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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034189/antidiabetic-activity-of-extracts-of-anacardium-occidentale-linn-leaves-on-n-streptozotocin-diabetic-rats
#1
Y S Jaiswal, P A Tatke, S Y Gabhe, A B Vaidya
Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) is used in South Cameroon as well as in other tropical countries by traditional practitioners as a folk remedy for treatment of diabetes mellitus. We demonstrated the antidiabetic potential of the plant extracts in n-streptozotocin diabetic rats. The aim of the current study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of ethanol extract of leaves of A. occidentale on neonatal streptozotocin diabetic rats. Two day old neonates were injected with 100 mg/kg of streptozotocin...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031005/quantitative-high-content-high-throughput-microscopy-analysis-of-lipid-droplets-in-subject-specific-adipogenesis-models
#2
Maxime Bombrun, Hui Gao, Petter Ranefall, Niklas Mejhert, Peter Arner, Carolina Wählby
Neutral lipids packed in lipid droplets (LDs) are essential as a source of fuel for organisms, and specialized storing cells, the adipocytes, provide a buffer for energy variations. Many modern-society-disorders are connected with excess accumulation or deficiency of LDs in adipose tissue. Intracellular LD number and size distribution reflect the tissue conditions, while the associated mechanisms and genes rs are still poorly understood. Large-scale genetic screens using human in vitro differentiated primary adipocytes require cell samples donated from many patients...
October 14, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027251/new-biguanides-as-anti-diabetic-agents-part-ii-synthesis-and-anti-diabetic-properties-evaluation-of-1-arylamidebiguanide-derivatives-as-agents-of-insulin-resistant-type-ii-diabetes
#3
Wahid M Basyouni, Samir Y Abbas, Mohamed F El Shehry, Khairy A M El-Bayouki, Hanan F Aly, Azza Arafa, Mahmoud S Soliman
New 1-arylamidebiguanide hydrochloride salts were synthesized via reaction of hydrazide derivatives with dicyandiamide in acidic medium. The structure of the obtained derivatives was characterized by spectroscopic and elemental analysis tools. The anti-diabetic properties of the synthesized compounds were determined. Oral treatment of hyperglycemic rats with the synthesized biguanide derivatives showed a significant decrease of the elevated glucose in comparison with the anti-diabetic standard drug, metformin...
October 13, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026751/association-of-thyroid-peroxidase-antibody-and-dyslipidemia-in-subclinical-hypothyroidism
#4
Vikas Kumar Srivastava, Harkaran Singh
CONTEXT: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is stated as mild thyroid failure, is more common as compared to overt hypothyroidism, is associated with different biochemical abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, and is also having high conversion rate into overt hypothyroidism in patients having thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody positive. Lipid abnormalities are controversial in SCH and there is lack of Indian studies showing correlation between lipid abnormalities and TPO positivity in SCH...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026306/enhanced-antifungal-activity-of-voriconazole-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-against-candida-albicans-with-a-dimorphic-switching-model
#5
Baocheng Tian, Qi Yan, Juan Wang, Chen Ding, Sixiang Sai
Candida commonly adheres to implanted medical devices and forms biofilms. Due to the minimal activity of current antifungals against biofilms, new drugs or drug-delivery systems to treat these persistent infections are urgently needed. In the present investigation, voriconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Vrc-NLCs) were formulated for enhanced drug-delivery efficiency to C. albicans to increase the antifungal activity of Vrc and to improve the treatment of infectious Candida diseases. Vrc-NLCs were prepared by a hot-melt, high-pressure homogenization method, and size distribution, ζ-potential, morphology, drug-encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, and physical stability were characterized...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024570/deuterium-reinforced-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-improve-cognition-in-a-mouse-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Ahmed Elharram, Nicole M Czegledy, Michael Golod, Ginger L Milne, Erik Pollock, Brian M Bennett, Mikhail S Shchepinov
Oxidative damage resulting from increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) is considered an important factor in the development of late onset/age-related Alzheimer's disease (AD). Deuterium-reinforced polyunsaturated fatty acids (D-PUFAs) are more resistant to the reactive oxygen species-initiated chain reaction of LPO than regular hydrogenated (H-) PUFAs. We investigated the effect of D-PUFA treatment on LPO and cognitive performance in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Aldh2) null mice, an established model of oxidative stress-related cognitive impairment that exhibits AD-like pathologies...
October 12, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022265/exercise-amaliorates-metabolic-disturbances-and-oxidative-stress-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-possible-underlying-mechanisms
#7
Ayman M Mahmoud
Cardiomyopathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus and occurs independently of coronary artery disease or hypertension. It manifests as systolic/diastolic dysfunction and hypertrophy of the left ventricle and can lead to heart failure. Hyperglycemia can trigger a series of maladaptive stimuli and result in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and reduced performance and contractility. The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy is a multifactorial process that includes metabolic derangements such as increased oxidative stress, and altered non-oxidative glucose pathways and lipid metabolism...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016843/mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-natural-bio-factories-for-exosomes-carrying-mir-124a-in-the-treatment-of-gliomas
#8
Frederick M Lang, Anwar Hossain, Joy Gumin, Eric N Momin, Yuzaburo Shimizu, Dan Ledbetter, Tal Shahar, Shinji Yamashita, Brittany Parker-Kerrigan, Juan Fueyo, Raymond Sawaya, Frederick F Lang
Background: MicroRNAs (miRs) are promising new therapeutics for glioblastoma. However, which miRs are most effective against glioblastomas and how these miRs should be delivered are major unanswered problems. Methods: To identify potent anti-glioma miRs, we selected eight miRs based on a literature search and screened them against a panel of glioma stem cell lines (GSCs), representing all TCGA-defined glioblastoma subtypes. To address delivery, we tested the hypothesis that ex vivo-cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can package miRs into exosomes and that these engineered exosomes can systemically deliver antiglioma miRs to glioblastomas...
August 14, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016287/benznidazole-nanoformulates-a-chance-to-improve-therapeutics-for-chagas-disease
#9
Teresa Vinuesa, Rocio Herráez, Laura Oliver, Elisa Elizondo, Argia Acarregui, Amaia Esquisabel, Jose Luis Pedraz, Nora Ventosa, Jaume Veciana, Miguel Viñas
This article describes the characterization of various encapsulated formulations of benznidazole, the current first-line drug for the treatment of Chagas disease. Given the adverse effects of benznidazole, safer formulations of this drug have a great interest. In fact, treatment of Chagas disease with benznidazole has to be discontinued in as much as 20% of cases due to side effects. Furthermore, modification of delivery and formulations could have potential effects on the emergence of drug resistance. The trypanocidal activity of new nanostructured formulations of benznidazole to eliminate Trypanosoma cruzi was studied in vitro as well as their toxicity in two cultured mammalian cell lines (HepG2 and Fibroblasts)...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993795/reactive-carbonyl-species-scavengers-novel-therapeutic-approaches-for-chronic-diseases
#10
Sean S Davies, Linda S Zhang
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To summarize recent evidence supporting the use of reactive carbonyl species scavengers in the prevention and treatment of disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The newly developed 2-aminomethylphenol class of scavengers shows great promise in preclinical trials for a number of diverse conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular disease. In addition, new studies with the thiol-based and imidazole-based scavengers have found new applications outside of adjunctive therapy for chemotherapeutics...
April 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990943/-do-turkish-reimbursement-recommendations-cover-current-european-lipid-guidelines-a-retrospective-analysis-of-patients-presenting-with-first-acute-coronary-syndrom
#11
Deniz Demirci, Duygu Ersan Demirci, Murat Esin, Özkan Kayhan, Şakir Arslan
OBJECTIVE: This study was a comparison of the statin therapy protocol issued by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the Ministry of Health's Health Implementation Directive (SUT) in Turkey, performed in order to assess the adequacy of hyperlipidemia treatment indications for primary prevention. METHODS: A total of 582 patients with first acute coronary syndrome were included in the study. Patients with noncritical stenosis observed on coronary angiography or a history of atherosclerotic disease were excluded...
October 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984226/clotrimazole-is-highly-effective-in-vitro-against-feline-sporothrix-brasiliensis-isolates
#12
Thalita Gagini, Luana Pereira Borba-Santos, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Zoilo Pires de Camargo, Sonia Rozental
PURPOSE: Sporothrix brasiliensis, the most virulent species in the Sporothrix schenckii complex, is responsible for the ongoing epidemics of human and animal sporotrichosis in Brazil. Feline outbreaks are usually driven by S. brasiliensis and followed by extensive transmission to humans. Itraconazole is the first-line treatment for both feline and human sporotrichosis; however, reduced sensitivity is an emerging issue. Thus, we investigated the effect of the widely used antifungal clotrimazole - alone or in combination with itraconazole - against the pathogenic (yeast) form of feline and human S...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983302/biofilm-attached-cultivation-of-chlorella-pyrenoidosa-is-a-developed-system-for-swine-wastewater-treatment-and-lipid-production
#13
Pengfei Cheng, Yuanzhu Wang, Tianzhong Liu, Defu Liu
This study showed the new potential of using soluble contents and heavy metals in swine wastewater as nutrient supplements for the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa with biofilm attached method. Algae with biofilm attached cultivation grew well in unpasteurized wastewater reaching a biomass productivity of 5.03 g m(-2) d(-1), lipid content of 35.9% and lipid productivity of 1.80 g m(-2) d(-1). Chlorella grew in BG11 medium delivered lower values for each of the aforementioned parameters. The FAMEs compositions in the algae paste were mainly consisted of C16:0, C18:2, and C18:3...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981492/an-observational-study-of-how-clinicians-use-cardiovascular-risk-assessment-to-inform-statin-prescribing-decisions
#14
Thomas Robinson, Rod Jackson, Susan Wells, Andrew Kerr, Roger Marshall
AIM: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment is commonly recommended in guidelines, but there is uncertainty about how clinicians use this information. Our objective was to understand how New Zealand primary care clinicians use CVD risk assessment estimates to inform new statin prescribing. METHODS: We used a cohort of patients seen in primary care who have had a CVD risk estimated on the basis of a New Zealand modified Framingham risk equation. These patients were linked to national pharmaceutical dispensing records to determine new statin use in the following six months...
October 6, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981240/-recent-progresses-in-the-treatment-of-dyslipidemia
#15
P van de Borne
There is a linear relationship between LDLcholesterol plasma concentration and coronary events, both in patients with stable angina pectoris and after an acute event. All medications that affect the lipid profile do not have a favorable effect on cardiovascular events (i.e. niacin, inhibitors of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein). Statins increase slightly the risk of type II diabetes in subjects at risk. We have also learnt that statins activate a transcription factor that increases LDL-cholesterol receptors, as well as a protein named " PCSK9 "...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979187/serotonergic-control-of-metabolic-homeostasis
#16
REVIEW
Steven C Wyler, Caleb C Lord, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist, Chen Liu
New treatments are urgently needed to address the current epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Recent studies have highlighted multiple pathways whereby serotonin (5-HT) modulates energy homeostasis, leading to a renewed interest in the identification of 5-HT-based therapies for metabolic disease. This review aims to synthesize pharmacological and genetic studies that have found diverse functions of both central and peripheral 5-HT in the control of food intake, thermogenesis, and glucose and lipid metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978316/pemafibrate-k-877-a-novel-selective-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-modulator-for-management-of-atherogenic-dyslipidaemia
#17
REVIEW
Jean-Charles Fruchart
Despite best evidence-based treatment including statins, residual cardiovascular risk poses a major challenge for clinicians in the twenty first century. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia, in particular elevated triglycerides, a marker for increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants, is an important contributor to lipid-related residual risk, especially in insulin resistant conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Current therapeutic options include peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists, (fibrates), but these have low potency and limited selectivity for PPARα...
October 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977868/thioredoxin-plays-a-key-role-in-retinal-neuropathy-prior-to-endothelial-damage-in-diabetic-mice
#18
Xiang Ren, Chen Li, Junli Liu, Chenghong Zhang, Yuzhen Fu, Nina Wang, Haiying Ma, Heyuan Lu, Hui Kong, Li Kong
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic syndrome that results in changes in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. With diabetes for a long time, it increases the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and long-term morbidity and mortality. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that neuron damage occurs earlier than microvascular complications in DR patients, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated diabetes-induced retinal neuropathy and elucidated key molecular events to identify new therapeutic targets for the clinical treatment and prevention of DR...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976728/design-of-peptide-based-probes-for-the-microscale-detection-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#19
Chun-Lan Keng, Ying-Chi Lin, Wei-Lung Tseng, Chi-Yu Lu
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce oxidative stress and are associated with cell death and chronic diseases in organisms. In the treatment of disease, drugs that induce ROS are associated with many side effects and unpleasant symptoms. Therefore, during the assessment of new drugs and candidate compounds, ROS generation is an issue of concern, because ROS can modify proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids within organisms and alter their biological functions. In this work, we designed a peptide-based probe for the rapid (<10 min) high-throughput survey of oxidative stress induced by clinical drugs at the microliter level...
October 4, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974775/biochemical-and-cellular-properties-of-insulin-receptor-signalling
#20
REVIEW
Rebecca A Haeusler, Timothy E McGraw, Domenico Accili
The mechanism of insulin action is a central theme in biology and medicine. In addition to the rather rare condition of insulin deficiency caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells, genetic and acquired abnormalities of insulin action underlie the far more common conditions of type 2 diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance. The latter predisposes to diseases ranging from hypertension to Alzheimer disease and cancer. Hence, understanding the biochemical and cellular properties of insulin receptor signalling is arguably a priority in biomedical research...
October 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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