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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629677/blood-and-virus-detection-on-barber-clippers
#1
Z Spengane, S Korsman, K Mkentane, L M Davids, W Zemanay, M Africa, S Mbhele, M Nicol, F Gumedze, D Ngwanya, N P Khumalo
BACKGROUND: Bleeding from the popular clean-shave 'chiskop' haircut was recently reported as prevalent in South Africa (SA), a country with 6.9 million HIV-infected people. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of barber hair clipper contamination with blood and HIV and hepatitis B viruses. METHODS: Fifty barbers from three townships in Cape Town, SA, were invited to participate. One clipper from each barber was collected immediately after it had been used for a clean-shave haircut...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624082/legalised-non-consensual-sterilisation-eugenics-put-into-practice-before-1945-and-the-aftermath-part-1-usa-japan-canada-and-mexico
#2
Jean-Jacques Amy, Sam Rowlands
In the late 19th century, eugenics, a pseudo-scientific doctrine based on an erroneous interpretation of the laws of heredity, swept across the industrialised world. Academics and other influential figures who promoted it convinced political stakeholders to enact laws authorising the sterilisation of people seen as 'social misfits'. The earliest sterilisation Act was enforced in Indiana, in 1907; most states in the USA followed suit and so did several countries, with dissimilar political regimes. The end of the Second World War saw the suspension of Nazi legislation in Germany, including that regulating coerced sterilisation...
April 6, 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590360/p-xmmetabolites-of-endophytic-fungi-from-australian-native-plants-as-potential-anticancer-agents
#3
Bita Zaferanloo, Stephanie A Pepper, Sally A Coulthard, Christopher P F Redfern, Enzo A Palombo
Interest in endophytes as natural sources for new medicines was inspired by the discovery of paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungi. This study investigated the anti-cancer activity of extracts of endophytes isolated from two Australian plants, Eremophila longifolia (EL) and Eremophila maculata (EM). Endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilised leaf tissue, grown as pure cultures and identified by sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. To determine cytotoxicity, two leukaemic (MOLT-4, T-cell leukaemia; PreB-697, Pre-B leukaemia), a lung cancer cell line (A549) and a normal human fibroblast cell line were treated with endophyte extracts to assess cytotoxicity in relation to alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and alternariol (AOH)...
March 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567034/squalene-containing-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-a-promising-adjuvant-system-for-yeast-vaccines
#4
Johannes J Stelzner, Martina Behrens, Sven-Erik Behrens, Karsten Mäder
Potent adjuvant systems are required for subunit and single antigen based vaccines to provide sufficient immunogenicity. Furthermore, adjuvants can reduce the required number of immunisations and the antigen amount. Squalene nanoemulsions, like MF59® and AddaVax™, are potent, safe and well characterised adjuvant systems and approved for use in humans. Here, we developed squalene containing solid lipid nanoparticles, which can be sterilised by steam sterilisation and stored as freeze-dried power together with a yeast-based vaccine...
March 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558974/wolbachia-diversity-and-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-patterns-in-culex-pipiens-populations-in-turkey
#5
Mine Altinli, Filiz Gunay, Bulent Alten, Mylene Weill, Mathieu Sicard
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria that can manipulate their hosts' reproduction causing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI is a sperm-egg incompatibility resulting in embryonic death. Due to this sterilising effect on mosquitoes, Wolbachia are considered for vector control strategies. Important vectors for arboviruses, filarial nematodes and avian malaria, mosquitoes of Culex pipiens complex are suitable for Wolbachia-based vector control. They are infected with Wolbachia wPip strains belonging to five genetically distinct groups (wPip-I to V) within the Wolbachia B supergroup...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550388/specialised-cleaning-associated-with-antimicrobial-coatings-for-reduction-of-hospital-acquired-infection-opinion-of-the-cost-action-network-amici-ca15114
#6
Suzanne S Dunne, Merja Ahonen, Martina Modic, Francy Rl Crijns, Minna M Keinänen-Toivola, Ruth Meinke, C William Keevil, Jim Gray, Nuala H O'Connell, Colum P Dunne
Recognized issues with poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, and reports of re-contamination of previously chemically disinfected surfaces through hand contact, emphasize need for novel hygiene methods in addition to those currently available. One such approach involves antimicrobial (nano)-coatings (AMC), whereby integrated active ingredients are responsible for elimination of microorganisms that come into contact with treated surfaces. While widely studied under laboratory conditions with promising results, studies under real life healthcare conditions are scarce...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544689/preclinical-development-of-peptide-vaccination-combined-with-oncolytic-mg1-e6e7-for-hpv-associated-cancer
#7
Matthew J Atherton, Kyle B Stephenson, Jake K Nikota, Qian N Hu, Andrew Nguyen, Yonghong Wan, Brian D Lichty
Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancer is a significant global health burden and despite the presence of viral transforming antigens within neoplastic cells, therapeutic vaccinations are ineffective for advanced disease. HPV positive TC1 cells are susceptible to viral oncolysis by MG1-E6E7, a custom designed oncolytic Maraba virus. Epitope mapping of mice vaccinated with MG1-E6E7 enabled the rational design of synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccines against HPV16 and HPV18 antigens. SLPs were able to induce specific CD8+ immune responses and the magnitude of these responses significantly increased when boosted by MG1-E6E7...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536268/plant-growth-promotion-of-miscanthus-%C3%A3-giganteus-by-endophytic-bacteria-and-fungi-on-non-polluted-and-polluted-soils
#8
Christoph Stephan Schmidt, Libor Mrnka, Tomáš Frantík, Petra Lovecká, Miroslav Vosátka
Putative endophytes of Miscanthus × giganteus were isolated, and screened in the laboratory, greenhouse and field for their plant growth promoting properties in this host. Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas savastanoi were the predominant bacteria in leaves whereas other pseudomonads prevailed in roots. Almost all fungal endophytes belonged to the Pezizomycotina and most were isolated from roots; Fusarium oxysporum was most abundant, followed by the genera Periconia, Exophiala, Microdochium and Leptodontidium...
March 13, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523043/light-axis-adjustment-with-a-sterilised-photostimulation-device-for-visually-evoked-potential-monitoring
#9
Masanori Yoshino, Takayuki Hara
Intraoperative monitoring of visually evoked potentials (VEPs) is sometimes unachievable because of light axis misalignments caused by frontal scalp-flap reflection and intraoperative manipulation. Here, we present a new method of intraoperative VEP monitoring that involves a sterilised photostimulation device that can be adjusted in position following disturbances from frontal scalp-flap reflection or intraoperative manipulation.
March 9, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492690/both-plant-genotype-and-herbivory-shape-aspen-endophyte-communities
#10
Benedicte Riber Albrectsen, Abu Bakar Siddique, Vicki Huizu Guo Decker, Martin Unterseher, Kathryn M Robinson
Salicinoid phenolic glycosides are common defence substances in salicaceous trees and specialist leaf beetles use these compounds for their own defence against predators. Salicinoids vary qualitatively and qualitatively in aspen (Populus tremula) and this variation has a genetic basis. The foliar endophyte mycobiome is plentiful and we hypothesised that it is related to plant genotype, potentially mediated by salicinoid composition, and that interactions with the leaf beetle Chrysomela tremula may alter this relationship...
March 1, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486631/social-medicine-feminism-and-the-politics-of-population-from-transnational-knowledge-networks-to-national-social-movements-in-brazil-and-mexico
#11
Rafael de la Dehesa
This article examines the role of national actors articulated with an explicitly counter-hegemonic transnational knowledge network (TKN) mobilising around social medicine in policy debates on population control and family planning. It focuses primarily on Brazil, using Mexico as a shadow case to highlight salient points of contrast. In doing so, it makes two contributions to larger debates about TKNs. First, it highlights the plural and contested nature of the knowledge production they enact, underscoring contestation around a global reproductive regime that consolidated around family planning...
February 28, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482640/investigation-of-short-term-surgical-complications-in-a-low-resource-high-volume-dog-sterilisation-clinic-in-india
#12
I Airikkala-Otter, L Gamble, S Mazeri, I G Handel, B M de C Bronsvoort, R J Mellanby, N V Meunier
BACKGROUND: Surgical sterilisation is currently the method of choice for controlling free-roaming dog populations. However, there are significant logistical challenges to neutering large numbers of dogs in low-resource clinics. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of short-term surgical complications in a low-resource sterilisation clinic which did not routinely administer post-operative antibiotics. The medical records of all sterilisation surgeries performed in 2015 at the Worldwide Veterinary Service International Training Centre in Tamil Nadu, India were reviewed (group A) to assess immediate surgical complications...
February 27, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479680/laparoscopic-ovariectomy-in-eastern-grey-kangaroos-macropus-giganteus-and-red-kangaroos-macropus-rufus
#13
S A Colgan, L A Green
OBJECTIVE: To develop a technique for permanent sterilisation of female eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) and red kangaroos (M. rufus) as part of a large-scale macropod management program on an enclosed 1545-ha site in western Sydney. METHODS: Free-ranging female kangaroos (n = 1409: 1285 eastern grey kangaroos, 124 red kangaroos) were anaesthetised via remote anaesthetic drug delivery of tiletamine/zolazepam, medetomidine and acepromazine prior to inhalational anaesthesia using isoflurane-oxygen...
March 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435598/community-structure-of-endophytic-actinobacteria-in-a-new-zealand-native-medicinal-plant-pseudowintera-colorata-horopito-and-their-influence-on-plant-growth
#14
Neeraj Purushotham, Eirian Jones, Jana Monk, Hayley Ridgway
The role of plant endophytic Actinobacteria remains poorly understood with no reports of these communities in New Zealand native plants. This first investigation of endophytic Actinobacteria in New Zealand targeted the culturally significant medicinal shrub Pseudowintera colorata (horopito) as a model plant. Community analysis in plant tissues collected from ten geographically distinct sites showed that tissue type had the strongest influence on diversity and richness of endophytic Actinobacteria. More denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands were obtained from stems (n = 18) compared to roots (n = 13)...
February 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431017/touchless-computer-interfaces-in-hospitals-a-review
#15
Seán Cronin, Gavin Doherty
The widespread use of technology in hospitals and the difficulty of sterilising computer controls has increased opportunities for the spread of pathogens. This leads to an interest in touchless user interfaces for computer systems. We present a review of touchless interaction with computer equipment in the hospital environment, based on a systematic search of the literature. Sterility provides an implied theme and motivation for the field as a whole, but other advantages, such as hands-busy settings, are also proposed...
February 1, 2018: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394940/from-ib2-to-iiib-locally-advanced-cervical-cancers-report-of-a-ten-year-experience
#16
Sophie Espenel, Max-Adrien Garcia, Jane-Chloé Trone, Elodie Guillaume, Annabelle Harris, Amel Rehailia-Blanchard, Ming Yuan He, Sarra Ouni, Alexis Vallard, Chloé Rancoule, Majed Ben Mrad, Céline Chaleur, Guy De Laroche, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Pablo Moreno-Acosta, Nicolas Magné
BACKGROUND: Despite screening campaigns, cervical cancers remain among the most prevalent malignancies and carry significant mortality, especially in developing countries. Most studies report outcomes of patients receiving the usual standard of care. It is possible that these selected patients may not correctly represent patients in a real-world setting, which may be a limitation in interpreting outcomes. This study was undertaken to identify prognostic factors, management strategies and outcomes of locally advanced cervical cancers (LACC) treated in daily clinical practice...
February 2, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392398/generation-and-characterisation-of-decellularised-human-corneal-limbus
#17
Kristina Spaniol, Joana Witt, Sonja Mertsch, Maria Borrelli, Gerd Geerling, Stefan Schrader
PURPOSE: Limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC) reside in a niche in the corneo-scleral transition zone. Deficiency leads to pain, corneal opacity, and eventually blindness. LESC transplantation of ex-vivo expanded human LESC on a carrier such as human amniotic membrane is a current treatment option. We evaluated decellularised human limbus (DHL) as a potential carrier matrix for the transplantation of LESC. METHODS: Human corneas were obtained from the local eye bank...
February 1, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389644/development-of-a-partial-least-squares-artificial-neural-network-pls-ann-hybrid-model-for-the-prediction-of-consumer-liking-scores-of-ready-to-drink-green-tea-beverages
#18
Peigen Yu, Mei Yin Low, Weibiao Zhou
In order to develop products that would be preferred by consumers, the effects of the chemical compositions of ready-to-drink green tea beverages on consumer liking were studied through regression analyses. Green tea model systems were prepared by dosing solutions of 0.1% green tea extract with differing concentrations of eight flavour keys deemed to be important for green tea aroma and taste, based on a D-optimal experimental design, before undergoing commercial sterilisation. Sensory evaluation of the green tea model system was carried out using an untrained consumer panel to obtain hedonic liking scores of the samples...
January 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380645/variations-in-diet-cause-alterations-in-microbiota-and-metabolites-that-follow-changes-in-disease-severity-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-model
#19
J E Libbey, J M Sanchez, D J Doty, J T Sim, M F Cusick, J E Cox, K F Fischer, J L Round, R S Fujinami
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a metabolically demanding disease involving immune-mediated destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated a significant alteration in disease course in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) preclinical model of MS due to diet. Based on the established crosstalk between metabolism and gut microbiota, we took an unbiased sampling of microbiota, in the stool, and metabolites, in the serum and stool, from mice (Mus musculus) on the two different diets, the Teklad global soy protein-free extruded rodent diet (irradiated diet) and the Teklad sterilisable rodent diet (autoclaved diet)...
January 30, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371877/using-k-nn-to-analyse-images-of-diverse-germination-phenotypes-and-detect-single-seed-germination-in-miscanthus-sinensis
#20
Danny Awty-Carroll, John Clifton-Brown, Paul Robson
Background: Miscanthus is a leading second generation bio-energy crop. It is mostly rhizome propagated; however, the increasing use of seed is resulting in a greater need to investigate germination. Miscanthus seed are small, germination is often poor and carried out without sterilisation; therefore, automated methods applied to germination detection must be able to cope with, for example, thresholding of small objects, low germination frequency and the presence or absence of mould. Results: Machine learning using k-NN improved the scoring of different phenotypes encountered in Miscanthus seed...
2018: Plant Methods
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