophelia Blake, Clodagh S O'Gorman
Atherosclerosis begins in childhood. Fatty streaks, the earliest precursor of atherosclerotic lesions, have been found in the coronary arteries of children of 2 years of age. Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Hypercholesterolaemia can be either primary, when it is characteristic of the main disease, or secondary when it occurs as a result of either a disease process or drug treatment. Given the risk of vascular disease, including myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular accidents (CVA, also known as strokes), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and ruptured aortic aneurysm, which may follow atherosclerosis, it is important to prevent or slow the early development of atherosclerotic lesions...
June 1, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
James Osei-Yeboah, Kenneth Kwame Kye-Amoah, William K B A Owiredu, Sylvester Yao Lokpo, Joseph Esson, Beatrice Bella Johnson, Paul Amoah, Romeo Asumbasiya Aduko
Background: There is a dearth of information about the burden of cardiometabolic risk factors among the Ghanaian health workforce in the Western Region. This study sought to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among healthcare workers at the Sefwi-Wiawso Municipal Hospital in the Western Region of Ghana. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study involving 112 employees of the Sefwi-Wiawso Municipal Hospital was conducted...
2018: BioMed Research International
P Gendron, C Lajoie, L Laurencelle, F Trudeau
Background: Female firefighters are in the minority in the Québec firefighter population and worldwide. To our knowledge, no study has focused on cardiovascular risk factors in female firefighters, and further research in this area is needed to evaluate and reduce the risk of on-duty sudden cardiac death. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in female firefighters in Québec. Methods: A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire to evaluate lifestyle and CVD risk factors and symptoms...
May 28, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Giuseppina Fanelli, Federica Gevi, Antonio Belardo, Lello Zolla
Male hypogonadism is a disorder characterised by low levels of the hormone testosterone. At beginning subjects with low levels of testosterone do not show insulin resistance (insulin-sensitive patients), which develops over time (insulin-resistance patients). To analyse the metabolic alterations mainly related to decreased testosterone, we performed metabolomics investigations on the plasma of males with hypogonadism who showed normal insulin levels. Plasma from patients with low testosterone (<8 nmol/l) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin-resistance-index (HOMAi) < 2...
April 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Iosif Koutagiar, Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios, Ioannis Skoumas, Angeliki Rigatou, Antigoni Miliou, Alexandros-Nikitas Skliros, Stavroula Pantou, Kostantinos Filis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
INTRODUCTION: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels predict cardiovascular risk. We aimed at determining the correlation of PCSK9 levels with predictors of cardiovascular risk, such as central hemodynamics and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in subjects with familial dyslipidaemias. METHODS: Thirty-three asymptomatic subjects (age 45.4±12.3, 21 men) with either familial combined hyperlipidemia or heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, free of hypolipidaemic therapy, underwent evaluation of central hemodynamics (aortic augmentation index [AIx@75], augmented pressure [AP]), and cIMT...
May 25, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
Rufus O Akinyemi, Mayowa O Owolabi, Masafumi Ihara, Albertino Damasceno, Adesola Ogunniyi, Catherine Dotchin, Stella-Maria Paddick, Julius Ogeng'o, Richard Walker, Raj N Kalaria
With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa...
May 25, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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