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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062651/an-activist-s-argument-that-participant-values-should-guide-risk-benefit-ratio-calculations-in-hiv-cure-research
#1
David Evans
The patient empowerment movement, spurred by AIDS activism in the 1980s, quickly evolved to encompass how study participants are considered and treated in clinical research. Initially, people fearing death of AIDS sought early access to experimental medications that had not undergone rigorous testing in hopes of extending their lives. Thirty years on, scientists are asking a different set of ethical questions about clinical research, this time in the pursuit of either a sterilising cure or long-term remission for HIV...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013184/variables-determining-mortality-in-patients-with-acinetobacter-baumannii-meningitis-ventriculitis-treated-with-intrathecal-colistin
#2
Bahadır Ceylan, Ferhat Arslan, Oguz Resat Sipahi, Mustafa Sunbul, Bahar Ormen, İsmail N Hakyemez, Tuba Turunc, Yeşim Yıldız, Hasan Karsen, Gul Karagoz, Recep Tekin, Burcu Hizarci, Vedat Turhan, Sebnem Senol, Nefise Oztoprak, Mesut Yılmaz, Kevser Ozdemir, Sinan Mermer, Omer F Kokoglu, Ali Mert
AIM: To examine the variables associated with mortality in patients with Acinetobacter baumannii-related central nervous system infections treated with intrathecal colistin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multi-centre retrospective case control study included patients from 11 centres in Turkey, as well as cases found during a literature review. Only patients with CNS infections caused by multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii treated with intrathecal colistin were included in this study...
December 14, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007820/curbing-publicly-funded-family-planning-services-in-iran-who-is-affected
#3
Amir Erfani
OBJECTIVE: In response to a persistent low fertility rate in the country, the Supreme Leader of Iran in 2012 called for the shift to pronatalist population policies. Consequently, Iran's Parliament proposed a bill to curb the provision of contraceptive knowledge and services as a solution to raising the country's low fertility rate. This study aimed to investigate which groups of women will be adversely affected if the provision of subsidised contraceptive methods [i.e. sterilisation, intrauterine device (IUD) and injections] is curbed...
January 2017: Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998332/-electroshock-therapy-in-the-third-reich
#4
Lara Rzesnitzek, Sascha Lang
The history of 'electroshock therapy' (now known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)) in Europe in the Third Reich is still a neglected chapter in medical history. Since Thomas Szasz's 'From the Slaughterhouse to the Madhouse', prejudices have hindered a thorough historical analysis of the introduction and early application of electroshock therapy during the period of National Socialism and the Second World War. Contrary to the assumption of a 'dialectics of healing and killing', the introduction of electroshock therapy in the German Reich and occupied territories was neither especially swift nor radical...
January 2017: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951560/new-dialysis-technology-and-biocompatible-materials
#5
Andrew Davenport
Although haemodialysis is an established treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease, sustaining life for more than 2 million patients world-wide, the mortality of dialysis patients remains high and is greater than that for some of the more common solid organ cancers. As such, the question arises as to whether more efficient clearance of the waste products of metabolism which accumulate would improve outcomes. Recent reports of an association between improved patient survivals with higher-volume on-line haemodiafiltration exchanges would support this hypothesis...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934929/use-of-polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine-solution-for-sterilisation-and-preservation-improves-mechanical-properties-and-osteogenesis-of-allografts
#6
Yantao Zhao, Xiantong Hu, Zhonghai Li, Fuli Wang, Yang Xia, Shuxun Hou, Hongbin Zhong, Feimin Zhang, Ning Gu
Allografts eliminate the disadvantages associated with autografts and synthetic scaffolds but are associated with a disease-transmission risk. Therefore, allograft sterilisation is crucial. We aimed to determine whether polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (PVP-I) can be used for sterilisation and as a new wet-preservation method. PVP-I-sterilised and preserved allografts demonstrated improved mechanical property, osteogenesis, and excellent microbial inhibition. A thigh muscle pouch model of nude mice showed that PVP-I-preserved allografts demonstrated better ectopic formation than Co60-sterilised allografts (control) in vivo (P < 0...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934823/banana-peel-culture-as-an-indigenous-medium-for-easy-identification-of-late-sporulation-human-fungal-pathogens
#7
A J Kindo, A Tupaki-Sreepurna, M Yuvaraj
AIM: Fungi are increasing in incidence as human pathogens and newer and rarer species are continuously being encountered. Identifying these species from growth on regular culture media may be challenging due to the absence of typical features. An indigenous and cheap medium, similar to the natural substrate of these fungi, was standardised in our laboratory as an aid to species identification in a conventional laboratory setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ripe banana peel pieces, sterilised in an autoclave at 121°C temperature and 15 lbs pressure for 15 min promoted good growth of hyphae and pycnidia or acervuli in coelomycetes, flabelliform and medusoid fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes and fruit bodies such as cleistothecium in ascomycetes...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924469/a-methylcellulose-and-collagen-based-temperature-responsive-hydrogel-promotes-encapsulated-stem-cell-viability-and-proliferation-in-vitro
#8
Christina Payne, Eimear B Dolan, Janice O'Sullivan, Sally-Ann Cryan, Helena M Kelly
With the number of stem cell-based therapies emerging on the increase, the need for novel and efficient delivery technologies to enable therapies to remain in damaged tissue and exert their therapeutic benefit for extended periods, has become a key requirement for their translation. Hydrogels, and in particular, thermoresponsive hydrogels, have the potential to act as such delivery systems. Thermoresponsive hydrogels, which are polymer solutions that transform into a gel upon a temperature increase, have a number of applications in the biomedical field due to their tendency to maintain a liquid state at room temperature, thereby enabling minimally invasive administration and a subsequent ability to form a robust gel upon heating to physiological temperature...
December 6, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919339/the-role-of-gene-mutations-and-gene-products-in-intestinal-tissue-reactions-from-ionising-radiation
#9
Jolyon H Hendry, Kensuke Otsuka
The response of the intestine to (low linear-energy-transfer) ionising radiation is reviewed regarding the cellular basis to the reactions, the regenerative processes which restore the tissue, and external agents which aid its recovery. In the steady-state, it is generally considered that the crypt cell lineages in both small and large intestine are maintained by a small number of stem cells, but there are differences for example in the composition of their niche residence and in the numbers of transit cell generations...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885071/certified-training-for-nuclear-and-radioactive-source-security-management
#10
Daniel Johnson
Radioactive sources are used by hospitals, research facilities and industry for such purposes as diagnosing and treating illnesses, sterilising equipment and inspecting welds. Unfortunately, many States, regulatory authorities and licensees may not appreciate how people with malevolent intentions could use radioactive sources, and statistics confirm that a number of security incidents happen around the globe. The adversary could be common thieves, activists, insiders, terrorists and organised crime groups. Mitigating this risk requires well trained and competent staff who have developed the knowledge, attributes and skills necessary to successfully discharge their security responsibilities...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882805/free-radical-formation-in-chloramphenicol-heated-at-different-temperatures-and-the-best-thermal-sterilization-conditions-application-of-epr-spectroscopy-and-uv-spectrophotometry
#11
Paweł Ramos, Barbara Pilawa
Free radicals in thermally treated chloramphenicol were examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The parameters and shape of EPR spectra were analysed and free radical concentrations were obtained in the tested drug samples. Chloramphenicol was thermally sterilized at pharmacopeia conditions: 100 °C (120 min). Sterilization was also carried out at different conditions, 110 °C (60 min) and 120 °C (30 min), for comparison with pharmacopeia settings. Microbiological analysis was performed on the samples to confirm sterility...
December 12, 2016: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879292/autonomy-age-and-sterilisation-requests
#12
Paddy McQueen
Sterilisation requests made by young, child-free adults are frequently denied by doctors, despite sterilisation being legally available to individuals over the age of 18. A commonly given reason for denied requests is that the patient will later regret their decision. In this paper, I examine whether the possibility of future regret is a good reason for denying a sterilisation request. I argue that it is not and hence that decision-competent adults who have no desire to have children should have their requests approved...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859439/pre-pregnancy-and-early-prenatal-care-are-associated-with-lower-risk-of-ectopic-pregnancy-complications-in-the-medicaid-population-2004-08
#13
Debra B Stulberg, Loretta Cain, Irma Hasham Dahlquist, Diane S Lauderdale
BACKGROUND: Ectopic pregnancy causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Complications are more common among women with Medicaid or no insurance compared to those with private insurance. It is unknown whether preventive care prior to pregnancy and prenatal care, which are covered by Medicaid, would decrease complications if they were more fully utilised. METHODS: Medicaid claims were used to identify a clinical cohort of women who experienced an ectopic pregnancy during 2004-08 among all female Medicaid enrolees from a large 14-state population, ages 15-44...
January 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806678/decellularization-and-characterization-of-porcine-superflexor-tendon-a-potential-anterior-cruciate-ligament-replacement
#14
Gemma Jones, Anthony Herbert, Helen Berry, Jennifer Helen Edwards, John Fisher, Eileen Ingham
The porcine superflexor tendon (SFT) was identified as having appropriate structure and properties for development of a decellularized device for use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. SFTs were decellularized using a combination of freeze-thaw and washes in hypotonic buffer and 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate in hypotonic buffer plus proteinase inhibitors, followed by nuclease treatment and sterilization using peracetic acid. The decellularized biological scaffold was devoid of cells and cell remnants and contained only 13 ng/mg (dry weight) residual total DNA...
December 7, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798031/the-environmental-footprint-of-morphine-a-life-cycle-assessment-from-opium-poppy-farming-to-the-packaged-drug
#15
Scott McAlister, Yanjun Ou, Elise Neff, Karen Hapgood, David Story, Philip Mealey, Forbes McGain
OBJECTIVE: To examine the environmental life cycle from poppy farming through to production of 100 mg in 100 mL of intravenous morphine (standard infusion bag). DESIGN: 'Cradle-to-grave' process-based life cycle assessment (observational). SETTINGS: Australian opium poppy farms, and facilities for pelletising, manufacturing morphine, and sterilising and packaging bags of morphine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The environmental effects (eg, CO2 equivalent ('CO2 e') emissions and water use) of producing 100 mg of morphine...
October 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773773/how-the-anatomische-gesellschaft-excluded-unwanted-members-after-1945-among-them-eugen-fischer-and-max-clara
#16
Andreas Winkelmann
The Anatomische Gesellschaft, an international Germany-based association of anatomists, was closed down in 1945, after the end of the "Third Reich". It was eventually re-founded in 1949, continuing its tradition from its foundation in 1886, based in large part on the membership prior to 1945. Newly available archival material reveals, however, that at least six members were explicitly prevented from re-joining the society. This includes Max Clara, who was accused of plagiarism and, at least implicitly, of basing his career on Nazi party support...
January 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744480/evaluation-of-a-minimally-invasive-glucose-biosensor-for-continuous-tissue-monitoring
#17
Sanjiv Sharma, Zhenyi Huang, Michelle Rogers, Martyn Boutelle, Anthony E G Cass
We describe here a minimally invasive glucose biosensor based on a microneedle array electrode fabricated from an epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU8 50) and designed for continuous measurement in the dermal compartment with minimal pain. These minimally invasive, continuous monitoring sensor devices (MICoMS) were produced by casting the structures in SU8 50, crosslinking and then metallising them with platinum or silver to obtain the working and reference electrodes, respectively. The metallised microneedle array electrodes were subsequently functionalised by entrapping glucose oxidase in electropolymerised polyphenol (PP) film...
November 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722271/comparative-study-of-singlet-oxygen-production-by-photosensitiser-dyes-encapsulated-in-silicone-towards-rational-design-of-anti-microbial-surfaces
#18
Sacha Noimark, Enrico Salvadori, Rafael Gómez-Bombarelli, Alexander J MacRobert, Ivan P Parkin, Christopher W M Kay
Surfaces with built-in antimicrobial activity have the potential to reduce hospital-acquired infections. One promising strategy is to create functionalised surfaces which, following illumination with visible light, are able to generate singlet oxygen under aerobic conditions. In contrast to antibiotics, the mechanism of bacterial kill by species derived from reactions with singlet oxygen is completely unselective, therefore offering little room for evolutionary adaptation. Here we consider five commercially available organic photosensitiser dyes encapsulated in silicone polymer that show varied antimicrobial activity...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700983/non-surgical-sterilisation-methods-may-offer-a-sustainable-solution-to-feral-horse-equus-caballus-overpopulation
#19
Sally Elizabeth Hall, Brett Nixon, R John Aitken
Feral horses are a significant pest species in many parts of the world, contributing to land erosion, weed dispersal and the loss of native flora and fauna. There is an urgent need to modify feral horse management strategies to achieve public acceptance and long-term population control. One way to achieve this is by using non-surgical methods of sterilisation, which are suitable in the context of this mobile and long-lived species. In this review we consider the benefits of implementing novel mechanisms designed to elicit a state of permanent sterility (including redox cycling to generate oxidative stress in the gonad, random peptide phage display to target non-renewable germ cells and the generation of autoantibodies against proteins essential for conception via covalent modification) compared with that of traditional immunocontraceptive approaches...
October 5, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698513/on-the-origin-of-carbon-dioxide-released-from-rewetted-soils
#20
F C Fraser, R Corstanje, L K Deeks, J A Harris, M Pawlett, L C Todman, A P Whitmore, K Ritz
When dry soils are rewetted a pulse of CO2 is invariably released, and whilst this phenomenon has been studied for decades, the precise origins of this CO2 remain obscure. We postulate that it could be of chemical (i.e. via abiotic pathways), biochemical (via free enzymes) or biological (via intact cells) origin. To elucidate the relative contributions of the pathways, dry soils were either sterilised (double autoclaving) or treated with solutions of inhibitors (15% trichloroacetic acid or 1% silver nitrate) targeting the different modes...
October 2016: Soil Biology & Biochemistry
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