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Lipid new treatments

Nuerbiye Nuermaimaiti, Jie Liu, Xiaodi Liang, Yi Jiao, Dan Zhang, Ling Liu, Xuanyu Meng, Yaqun Guan
AIMS: To determine the role of lncRNA HOXA11-AS1 on adipocyte differentiation. METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were isolated from adipose tissues of patients and cultured in vitro, followed by knockdown of HOXA11-AS1. Then, adipocyte differentiation and expression of adipogenic-related genes (CEBP-α, DGAT2, CIDEC, and perilipin) were measured by RT-qPCR and Western blot. RESULTS: We demonstrated that knockdown of HOXA11-AS1 inhibited adipocyte differentiation, leading to suppression of adipogenic-related gene (CEBP-α, DGAT2, CIDEC, and perilipin) transcription, as well as decreased lipid accumulation in hADSCs...
December 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
L García Mochon, A Olry de Labry Lima, C Bermudez-Tamayo
OBJECTIVE: To prioritize non-recommended clinical activities in Primary Care (PC), from "Do not do" recommendations listed by the Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria (Semfyc), according to expert consensus (physicians, nurses and pharmacists). METHODS: The consensus for the prioritization of non-recommended practices in PC was performed through an online procedure. We used as a base the list of "do not-do" recommendations of the SEMFYC. We asked the experts to prioritize practices that should be de-adopted in PC, based on four prioritization criteria: frequency of occurrence, cost of the activity, ease of disposal and damage caused, which were scored from one to five, according to their recommendation...
December 7, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
Saeid Golbidi, Huige Li, Ismail Laher
SIGNIFICANCE: Modern technologies have eased our lives but these conveniences can impact our lifestyles in destructive ways. Noise pollution, mental stresses, and smoking (as a stress-relieving solution) are some environmental hazards which affect our well-being and health care budgets. Scrutinizing their pathophysiology could lead to solutions to reduce their harmful effects. Recent advances: Oxidative stress plays an important role in initiating local and systemic inflammation following noise pollution, mental stress, and smoking...
December 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
M Al-Hijazeen, A Mendonca, E J Lee, D U Ahn
The antioxidant effects of oregano essential oil and tannic acid combinations on ground chicken breast and thigh meats were studied. Six treatments, including: 1) control (none added), 2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil + 5 ppm tannic acid, 3) 100 ppm oregano essential oil + 10 ppm tannic acid, 4) 200 ppm oregano essential oil + 5 ppm tannic acid, 5) 200 ppm oregano essential oil + 10 ppm tannic acid, and 6) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) for breast or 14 ppm for thigh meat, were prepared. Cooked meat samples were individually vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75°C...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
Maya Saison-Ridinger, Kathleen E DelGiorno, Tejia Zhang, Annabelle Kraus, Randall French, Dawn Jaquish, Crystal Tsui, Galina Erikson, Benjamin T Spike, Maxim N Shokhirev, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, Alan Saghatelian, Andrew M Lowy, Geoffrey M Wahl
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an extremely dense fibrotic stroma, which contributes to tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. During tumorigenesis, quiescent pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are activated and become major contributors to fibrosis, by increasing growth factor signaling and extracellular matrix deposition. The p53 tumor suppressor is known to restrict tumor initiation and progression through cell autonomous mechanisms including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence...
2017: PloS One
Milan Obradovic, Bozidarka Zaric, Emina Sudar-Milovanovic, Branislava Ilincic, Milan Perovic, Edita Stokic, Esma Isenovic
Despite the intensive research and progress in modern pharmacotherapy, hypercholesterolemia and related cardiovascular complications remain one of the leading causes of mortality and disability in the modern world. A significant contribution to the treatment of hypercholesterolemia was made by the discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). This enzyme is responsible for the degradation of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) found at the surface of the plasma membrane in the liver and directly associated with serum LDL level...
December 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
Michał Wiciński, Jarosław Żak, Bartosz Malinowski, Gabriela Popek, Grzegorz Grześk
In the following review, authors described the structure and biochemical pathways of PCSK9, its involvement in LDL metabolism, as well as significances of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 targeted treatment. PCSK9 is a proprotein convertase, which plays a crucial role in LDL receptor metabolism. Transcription and translation of PCSK9 is controlled by different nuclear factors, such as, SREBP and HNF1α. This review focuses on interactions between PCSK9 and LDL receptor, VLDLR, ApoER2, CD36, CD81, and others...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
Neveen A Salem, Mohammed A Wahba, Wael H Eisa, Marwa El-Shamarka, Wagdy Khalil
Silver and silver oxides are gaining interest in medical applications for their prominent antibacterial and antimicrobial potentials. Recent studies suggest that nanosilver oxide has remarkable anti-inflammatory effects and enhances wound healing. Nevertheless, its effect on gastric ulcer has not yet been illustrated. Thus the current study aimed to explore the prospect protective effect of nanosilver oxide against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. A new approach has been followed to synthesize nanosilver oxide...
December 4, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
Meng Yang, Yongwei Gu, Dishun Yang, Xiaomeng Tang, Jiyong Liu
BACKGROUND: This work aimed to provide useful information on the use of nanoemulsions for the percutaneous administration of triptolide. Lipid nanosystems have great potential for transdermal drug delivery. Nanoemulsions and nanoemulsion gels were prepared to enhance percutaneous permeation. Microstructure and in vitro/in vivo percutaneous delivery characteristics of triptolide (TPL)-nanoemulsions and TPL-nanoemulsion gels were compared. The integrity of the nanoemulsions and nanoemulsion gels during transdermal delivery and its effects on the surface of skin were also investigated...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Tao Lu, Youchao Zhu, Jiahui Xu, Mingjing Ke, Meng Zhang, Chengxia Tan, Zhengwei Fu, Haifeng Qian
The top-selling strobilurin, azoxystrobin (AZ), is a broad-spectrum fungicide that protects against many kinds of pathogenic fungi by preventing their ATP production. The extensive use of AZ can have negative consequences on non-target species and its effects and toxic mechanisms on algae are still poorly understood. In this work, Chlorella pyrenoidosa that had been grown in BG-11 medium was exposed to AZ (0.5-10 mg L-1) for 10 d. The physiological and molecular responses of the algae to AZ treatment, including photosynthetic efficiency, lipid peroxidation level, antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcriptome-based analysis of gene expression, were examined to investigate the potential toxic mechanism...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
José R Peña Cárcamo, María L Morell, Cecilia A Vázquez, Sezen Vatansever, Arunkumar S Upadhyay, Anna K Överby, Sandra M Cordo, Cybele C García
Junín arenavirus infections are associated with high levels of interferons in both severe and fatal cases. Upon Junín virus (JUNV) infection a cell signaling cascade initiates, that ultimately attempts to limit viral replication and prevent infection progression through the expression of host antiviral proteins. The interferon stimulated gene (ISG) viperin has drawn our attention as it has been highlighted as an important antiviral protein against several viral infections. The studies of the mechanistic actions of viperin have described important functional domains relating its antiviral and immune-modulating actions through cellular lipid structures...
December 1, 2017: Virology
Rehab F Abdel-Rahman, Alyaa F Hessin, Marwan Abdelbaset, Hanan A Ogaly, Reham M Abd-Elsalam, Salah M Hassan
This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of a new combination therapy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (2 : 1; Roselle-Olive), using N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester- (L-NAME-) induced hypertensive model. Rats received L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks. Concurrent treatment with Roselle-Olive (500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reversed the L-NAME-induced suppression in serum nitric oxide (NO), and improved liver and kidney markers, lipid profile, and oxidative status...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Thomas Briot, Emilie Roger, Nolwenn Lautram, Alexis Verger, Anne Clavreul, Frederic Lagarce
Decitabine is a hydrophilic drug that acts by hypomethylating DNA. Decitabine is used in Europe for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patients aged ≥65 years. However, it can only be administered intravenously due to very low oral bioavailability and a large distribution volume. Oral administration would allow outpatient treatment, improving quality of life and reducing treatment costs. The present study proposes to develop lipid nanocapsules (LNCs), originally designed for lipophilic drugs, to encapsulate decitabine...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Doaa M Mokhtar, Manal T Hussein, Ahmed H S Hassan
Endogenous melatonin is a hormone secreted by pineal gland; it has several roles in metabolism, reproduction, and remarkable antioxidant properties. Studies on the melatonin effect on the adrenal glands which are important endocrine organs, controlling essential physiological functions, are still deficient. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on the adrenal cortex and medulla using several approaches. Adrenal glands of 15 Soay ram were examined to detect the effect of melatonin treatment...
December 4, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
C Fu, L Liu, F Li
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of acetate treatment on lipid metabolism in rabbits. New Zealand Rabbits (30 days, n=80) randomly received a subcutaneous injection (2 ml/injection) of 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg per day body mass acetate (dissolved in saline) for 4 days. Our results showed that acetate induced a dose-dependent decrease in shoulder adipose (P0.05), acetate treatment significantly decreased the plasma adiponectin, insulin and triglyceride concentrations (P<0.05). In adipose, acetate injection significantly up-regulated the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), differentiation-dependent factor 1 (ADD1), adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), CPT2, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), G protein-coupled receptor (GPR41), GPR43, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1), adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1), AdipoR2 and leptin receptor...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
A V Piligaev, K N Sorokina, M V Shashkov, V N Parmon
New strains of green microalgae were isolated and screened for growth and the production of lipids from municipal wastewater. It was shown that the strain Micractinium sp. IC-76 has a biomass productivity of 37.18 ± 4.12 mg L-1 d-1 and a lipid content of 36.29 ± 0.11%, with a total content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids of 71.9%. The efficiency of nitrogen (N-NH4) and phosphorus (P-PO4) removal was 96.4 ± 0.7 and 77.8 ± 5.6%, respectively. The metabolic differences at the exponential and stationary phases of growth between the closely related strains with different patterns of lipid accumulation were revealed via gas chromatography mass spectrometry metabolic profiling...
November 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Huijuan Wang, Hailong Zhang, Ling Yao, Longzhen Cui, Lei Zhang, Biao Gao, Wen Liu, Dongdong Wu, Mingliang Chen, Xue Li, Ailing Ji, Yanzhang Li
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a huge burden in China. The Chinese patients with T2DM have several special clinical characteristics. Metabolomics studies predominantly have identified several distinguishing metabolites associated with T2DM in Western ancestry population. However, few previous metabolomics studies were conducted in Chinese populations. METHODS: We performed untargeted serum metabolic profiling between 30 T2DM patients and 30 healthy controls based on GC/TOFMS...
November 29, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Amit Kumar Mani Tiwari, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Sanjay Mishra
Oral iron therapy is the most widely prescribed treatment for iron deficiency anemia. However, oral iron supplementation may also lead to various health problems. The recognition of these physiological variations is essential for the diagnosis of liver diseases during the course of pregnancy. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the variations in levels of routine LFTs before and after iron and folic acid treatment. Iron and folic acid was supplemented to 500 anemic women (mild=200, moderate=200, and severe=100) and 100 age matched non-anemic controls daily for 100 days...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
Ian Graham, Chuck Shear, Pieter De Graeff, Caroline Boulton, Alberico L Catapano, Wendy Gattis Stough, Stefan C Carlsson, Guy De Backer, Joseph Emmerich, Scott Greenfeder, Albert M Kim, Dominik Lautsch, Tu Nguyen, Steven E Nissen, Krishna Prasad, Kausik Ray, Jennifer G Robinson, William J Sasiela, Karsten Bruins Slot, Erik Stroes, Tom Thuren, Bart Van der Schueren, Maja Velkovski-Rouyer, Scott M Wasserman, Olov Wiklund, Emmanouil Zouridakis
The very high occurrence of cardiovascular events presents a major public health issue because treatment remains suboptimal. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins or ezetimibe in combination with a statin reduces major adverse cardiovascular events. The cardiovascular risk reduction in relation to the absolute LDL-C reduction is linear for most interventions without evidence of attenuation or increase in risk at low LDL-C levels. Opportunities for innovation in dyslipidaemia treatment should address the substantial risk of lipid-associated cardiovascular events among patients optimally treated per guidelines but who cannot achieve LDL-C goals, could benefit from additional LDL-C lowering therapy, or experience side effects of statins...
November 28, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
Philip M Preshaw
Host modulation therapy refers to a treatment concept in which drug therapies are used as an adjunct to conventional periodontal treatment to ameliorate destructive aspects of the host inflammatory response. This strategy is not new in the treatment of periodontitis. Previously, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been investigated in this regard, with evidence of reductions in alveolar bone resorption when these drugs are used for prolonged periods of time. However, the risk of significant unwanted effects precludes the use of both nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors as adjunctive treatments for periodontitis...
November 29, 2017: Periodontology 2000
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