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Sanjiv Sharma, Zhenyi Huang, Michelle Rogers, Martyn Boutelle, Anthony E G Cass
We describe here a minimally invasive glucose biosensor based on a microneedle array electrode fabricated from an epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU8 50) and designed for continuous measurement in the dermal compartment with minimal pain. These minimally invasive, continuous monitoring sensor devices (MICoMS) were produced by casting the structures in SU8 50, crosslinking and then metallising them with platinum or silver to obtain the working and reference electrodes, respectively. The metallised microneedle array electrodes were subsequently functionalised by entrapping glucose oxidase in electropolymerised polyphenol (PP) film...
October 15, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Sacha Noimark, Enrico Salvadori, Rafael Gómez-Bombarelli, Alexander J MacRobert, Ivan P Parkin, Christopher W M Kay
Surfaces with built-in antimicrobial activity have the potential to reduce hospital-acquired infections. One promising strategy is to create functionalised surfaces which, following illumination with visible light, are able to generate singlet oxygen under aerobic conditions. In contrast to antibiotics, the mechanism of bacterial kill by species derived from reactions with singlet oxygen is completely unselective, therefore offering little room for evolutionary adaptation. Here we consider five commercially available organic photosensitiser dyes encapsulated in silicone polymer that show varied antimicrobial activity...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sally Elizabeth Hall, Brett Nixon, R John Aitken
Feral horses are a significant pest species in many parts of the world, contributing to land erosion, weed dispersal and the loss of native flora and fauna. There is an urgent need to modify feral horse management strategies to achieve public acceptance and long-term population control. One way to achieve this is by using non-surgical methods of sterilisation, which are suitable in the context of this mobile and long-lived species. In this review we consider the benefits of implementing novel mechanisms designed to elicit a state of permanent sterility (including redox cycling to generate oxidative stress in the gonad, random peptide phage display to target non-renewable germ cells and the generation of autoantibodies against proteins essential for conception via covalent modification) compared with that of traditional immunocontraceptive approaches...
October 5, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
F C Fraser, R Corstanje, L K Deeks, J A Harris, M Pawlett, L C Todman, A P Whitmore, K Ritz
When dry soils are rewetted a pulse of CO2 is invariably released, and whilst this phenomenon has been studied for decades, the precise origins of this CO2 remain obscure. We postulate that it could be of chemical (i.e. via abiotic pathways), biochemical (via free enzymes) or biological (via intact cells) origin. To elucidate the relative contributions of the pathways, dry soils were either sterilised (double autoclaving) or treated with solutions of inhibitors (15% trichloroacetic acid or 1% silver nitrate) targeting the different modes...
October 2016: Soil Biology & Biochemistry
Yunwei Xu, Zhihong Huang, George Corner
Corrosion of surgical instruments provides a seat for contamination and prevents proper sterilisation, placing both patients and medical staff at risk of infection. Corrosion can also compromise the structural integrity of instruments and lead to mechanical failure in use. It is essential to understand the various factors affecting corrosion resistance of surgical instruments and how it can be minimised.This paper investigates the effect on corrosion resistance from the clinical washing decontamination (WD) process, specifically by studying the changes in surface roughness and Cr/Fe ratio...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Stefano Cattaneo, Milda Stuknytė, Fabio Masotti, Ivano De Noni
Protein modifications occurring during sterilisation of infant formulas can affect protein digestibility and release of bioactive peptides. The effect of glycation and cross-linking on protein breakdown and release of β-casomorphins was evaluated during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion (GID) of six sterilised model systems of infant formula. Protein degradation during in vitro GID was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and by measuring the nitrogen content of ultrafiltration (3kDa) permeates before and after in vitro GID of model IFs...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
P Bhaskar, L A Bosworth, R Wong, M A O'Brien, H Kriel, E Smit, D A McGrouther, J K Wong, S H Cartmell
The functional replacement of tendon represents an unmet clinical need in situations of tendon rupture, tendon grafting and complex tendon reconstruction, as usually there is a finite source of healthy tendon to use as donors. The micro fibrous architecture of tendon is critical to the function of tendon. This study investigates the use of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds as potential biomaterial substitutes for tendon grafts. We assessed the performance of two electrospinning manufacturers (small and large-scale) and the effect of two sterilisation techniques - gamma irradiation and ethanol submersion - on cell response to these electrospun scaffolds following their implantation into a murine tendon model...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Jahrad Haq, Sarah Siddiqui, Mark McGurk
Ameloblastoma is a rare, benign, odontogenic tumour that affects the mandible more commonly than the maxilla. Solid or multicytic variants are often resected and the defects reconstructed with a free flap. To establish the outcome after enucleation and application of Carnoy's solution, irrespective of histological subtype, we used the hospital's histology database to identify all the patients treated between 2001 and 2014 by one surgeon. Variables included patients' characteristics, histological subtype, radiological appearance, follow-up period, and incidence of recurrence...
September 3, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Elita Montanari, Chiara Di Meo, Simona Sennato, Antonio Francioso, Anna Laura Marinelli, Francesca Ranzo, Serena Schippa, Tommasina Coviello, Federico Bordi, Pietro Matricardi
Although in recent years several methods have been studied and developed to obtain different types of nanosized drug delivery systems, the set up of suitable procedures and materials remains highly expensive, their preparation is time consuming and often not feasible for a scale-up process. Furthermore, the sterilisation and storage of nanocarrier formulations represents a complicated but mandatory step for their effective use. In our previous work we assessed the use of an autoclaving process to achieve, in one simple step, sterile self-assembled hyaluronan-cholesterol (HA-CH) and hyaluronan-riboflavin (HA-Rfv) nanohydrogels (NHs)...
August 26, 2016: New Biotechnology
Jessica C Roediger, Alexander C Outhred, Bruce Shadbolt, Philip N Britton
AIM: We aimed to describe the clinical epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) at a large, tertiary/quaternary children's hospital in Australia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of SAB cases at the Children's Hospital at Westmead (CHW) over 5 years; 2006-2011. We compared frequency, clinical profile and outcomes of SAB with published data from CHW; 1994-1998. We compared health-care associated with community-associated (HCA-SAB and CA-SAB; defined epidemiologically) and methicillin-resistant with methicillin susceptible S...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Shakeel Ahmed, Saiqa Ikram
Biopolymers are polymers obtained from biological origins and used for various biological and industrial applications. A biopolymer should be non-toxic, non-antigenic, non-irritant, non-carcinogenic, sterilisable and adequately available for their widespread applications. In this study, chitosan (CS) and gelatin (GL) based films were prepared to be used as biodegradable packaging films. CS was blended with GL to improve various physicochemical properties. The blended CSGL films were crosslinked with boric acid (BA) to improve various properties viz...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Javier Pizones, Felisa Sánchez-Mariscal, Lorenzo Zúñiga, Enrique Izquierdo
INTRODUCTION: During thoracic curve correction, the tightening of the sublaminar wires through concavity creates a medial and a dorsal translation of the spine. However, little is known about the effect of the sublaminar wires on the axial plane. METHODS: This is prospective case series analysis of 30 consecutive surgical patients with main thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All of the patients were fused with hybrid instrumentation (apical concavity-sublaminar wires) and differential rod contouring (over-kyphosis concavity/under-kyphosis convexity)...
October 2016: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Elke Gossla, Robert Tonndorf, Anne Bernhardt, Martin Kirsten, Rolf-Dieter Hund, Dilibar Aibibu, Chokri Cherif, Michael Gelinsky
UNLABELLED: Electrostatic flocking - a common textile technology which has been applied in industry for decades - is based on the deposition of short polymer fibres in a parallel aligned fashion on flat or curved substrates, covered with a layer of a suitable adhesive. Due to their highly anisotropic properties the resulting velvet-like structures can be utilised as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications in which the space between the fibres can be defined as pores. In the present study we have developed a fully resorbable compression elastic flock scaffold from a single material system based on chitosan...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Li-Ya Wang, Le OuYang, Fei Tong, Xiu-Jun Zhang, Xiu-De Li, Cheng-Cheng Wang, Xiang Li, Liang Sun, Ye-Huan Sun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between specific contraceptives use and reproductive tract infections (RTIs). STUDY DESIGN: Participants consisted of 52,481 rural married women of reproductive age identified from a cross-sectional study in Anhui Province of China. The questionnaire, gynecological examination, and laboratory inspection were used to collect data. The subgroup analysis was performed to estimate the effect of the specific contraceptives on the specific RTIs...
August 19, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
A Korenek
OBJECTIVE: Review of operation procedures in female sterilisation. DESIGN: Review article. SETTING: Gynecological-Obstetrical Department, Jesenik Hospital. CONCLUSION: Female sterilisation can be done through laparotomy, minlaparotomy, colpotomy, laparoscopy and also through the transcervical approach, which has long been thought to be the optimal method for permanent female sterilization, with tubal access achieved by blind, direct (hysteroscopic) or indirect (radiological) techniques, and occlusion being achieved by chemical, mechanical, or thermal techniques...
December 2010: Ceská Gynekologie
Swati Jha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
(no author information available yet)
Legal levels of a sterilising agent known to cause irritation may not be low enough to protect health care workers, the conference was told.
December 7, 1994: Nursing Standard
Stefan Fennrich, Ulrike Hennig, Leila Toliashvili, Christian Schlensak, Hans Peter Wendel, Sandra Stoppelkamp
In the quality assurance of medical products, tests for sterility are essential. For parenteral pharmaceuticals, avoiding the presence of pyrogens is crucial. These fever-inducing substances (endotoxins and non-endotoxins) are not eliminated by standard sterilisation processes, and are biologically active once in the bloodstream, causing risks to human health, ranging from mild reactions (e.g. fever) to septic shock and death. Therefore, for injectable formulations, pyrogen testing is mandatory. Over the years, various pyrogen testing methods have been introduced, namely: in the 1940s, the rabbit pyrogen test, which is an in vivo test that measures the fever reaction as an endpoint; in the 1970s, the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) test, which is an in vitro test (with the haemolymph of the horseshoe crab) that specifically detects endotoxin; and in 2010, the Monocyte-Activation Test (MAT), which is a non-animal based in vitro pyrogen test that represents a full replacement of the rabbit test...
July 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Theresa A Lawrie, Regina Kulier, Juan Manuel Nardin
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a review that was first published in 2002. Female sterilisation is the most popular contraceptive method worldwide. Several techniques exist for interrupting the patency of fallopian tubes, including cutting and tying the tubes, damaging the tube using electric current, applying clips or silicone rubber rings, and blocking the tubes with chemicals or tubal inserts. OBJECTIVES: To compare the different tubal occlusion techniques in terms of major and minor morbidity, failure rates (pregnancies), technical failures and difficulties, and women's and surgeons' satisfaction...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
P Fulín, D Pokorný, M Šlouf, M Nevoralová, T Vacková, J Dybal, N Kaspříková, I Landor
UNLABELLED: PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is today the most frequently used bearing surface in total joint replacements (TJR) because of its properties, i.e., excellent biocompatibility, good mechanical and tribological performance and high wear resistance. UHMWPE liners are the most loaded TJR components and, therefore, their properties are decisive for TJR longevity. This study had three objectives: 1) to evaluate the oxidative degradation of explanted UHMWPE components; 2) to look for a statistically significant relationship between the extent of oxidative degradation and the durability of joint replacements; and 3) to investigate whether the durability of a TJR was related to the type of sterilisation used in manufacture...
2016: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
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