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Patricia A Lohr, Abigail R A Aiken, Tracey Forsyth, James Trussell
BACKGROUND: Incorporating thorough contraception counselling into an abortion consultation is challenging. We compared contraceptive choices and methods received between two counselling models: (1) telephone counselling separate from the abortion consultation and (2) face-to-face counselling integrated into the consultation. METHODS: We obtained de-identified data on demographic characteristics and contraceptive methods that had been chosen and received by women who had an abortion at British Pregnancy Advisory Service between 2011 and 2014 and had a choice of counselling models...
April 2018: BMJ sexual & reproductive health
Erin Smith
OBJECTIVE: To assess postpartum contraceptive choices of women participating in group versus traditional prenatal care. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study assessing postpartum contraceptive choices of women participating in group versus traditional prenatal care. Patients were derived from a database of all deliveries from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2014 at Christiana Hospital in Newark, Delaware, USA. Within this database, group prenatal care patients were identified and a two-to-one matched set of similar traditional prenatal care patients was created...
April 2018: BMJ sexual & reproductive health
Katherine Lees, Mark Fitzsimons, Jason Snape, Alan Tappin, Sean Comber
Under many circumstances chemical risk assessments for pharmaceuticals and other substances are required to differentiate between 'loss' of a chemical from the aqueous phase as a result of abiotic (sorption or precipitation reactions) or biotic (biodegradation) processes. To distinguish only abiotic processes, it is necessary to work under sterile conditions. Reported methods include poisoning the soil with sodium azide, irradiation and autoclaving. However, a key aspect of any testing is the representativeness of the matrix and so any sterilisation procedure needs to ensure that the integrity of the sample is maintained, in particular particle size distribution, pH and organic carbon partitioning potential...
June 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Saw Ohn Mar, Osman Ali, Sugathan Sandheep, Zul Husayni, Muhammad Zuhri
INTRODUCTION: This study explored the attitudes towards vasectomy and its acceptance as a method of contraception among clinical-year medical students, and determined the association between their demographic characteristics, and attitudes and acceptance. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among clinical-year medical students from a Malaysian private medical college using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Among 330 participants with a female preponderance, mean age was 22...
June 7, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Sundar Thapa, Stig M Thamsborg, Rui Wang, Nicolai V Meyling, Tina S Dalgaard, Heidi H Petersen, Helena Mejer
BACKGROUND: The nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia can degrade ascarid (e.g. Ascaridia galli) eggs in agar and soil in vitro. However, it has not been investigated how this translates to reduced infection levels in naturally exposed chickens. We thus tested the infectivity of soil artificially contaminated with A. galli (and a few Heterakis gallinarum) eggs and treated with P. chlamydosporia. Sterilised and non-sterilised soils were used to examine any influence of natural soil biota...
May 29, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
T Johal, N Kuruba, M Sule, S Mukhopadhyay, G Raje
OBJECTIVES: Tubal sterilisation using Essure is a minimally invasive technique for permanent contraception, with high rates of patient satisfaction. However, some women subsequently choose removal of the inserts, due to side effects such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, dyspareunia or allergic dermatitis. This case series presents the management of eight women who underwent laparoscopic removal of Essure inserts in conjunction with salpingectomy. We describe our surgical technique, its underlying principles and immediate surgical outcomes...
May 29, 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Claire Shuiqing Zhang, George Shengxi Zhang, Shanqing Xu, Bin Li, Anthony Lin Zhang, Charlie Changli Xue, Yi Min Xie
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) is a modern form of acupuncture therapy where stainless steel acupuncture needles are used as percutaneous electrodes to apply electrical stimulation. The concern about electrolytic corrosion of needles during EA has not been conclusively addressed. AIM: To examine whether corrosion of stainless steel acupuncture needles occurs after EA to establish the safety profile of this therapy. METHODS: The study comprised four EA sessions on healthy participants mimicking a common clinical practice, with needle surface examinations conducted immediately after each session...
May 24, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Katharina J Geh, Madlen Hubert, Gerhard Winter
Oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN)-loaded gelatine nanoparticles (GNPs) have proven their outstanding potential in the treatment of allergic diseases such as equine asthma and canine atopic dermatitis, which are appropriate models for the corresponding human diseases. To encourage the development of a marketable product, long term stability and sterility needs to be ensured. In this work, we aimed to advance freeze-drying options to stabilise ODN-loaded GNPs. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry time-of-flight was implemented as a versatile tool to assess ODN stability...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Kevin K Newsham, Mark H Garnett, Clare H Robinson, Filipa Cox
Different organic compounds have distinct residence times in soil and are degraded by specific taxa of saprotrophic fungi. It hence follows that specific fungal taxa should respire carbon of different ages from these compounds to the atmosphere. Here, we test whether this is the case by radiocarbon (14 C) dating CO2 evolved from two gamma radiation-sterilised maritime Antarctic soils inoculated with pure single cultures of four fungi. We show that a member of the Helotiales, which accounted for 41-56% of all fungal sequences in the two soils, respired soil carbon that was aged up to 1,200 years BP and which was 350-400 years older than that respired by the other three taxa...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Barbara Scaglia, Fulvia Tambone, Luca Corno, Valentina Orzi, Yuri Lazzarini, Gilberto Garuti, Fabrizio Adani
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most widely used method of sewage sludge treatment (SS) before its agricultural use. AD achieves the required "sterilisation" of pathogens and is able to cover the energy required by the process, reducing pre-treatment costs, thanks to the production of biogas. The SS agronomic (fertilizer properties), environmental (pollutants contents) characteristics and nuisance to people (odours and pathogens) need to be evaluated together for the safe and useful deployment of SS in agriculture...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sarah Zito, Glenn Aguilar, Shalsee Vigeant, Arnja Dale
There is a need for effective and humane management tools to manage urban stray cats and minimise negative impacts associated with stray cats. One such tool is targeted trap-neuter-return (TTNR), but no concerted implementation of this technique or formal assessments have been reported. To address this deficit, a TTNR programme was implemented and assessed in one Auckland suburb from May 2015 to June 2016; the programme sterilised and returned 348 cats (4.2 cats/1000 residents). Assessment was based on the number of incoming felines; stray, unsocialised cats euthanased; unsocialised, unowned cats sterilised and returned (independently of the TTNR programme); and neonatal/underage euthanasias...
May 13, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Christopher S Spencer, Cristina Yunta, Glauber Pacelli Gomes de Lima, Kay Hemmings, Lu-Yun Lian, Gareth Lycett, Mark J I Paine
The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the principal vector for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The ability of A. gambiae to transmit malaria is strictly related to blood feeding and digestion, which releases nutrients for oogenesis, as well as substantial amounts of highly toxic free heme. Heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) is a common protective mechanism, and a gene for HO exists in the An. gambiae genome HO (AgHO), although it has yet to be functionally examined. Here, we have cloned and expressed An. gambiae HO (AgHO) in E...
July 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Aseem K Tiwari, Gunjan Bhardwaj, Ravi C Dara, Dinesh Arora, Geet Aggarwal, Richa Bhargava, Kaushal Madan
INTRODUCTION: Post-donation counselling informs donors of unusual test results. Timely notification and counselling regarding their Transfusion Transmitted Infection (TTI) status is necessary for early clinical intervention in the donor and reducing risk of transmission. We share our experience with respect to Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) positive donors who were counselled and followed-up for clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was prospective 2-year study in TTI positive blood donors...
April 13, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Judith Recht, Elizabeth A Ashley, Nicholas J White
Primaquine is the only available antimalarial drug that kills dormant liver stages of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malarias and therefore prevents their relapse ('radical cure'). It is also the only generally available antimalarial that rapidly sterilises mature P. falciparum gametocytes. Radical cure requires extended courses of primaquine (usually 14 days; total dose 3.5-7 mg/kg), whereas transmissibility reduction in falciparum malaria requires a single dose (formerly 0.75 mg/kg, now a single low dose [SLD] of 0...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jean-Jacques Amy, Sam Rowlands
This article deals with the nine European nations which legalised non-consensual sterilisation during the interwar years, thus completing the review, the first part of which was published in an earlier issue of this Journal. Like we did for North America, Japan and Mexico, countries concerned are addressed in chronological order, as practices in one of these influenced policies in others, involved later. For each, we assess the continuum of events up to the present time. The Swiss canton of Vaud was the first political entity in Europe to introduce a law on compulsory sterilisation of people with intellectual disability, in 1928...
June 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Z Spengane, S Korsman, K Mkentane, L M Davids, W Zemanay, M Africa, S Mbhele, M Nicol, F Gumedze, D Ngwanya, N P Khumalo
BACKGROUND: Bleeding from the popular clean-shave 'chiskop' haircut was recently reported as prevalent in South Africa (SA), a country with 6.9 million HIV-infected people. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of barber hair clipper contamination with blood and HIV and hepatitis B viruses. METHODS: Fifty barbers from three townships in Cape Town, SA, were invited to participate. One clipper from each barber was collected immediately after it had been used for a clean-shave haircut...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Jean-Jacques Amy, Sam Rowlands
In the late 19th century, eugenics, a pseudo-scientific doctrine based on an erroneous interpretation of the laws of heredity, swept across the industrialised world. Academics and other influential figures who promoted it convinced political stakeholders to enact laws authorising the sterilisation of people seen as 'social misfits'. The earliest sterilisation Act was enforced in Indiana, in 1907; most states in the USA followed suit and so did several countries, with dissimilar political regimes. The end of the Second World War saw the suspension of Nazi legislation in Germany, including that regulating coerced sterilisation...
April 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Bita Zaferanloo, Stephanie A Pepper, Sally A Coulthard, Christopher P F Redfern, Enzo A Palombo
Interest in endophytes as natural sources for new medicines was inspired by the discovery of paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungi. This study investigated the anti-cancer activity of extracts of endophytes isolated from two Australian plants, Eremophila longifolia (EL) and Eremophila maculata (EM). Endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilised leaf tissue, grown as pure cultures and identified by sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal DNA. To determine cytotoxicity, two leukaemic (MOLT-4, T-cell leukaemia; PreB-697, Pre-B leukaemia), a lung cancer cell line (A549) and a normal human fibroblast cell line were treated with endophyte extracts to assess cytotoxicity in relation to alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and alternariol (AOH)...
May 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Johannes J Stelzner, Martina Behrens, Sven-Erik Behrens, Karsten Mäder
Potent adjuvant systems are required for subunit and single antigen based vaccines to provide sufficient immunogenicity. Furthermore, adjuvants can reduce the required number of immunisations and the antigen amount. Squalene nanoemulsions, like MF59® and AddaVax™, are potent, safe and well characterised adjuvant systems and approved for use in humans. Here, we developed squalene containing solid lipid nanoparticles, which can be sterilised by steam sterilisation and stored as freeze-dried power together with a yeast-based vaccine...
April 19, 2018: Vaccine
Mine Altinli, Filiz Gunay, Bulent Alten, Mylene Weill, Mathieu Sicard
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria that can manipulate their hosts' reproduction causing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI is a sperm-egg incompatibility resulting in embryonic death. Due to this sterilising effect on mosquitoes, Wolbachia are considered for vector control strategies. Important vectors for arboviruses, filarial nematodes and avian malaria, mosquitoes of Culex pipiens complex are suitable for Wolbachia-based vector control. They are infected with Wolbachia wPip strains belonging to five genetically distinct groups (wPip-I to V) within the Wolbachia B supergroup...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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